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Geriatric Care and Concept of Anti-Aging in Unani System of Medicine and Western Perspective: A Review | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-7182
Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research
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Geriatric Care and Concept of Anti-Aging in Unani System of Medicine and Western Perspective: A Review

Md. Anzar Alam1*, Perwej Ahmed2 and Ubaidul Hai3
1Department of Moalajat (Medicine), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore-560091, India
2Departmentof IlmulAdvia, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore-560091, India
3Departmentof IlmulSaidla, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore-560091, India
Corresponding Author : AnzarAlam
PG Scholar (MD), Department of Moalajat (Medicine)
National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM)
Bangalore-560091, India
Tel: +91-9902146030
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 11, 2015; Accepted March 27, 2015; Published March 30, 2015
Citation: Alam MA, Ahmed P, Hai U (2015) Geriatric Care and Concept of Anti-Aging in Unani System of Medicine and Western Perspective: A Review. J Gerontol Geriatr Res 4:206. doi:10.4172/2167-7182.1000206
Copyright: © 2015 Alam A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

According to UnaniSystem of Medicine, human life (ages) is classified into four categories i.e. Sin-e-Namu, Sin-e- Shabab, Sin-e-KahulatandSin-e- Shaikhukhat (Mashaikh), which have own specific MizajandKaifiyat according to their age. Basically, when Kaifiyat changes; its leads to derangement of their Mizaj. When mizaj deviates from normal to abnormal path then, it causes changing in their ages chronically. For this,tahleel (diminished) RatoobatGhareeziya and HararateGhareeziya advocate the process of aging.UnaniAtibba described different types of regimes (tadabeer) for the care of mashaikh (i.e. Riyazat, Dalk, Hammam,Nutool, Hijama,Naghma, Safar, Fasd, Ghiza) and management through (Plant, Mineral and animal origin drugs) which delayed the process of aging. UnaniAtibba also mentioned the organ specific and generalized care. Specific care of an organ stimulates the vitality, which is responsible for the maintenance of HrarateGhareeziya. USM is the only system of medicine which also mentioned the organ specific treatment (i.e. immunomodulator, antioxidant and nootropic activity). Some Murakkabat which delayed the process of aging are ItriphalSagheer, ItriphalKabir, MajoonWaj,MajoonBladur,MajoonBarhami, Majoon Bolas, MajoonFlasafa, JawarishJalinus, TiryaqeFarooque, TiryaqyeWabai, ItriphalUstokhuddus.

Abstract

According to Unani System of Medicine, human life (ages) is classified into four categories i.e. Sin-e-Namu, Sin-e-Shabab, Sin-e-Kahulatand Sin-e- Shaikhukhat (Mashaikh), which have own specific Mizaj and Kaifiyat according to their age. Basically, when Kaifiyat changes; its leads to derangement of their Mizaj. When mizaj deviates from normal to abnormal path then, it causes changing in their ages chronically. For this, tahleel (diminished) Ratoobat Ghareeziya and Hararate Ghareeziya advocate the process of aging. Unani Atibba described different types of regimes (tadabeer) for the care of mashaikh (i.e. Riyazat, Dalk, Hammam, Nutool, Hijama, Naghma, Safar, Fasd, Ghiza) and management through (Plant, Mineral and animal origin drugs) which delayed the process of aging. Unani Atibba also mentioned the organ specific and generalized care. Specific care of an organ stimulates the vitality, which is responsible for the maintenance of Hrarate Ghareeziya. USM is the only system of medicine which also mentioned the organ specific treatment (i.e. immunomodulator, antioxidant and nootropic activity). Some Murakkabat which delayed the process of aging are Itriphal Sagheer, Itriphal Kabir, Majoon Waj, Majoon Bladur, Majoon Barhami, Majoon Bolas, Majoon Flasafa, Jawarish Jalinus, Tiryaqe Farooque, Tiryaqye Wabai, Itriphal Ustokhuddus.
Keywords

Anti-aging; Geriatric care; Mashaikh; Unani medicine
Introduction

According to Unani System of Medicine, Human life is categorized into four stages viz; Sin-e-Namu (Mizaj is Haar Ratab and ages upto 30 years), Sin-e-Shabab (Mizaj is Haar Yabis and ages 30 to 40 years), Sin-e-Kahulat (Mizaj is Barid Yabis and ages upto 60 years) and Sin-e-Shaikhukhat (Mizaj is Barid Ratab and ages 60 years to onwards) [1].

Sin-e-Shaikhukhat is the period in which the lacking of quantity of Ratoobate Ghareeziya occurs and it is lesser than the quantity required for the preservation of Hararate Ghareeziya for the continuing the bodily normal metabolism and dominated by Ratoobate Ghareeba Bala (abnormal metabolic products). In this period deterioration in the powers and faculties of the body is noticeable. Ratoobate Ghareeziya and Hararate Ghareeziya are markedly reduced; hence the mizaj becomes Barid and Ratab [1-3].

Aging is a universal biological process that leads to progressive and deleterious changes in organisms [4]. In western perspective of aging is “a persistent decline in the age-specific fitness components of an organism due to internal physiological degeneration” [5].

Anti-aging wisdom is definitely not a new research area but also cited by ancient Unani Scholars in their old classical text like, Firdaus Al Hikmat (810-895A.D), Al Havi Fit Tibb (850-923 A.D), Kamil-us-Sana’ (930-999 A.D), Al-Qanoon (980-1037A.D), Zakheera Khuwarzam Shahi (1041-1136A.D), Al-Mukhtarat Fit-Tibb (1121-1213A.D), Kitab Al-Kulliyat (1126-1198 A.D), Kulliyate Nafeesi (15thcentury A.D), Al-Akseer (1813-1902A.D).

Nowadays, the meaning of anti-aging has been changed from simply prolonging lifespan to increasing health span, which emphasizes more on the quality of life [4].

Health is totally depending upon three faculties, which maintain the Hararte Ghareeziya and regulates the all functions of the body [1]. Basically life is a wheel which is composed of three spokes (faculties) i.e. Quwwate Nafsaniya, Quwwate Tabie’yya and Quwwate Haiwaniya (Figure 1). When disturbances occur in these three faculties it leads to degenerative changes and finally end of life. Initially when Quwwate Nafsaniya is weak, it creates neurological associated problems such as Nisyan (Dementia), Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease etc. Quwwate Tabie’yya is responsible for production of pure humours and maintains balance of Ratoobate Ghareeziya and Hararate Ghareeziya. Quwwate Haiwaniya is responsible for circulation of blood and protects the body from free radicals. Free radicals also initiate the process of aging.
Pathology of Aging

Excessive use of those substances which are responsible for the production of phlegm (Milk, vegetables, Hareesa, Ice water), excessive use of sour foods (Curds, Tamarind, Pickles), excessive coitus, excessive Hammam, Amraze muzmina (Sil wa Diq, Sartan, Ziabetus Shakri, Siman-e-mufrit), Amraze Asaab (Sara, Sarsaam, Sakta, Jamood, Falij, Istirkha), mal-nutrition, genetical cause,psychological cause, Tafarruq wa ittesal, Sue Mizaj, Zofe Dimagh, inadequate sleep [6-17].
Mechanism of Aging in Unani Perspective

Ratoobate Ghareeziya play key role for the equilibrium of Hararate Ghareeziya. When Quantity and quality of Ratoobate Ghareeziya changed, it directly affects the Hararate Ghareeziya. Excess diminishing (tahleel) of Hararate Ghareeziya affects in two ways i.e. (i) Dimnished Hararate Ghareeziya leads to change in Huzoome Arba, if changing occurs in Huzoome Arba’ then leads to abnormal humours or ratoobat which advocates the change in their Mizaj which is prominent factor for aging and (ii) Dimnished Hararate Ghareeziya also diminished the power or faculties. Diminished powers unable to performs in proper function that is also promotes the process of aging [8,18-20]. According to author of Kamil Al-Sana’a, Ali Ibn Abbas Majoosi coated regarding death as “Death occurs in living organisms, when Fasaad occurs in Hararate Gharizia (Figure 2).”
Preventive Measures of Aging

Avoid sharp and sour taste food items

Avoid excessive coitus

Drinking cold water is contraindicated immediately after coitus

Moderate exercise and massage regularly

Use of Zood Hazm and Jayyadul Kaimus Ghiza

Eatfood with proper mastication

Avoid excessive Hammam

Avoid excess use of Charpari diets

Avoid cold drinks just early morning (Nehar munh)

Daily use of Garam Roghaniyat (i.e. Roghane Amla)- delayed aging

Daily consumption or intake of Itriphal Sagheer, Murabba Amla and Murabba Zanjabeel- delayed aging

Use of meats which prepared by aromatic spices like; Qaranphal, Jaiphal, Javetry, ZeeraSiyah, Khulanjan, Sirka- delayed process of aging

Use of Chuqandar with Rai- delayed process of aging

Avoid Arqe Ghulab on face and head [6,19,21].
Management of Aging

Unani Atibba also mentioned the medicament, which delay the process of aging and balance the health are of three types viz; Plant origin, Mineral origin and an Animal origin (Tables 1 and 2). These drugs are mostly Haar mizaj except Amla (which has Barid Mizaj) and most of the drugs have been proved as antioxidant, immune-modulator, nootropic, anticancer, free radical scavenging, Kaya Kalp/Rasayain/Aabe Hayat/Elixir of life/Iksir-e-Badan [6,11,22-44](Tables 3 and 4).
Conclusion

Human body totally depends upon all three vital faculties (Quwwate Nafsania, Quwwate Tabie’yya and Quwwate Haiwania) which acting as a spoke of life wheel. For continuous motion of this wheel, maintained by interpedently of each other like; Ratoobate Ghareeziya, Hararate Ghareeziya, humours, temperament, faculties, action. When derangement occurs, it leads deviation from normal to abnormal which advocate the process of aging. Unani Atibba intensely depicted process of aging and care of it in the caption of Tadabeere Mashaikh. The regimes and drugs (single and compounds) which described by Unani Scholars in their old classical text for management of aging which are now proved scientifically (antioxidant, immune-modulator, nephro-protective, Cardio-protective, hepato-protective, anticancer, nootropic activity etc.,) as delaying the process of aging and also promote to maintain the balance health.

Most of the neurodegenerative disorders are cross-linked with a number of aging-associated conditions (Dementia, Insomnia, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson, Zofe Dimgh, Falij, Laqwa, Istirka, etc). So, most of the nootropic murakkabat (Majoon Baulas, Mojoon Waj, Majoon Falasafa, Jawarish Jalinus, Itriphalat etc.) mentioned by Unani scholars in their text are rewarding delayed the process of aging. After the exhaustive literature survey for shaping this review article, it seems to be more reasonable for the direction of geriatric care panorama.
Acknowledgement

Being an author and coauthor we are grateful thanks to librarian staff of NIUM Bangalore to providing old Unani classical text for shaping this review article.
References

 

Tables and Figures at a glance

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Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4

 

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