Department of Neonatology, Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, Serbia
Received date: August 25, 2016; Accepted date: December 22, 2016; Published date: December 27, 2016
Citation: Jovandaric MZ (2016) Gestational Diabetes and Breastfeeding. J Clin Case Rep 6: 905. doi: 10.4172/2165-7920.1000905
Copyright: © 2016 Jovandaric MZ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Diet and lifestyle of mother during pregnancy as well as lactation have long-term effect on child’s health and development. Detection of early risk markers of adult age chronic diseases which begin during prenatal life and appliance of complex nutritional interventions at the right time may reduce the risk of these diseases.
Pregnancy; Phenotype; Diabetes; Glucose
Priority of current studies is to discover mechanisms by which epigenetic modification prolongs effects of environmental influences in early childhood and provides a long-lasting response to transient stimulus-modifies gene expression and phenotype in adult age . Thus, nutrition in pre-and postnatal period programs health in adulthood .
Adverse intrauterine environment in pregnancy complicated with diabetes has long-term consequences to the offspring of diabetes mothers because of epigenetic mechanism effects.  Optimal control of pregnant women`s glycaemia can reduce the adverse consequences of pregnancy complicated with diabetes because the glucose level and perinatal outcome are a continuum . Children of diabetic mothers are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes type 1 and 2, hypertension, lipid changes, albuminuria in preadolescent age and adulthood . Mental and motor deficit and attention and behavioral disorders are much more common in offspring of diabetes mothers [6,7].
Many consequences of diabetes during pregnancy can be prevented. Early breast-feeding can prevent metabolic complications in the neonatal age because the colostrum is rich in glucose, and hypoglycaemia may be asymptomatic .