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Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS
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GIS Applications for Assessing Spatial Distribution of Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells in Boroboro Community, Atiba Local Government, Oyo State

Olagoke Emmanuel Awodumi* and Opeyemi Stephen Akeasa2

Department of Geographic Information System, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Olagoke Emmanuel Awodumi
Department of Geographic Information System
Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Oyo State
Nigeria
Tel: 08159464640
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: July 28, 2017; Accepted date: August 21 2017; Published date: August 23, 2017

Citation: Awodumi OE, Akeasa OS (2017) GIS Applications for Assessing Spatial Distribution of Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells in Boroboro Community, Atiba Local Government, Oyo State. J Remote Sensing & GIS 6: 208. doi: 10.4172/2469- 4134.1000208

Copyright: © 2017 Awodumi OE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Shortage of water supply and quality has become a major global concern as a result of rapid population growth; industrial activities, agricultural expansion and currently climate change. As urbanization increases, so thus, human consumption and demand for water continue increases. Boroboro community is a sub-urban settlement which has a major challenge in supply of water because of limited number of boreholes and hand–dug wells as well as effect of season variation in the community. This research is aimed at mapping and assessing the spatial distribution of boreholes and hand-dug wells in Boroboro community using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The spatial distribution of the boreholes and hand dug wells were determined using hand-held GPS. The data generated was analyzed using ArcGIS 10.3 software and the buffering of the boreholes and hand-dug wellswere overlaid to know those who have access to both the boreholes and the hand dug well. The result shows as the community expands, the distance to the existing and available boreholes and hand dug wells increases. It is recommended government should assist in the provision of potable water through sitting of hand dug wells and boreholes with good depth in the study area.

Keywords

Climate; Geographical; Water; Boreholes

Introduction

Water is vital for man’s existence and without it there would be no life on earth. It is an important resource to any nation who is committed to its effectiveness in terms of planning, development, conservation, distribution and management in order to avoid future water problems. The total water requirement is on the increase and the per capita water consumption is also on the increase due to the increase in population and civilization [1]. Several successive governments in Nigeria at the Federal, state and local levels have made frantic efforts to provide portable and adequate water supply to its citizen. These strides of water supply services, where they exist are unreliable, and not sustainable because of obvious difficulties in management. In the light of this, the World Bank [2] stated that one of the key issues emerging in our time is access to clean water. It is estimated that just 12% of the global population consumes 86% of the available water while 1.1 billion people (one sixth of the world’s population) has no access to adequate water supplies. As global demand for clean water is increasing, changes in climate and pollution are reducing potable raw water. This leads to an emerging interest in improving safe water access through small-scale water projects at the household, (provision of personal water boreholes) to arrest the problems posed by water crisis [3]. Well log (borehole and hand dug wells) data of exiting nearby boreholes and hand dug wells had overtime served as the most reliable source of data of the lithostratigraphic sequence of subsurface [4]. A recent development saw the application of GIS technology. Although cost implication of GIS may seem to be high, it has potential to give supported project costing of hydro-geology exploration and development and project in the future. The ability of GIS displays the number of unconnected data sets, bringing them into the common reference system for spatial analysis from which relationships can be identified and decisions and spatial set of the study area will be made [5]. There is need for proper assessment. The demand for water has been on the increase while the supply has been so low in Boroboro community that it hardly serves the people of the town. It was observed during the site visiting that only the borehole drilled by Atiba Local Government and one from Islamic group were found in the community. This reveals an obvious shortage of potable borehole water in the community. This among others calls for assessment of spatial distribution of hand dug well and borehole water to effectively meet the demand of the people of Boroboro community and its environs.

The aim and objectives of this study is to assess the hand dug wells and boreholes water supply in Boroboro community and its environ using GIS. Specifically, the study seeks to:

a) design a spatial database for the study area

b) map the existing spatial distribution of hand dug wells and boreholes in the study area

c) determine the coverage area of boreholes and well with respect to building in the study area

d) determine areas that lack access to both the hand dug well and boreholes in the study area.

Creation of spatial database for the assessment and evaluation of boreholes and hand dug well is expected to aid the production of geospatial information that could serve as decision support system for borehole distribution in the study area so as to reduce the problem of inadequate supply of quality drinking water thereby reducing the scourge of waterborne disease most especially cholera and to improve the quality of life of people in the community.

Literature Review

The past and the present experience of the people in the study area in the area of water supply are nothing to write home about. This is because people search for water day and night shortly after the rainy season. Increasingly, greater variability in climate may be exacerbating the problems of water supply in adequate quantities and of acceptable quality in the developing world [6]. Water scarcity is a concern to most Sub-Saharan African. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) estimates that 250 million people in Africa will be at risk of water stress, less than 1700 M3 of water available per person per year by 2020 and up to 500 million by 2050 [7]. Sub- Saharan Africa is making the slowest progress in meeting the MDGs target as one-third of its population still need safe drinking water [8]. Previous study have shown that water tends to be store in the fracture basement aquifers in the study are because of the thin overburden which rarely retains water was surplus in study area. Groundwater exploration success rated very low in basement complex due to in appropriate exploration or interpretation method resulting from an incomplete understanding of the geo-hydrology. Most wells in the basement complex dries up shortly before or during dries season hence leaving the inhabitants to suffer scarcity of water. This can be attributed to lowering of the water table at this period because the rate of discharge is less than the rate of extraction of water from the aquifers. If over a period of time, groundwater withdrawal rates consistence exceeds recharge rate, the regional water table may drop [9]. The traditional method of obtaining ground water in rural areas of the developing world and still the most common is by means of hand-dug wells. However, because they are dug by had there are use is restricted to suitable types of ground, such as clays, sands, gravel and mixed soils where only small boulders are encountered. Some communities use the skill and knowledge of well diggers, but often the excavation is carried out, under supervision, by the villages themselves. The volume of the water in the well below the standing water table act as a reservoir which can meet demands on it is during the day and should replenish itself during period when there are no abstractions. Previous studies show that the hand-dug wells and borehole drilled in the various communities are majorly owned by individuals, and majority have no access to the borehole and prefer to drink the well water as alternative.

Methodology

This is the step by steps taken to achieve aim and objectives of the project. The techniques used in carrying out the research are data acquisition, processing and information presentation. Spatial data display an important role in any Geographic information system study, the primary source of the data collection was based on field survey which involved the collection of borehole coordinates using hand held GPS (Garmin 79), measuring tape suspended with an iron rod to know the depth of water and interview was conducted to the occupants of the building. Sematic data about the well are also gathered using Focus Group Discussion Secondary data were also sourced from previous maps and satellite imagery copy of the research area.

The GIS analyses adopted in the real world are:

Buffering operation (200 m hand dug wells and boreholes coverage),

yyRetrieval (spatial query),

yyoverlay operation,

union (buffered 200 m hand dug wells and boreholes).

Study area

Boroboro community is located in the eastern part of oyo town in Atiba local Government Oyo state, Nigeria. With Latitude 36.1535°N, Longitude 86.7958°W. The major language speaks is Yoruba. Oyo town is located in the North of Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State and lies between latitude 7°.8'33"N and 7°.9'33"N and longitude 3°.8'67"E and 4°.0'00"E.

Geologic setting of the area: The study area is located within the basement complex of south – western Nigeria. The Basement complex of Nigeria is made up of only Precambrian of late Proterozoic rocks, which occur in West African creation. The Geology comprises of a fold belt which is one of the major indication of deformation during the late Precambrian age in Nigeria. It trends from the NNS to SSE and covers a large area of about 200 km2. The rocks are mainly of crystalline rocks such as migmatites, gneiss and a meta-supracrustal sequence associated with fault zone [10]. Base on the petrography, lithological criteria and the classification of the basement complex of Nigeria, Rahaman [11] recognized the following units within the basement complex of Nigeria:

- Migmatites Gneiss Complex of paleoprotozoic age,

- The Older Granite pan Africa orogeny of 600 ma,

- Charnokitic rocks,

- Unmetamorphosed dolerite dykes,

- The schist belt of paleoprotozoic and neoprotozoic age.

Rock expose are not observed in the basement of this nature, underground water is restricted to the overburden (earth) and fracture zones underlying the basement rock below and overburden (Figure 1).

geophysics-remote-sensing-study-area

Figure 1: Map of the study area.

Logical design

The logical model is an implementation-oriented representation of reality that is often expressed in the form of diagrams and lists. Kufoniyi [12] stated that, it is at the logical design phase that the choice of data structure is made (Table 1).

Field Name Attribute Description
Borehole Entity
Bh_Id Borehole Identification
Bh_owner Borehole owner
Bh_loc Borehole location
Bh_depth The depth of water below the surface
Bh_cond The condition of the borehole whether functioning or not
Building Entity
B_Id Building Identification
B_use The use of which Building is put
Rd_Id Road Identifier
Bh_Id Borehole Identifier
W_Id Hand dug well Identifier
Road Entity
Rd_id Road Identifier
Rd_Nam Road name
Rd_status Whether the Road is tarred or untarred
River Entity
Rv_Id River Identification
Rv_Nam River name
Hand dug well Entity
W_Id Hand dug well Identifier
W_owner Hand dug well owner
W_Loc Hand dug well location
W_depth Depth of the well

Table 1: Logical designs and their Attributes.

The logical schema is presented below:

• Borehole Entity; Bh_Id, Bh_loc, Bh_owner, Bh_depth, Bh_cond

• Building Entity; B_Id, B_use,

• Road Entity; Rd_Id, Rd_name, Rd_status

• Hand Dug Well Entity; W_Id, W_Owner, W_depth, W_loc

Physical design

The physical design phase requires additional detail to describe how to model the spatial entities, their associated attributes and relationship between these entities. The internal storage structure and file organization of the database is specified during this phase. This is stage of database where data source is presented in the language of implementation.

The attribute data generated and logical design phase are actualized in the format of implementation software. For the purpose of this work, ARCGIS 10.3 is employed as the implementation software (Table 2).

Field Attribute Attribute Description Data Type Width
BOREHOLE Bh_Id Borehole identifier Integer 0
Bh_owner Borehole owner Text 30
Bh_loc Borehole location Text 30
Bh_depth The depth of water below the surface Integer 15
Bh_status The status of the borehole whether it is case or not Text 15
BUILDING B_Id Building identifier Integer 0
B_use The use to which the building is put Text 30
R_Id Road identifier Integer 10
Bh_Id Borehole identifier Integer 10
W_Id Hand dug well identifier Numeric 0
HAND DUG WELL W_Id Hand dug well Identifier Numeric 0
W_owner The owner of the hand dug well Text 30
W_loc The location of the hand dug well Text 30
W_depth Depth of the hand dug well integer 10
ROAD Rd_Id Road Identifier integer 0
Rd_owner The owner of the road Text 30
Rd_status Whether the road is tarred or untarred Text 30
Rd_name The road name    

Table 2: Data declaration of Entities and their Attributes.

Database creation

The database creation is executed in ARCGIS 10.3. Five tables are created for the hand dug wells, boreholes, buildings, roads and river in the study area. The data of each feature is entered into the tables for queries and other analyses to be carried out as will be show in the next chapter (Tables 3-7).

Object ID* Shape* Easting Northing W_location W_ID W_Owner W_Depth W_Condition
1 Point 605609.224 868786.107 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
2 Point 605633.245 868768.744 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
3 Point 605434.205 868876.383 Oyekola Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
4 Point 605595.388 868255.187 Oyekola Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
5 Point 605660.211 868290.906 Oyekola Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
6 Point 605475.002 868321.333 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Functioning
7 Point 605430.684 868284.952 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Functioning
8 Point 605424.07 868259.156 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Functioning
9 Point 605347.34 868273.046 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Not Functioning
10 Point 605288.493 868305.061 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Functioning
11 Point 605376.658 868922.686 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
12 Point 605380.627 868912.764 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
13 Point 605397.825 868918.717 Oyekola Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
14 Point 605517.335 868294.213 Boroboro 0 Private 18 Functioning
15 Point 605346.893 868969.649 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Public 18 Functioning
16 Point 605331.749 868961.402 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
17 Point 605450.742 868924.67 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
18 Point 605480.448 868924.055 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
19 Point 605595.411 868934.77 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
20 Point 605616.577 868926.833 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
21 Point 605653.619 868900.375 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
22 Point 605711.828 868847.458 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
23 Point 605693.307 868826.291 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 10 Functioning
24 Point 605706.536 868805.124 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning
25 Point 605812.016 868830.524 Alowolodu Scheme 0 Private 18 Functioning

Table 3: Sample of Populated Table for Wells.

Object ID* Shape* Easting Northing BH_location BH_Depth BH_Owner BH_ID BH_Condition
2 Point 605523.826 868863.903 Alowolodu Scheme 45 Private 1 Functioning
3 Point 605640.317 868786.406 Alowolodu Scheme 50 Private 2 Functioning
4 Point 605140.958 868603.578 Oyekola Scheme 50 Public 3 Functioning
5 Point 605131.402 868594.757 Oyekola Scheme 50 Private 4 Functioning
6 Point 604840.437 868496.453 IsaleYidiAgunpopo 45 Private 5 Functioning
7 Point 605700.642 868269.938 Oyekola Scheme 50 Private 6 Functioning
8 Point 605940.545 868450.491 Alowolodu Scheme 50 Private 7 Functioning
9 Point 605976.925 868516.637 Alowolodu Scheme 50 Private 8 Functioning
11 Point 605361.975 868603.578 Oyekola Scheme 45 Private 9 Functioning
12 Point 605728.878 868450.491 Atiba Local Govt 50 Public 10 Functioning

Table 4: Sample of Populated Table for Boreh

Object ID* Shape* Shape_Length STRM_Name
1 Polyline 1017.48458 Ashipa
2 Polyline 1142.85685 Ahoyaya Rive

Table 5: Sample of Populated Table for River.

Object ID* Shape* Shape_Length RD_Name RD_Lane RD_Status
1 Polyline 1218.36878 Oyo-Ibadan-Express 0 Tarred
2 Polyline 1156.91987 Boroboro-Sabo 0 Tarred
3 Polyline 837.938822 Oyekola Scheme 5 Untarred
4 Polyline 628.780753 Alowolodu Scheme 6 Untarred
5 Polyline 689.705466 Alowolodu Scheme 8 Untarred
6 Polyline 636.311987 Boroboro-Agunpopo 0 Untarred
7 Polyline 609.737302 Boroboro-Agunpopo 0 Untarred
8 Polyline 1008.22208 Tola Road 0 Tarred
9 Polyline 441.067912 Tafa Street 0 Untarred
10 Polyline 559.406313 Boroboro Road 0 Untarred
11 Polyline 545.4926 Boroboro Road 0 Untarred
12 Polyline 428.160914 Boroboro Road 0 Untarred
13 Polyline 334.756733 Ajegunle Road 0 Tarred
14 Polyline 504.406563 Adewale Street 0 Untarred
15 Polyline 401.369886 IsaleYidi Road 0 Tarred
16 Polyline 213.816722 Oyekola Scheme 3 Untarred
17 Polyline 160.363145 Oyekola Scheme 1 Untarred
18 Polyline 298.175518 Oyekola Scheme 5 Untarred
19 Polyline 375.895462 Oyekola Scheme 2 Untarred
20 Polyline 149.275976 Oyekola Scheme 2 Untarred
21 Polyline 330477816 Oyekola Scheme 4 Untarred
22 Polyline 146.996831 Oyekola Scheme 4 Untarred

Table 6: Sample of Populated Table for Road.

Objected Shape Shape_Length Shape_Area B_Location B_Use
122 Polygon 62.542857 228.727678 AlowoloduSchem Residential
123 Polygon 87.544569 389.003417 AlowoloduSchem Residential
124 Polygon 63.788898 245.299462 AlowoloduSchem Residential
125 Polygon 60.772469 222.370475 AlowoloduSchem Residential
126 Polygon 58.250508 188.600774 AlowoloduSchem Residential
127 Polygon 49.063967 143.140015 AlowoloduSchem Residential
128 Polygon 48.741243 145.502614 AlowoloduSchem Residential
129 Polygon 69.550168 266.74854 AlowoloduSchem Residential
130 Polygon 49.024458 147.957019 AlowoloduSchem Residential
131 Polygon 52.545141 170.59741 AlowoloduSchem Residential
132 Polygon 56.837659 185.582961 AlowoloduSchem Residential
133 Polygon 39.392709 96.534019 AlowoloduSchem Residential
134 Polygon 67.468267 243.759822 AlowoloduSchem Residential
135 Polygon 53.089886 169.986912 AlowoloduSchem Residential
136 Polygon 51.921825 168.461764 AlowoloduSchem Residential
137 Polygon 58.632311 203.159944 AlowoloduSchem Residential
138 Polygon 63.599386 237.493262 AlowoloduSchem Residential
139 Polygon 37.544344 82.37113 AlowoloduSchem Residential
140 Polygon 58.333119 208.253078 AlowoloduSchem Residential
141 Polygon 103.670526 470.01753 AlowoloduSchem Residential
142 Polygon 54.960772 188.44944 AlowoloduSchem Residential
143 Polygon 72.34906 325.245773 AlowoloduSchem Residential
144 Polygon 61.191689 226.853242 AlowoloduSchem Residential
145 Polygon 86.076885 396.518515 AlowoloduSchem Residential

Table 7: Sample of Populated Table for BUILDNG.

Spatial Analyses and Product Generation

Spatial analysis

This is the use of spatial and non-spatial data in GIS database to answer some generic questions like querying, buffering, classification and other GIS analysis about the real world by modeling. The model may reveal new or previously unidentified relationships within and between datasets, therefore increasing of our understanding of the real world (ESRI 1990).

The GIS analyses adopted in the real world are:

• Buffering operation,

• Retrieval (spatial query).

This GIS analyses will be performed considering the following criteria.

Criteria for the spatial allocation of hand dug well and borehole: This study only looks at the performance of the existing well in the study area and their distribution; and not site selection study but the rules must also be followed to guide us in carrying out the intended analyses. The following guideline must be considered when allocating site for hand dug wells and boreholes in an environment. They are enumerated below:

a. The walking distance from a well in an urban setting must not be more than 200 m,

b. The hand dug well must deeper than 60 ft (18 meter) and boreholes depth around the study area must be deeper than 50 m.

The hand dug well must be covered and the borehole must be cased down and covered to avoid been contaminated by infiltration by run-off and contaminated from the surface (Figure 2).

geophysics-remote-sensing-Composite-map

Figure 2: Composite map of the study area.

Cartographic modeling

This is a graphical representation of data and the analytical procedures used for the study. It involves step-by-step of the way the project was carrying out (Figure 3).

geophysics-remote-sensing-Cartographic-Modelling

Figure 3: Cartographic Modelling.

Spatial query

Spatial criterion query, single criterion: Syntax: Select* from “W_ owner”=Private” (Figures 4-6)

geophysics-remote-sensing-Query-wells

Figure 4: Query for wells that are private.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Result-Query

Figure 5: Result of Query of wells that are private.

geophysics-remote-sensing-private-wells

Figure 6: Map of private wells.

Query 2

Syntax: Select* from “BH_owner”=’Public’ (Figures 7-9)

geophysics-remote-sensing-borehole

Figure 7: Query for borehole that are public.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Query-borehole

Figure 8: Result of Query of borehole that are public.

geophysics-remote-sensing-public-boreholes

Figure 9: Map of public boreholes.

Multiple Criteria. Query 3

Syntax: Select* from W_Owner='PRIVATE' And W_ Condition='Not Functioning' (Figures 10-12).

geophysics-remote-sensing-not-functioning

Figure 10: Query for private wells that are not functioning.

geophysics-remote-sensing-private-wells

Figure 11: Result of query of private wells that are not functioning.

Figure

Figure 12: Map of non-functioning private wells.

Buffering operation

This is a spatial function in which area/zone of interest is created around the given features or object. These analyses are done to see the buildings that are falls within the set criteria of 200 m radius of each of the borehole and wells. It is performed by creating the 200 m buffer round the hand dug wells and boreholes and at the same time intersecting the buffered zones around these selected hands dug wells and boreholes (Figures 13-19) respectively.

geophysics-remote-sensing-buffered-boreholes

Figure 13: Map Of buffered boreholes by 200 meters.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Map-buildings

Figure 14: Map of buildings within 200 m buffer of boreholes.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Hand-dug

Figure 15: Map of 200 m Buffer of Hand dug Wells.

geophysics-remote-sensing-200m-Buffer

Figure 16: Map of 200 m Buffer of Hand dug Wells.

geophysics-remote-sensing-200m-Buffer-well

Figure 17: 200 m buffer of well 13.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Buffer-well

Figure 18: 200 m buffer of well 57.

geophysics-remote-sensing-Showing-Well

Figure 19: Map Showing Well 13 and 57 Buffer.

Then the walking distance to the hand dug wells and boreholes are determined with respect to the building that did not fall within the buffer zones. The first 200 m buffering was performed on the nine boreholes to know areas that lack access to borehole water in the study area (Borehole) as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 14 shows areas cover by the 200 m coverage of the existing nine boreholes in the study area. This indicates that large area of Boroboro community lack access to both private and public boreholes in the community. Areas such as Adewale, Tafa and Ajegunle in the south west of the community lack access to borehole water. In the north east of the community, areas such as Boroboro-Agunpopo and Boroboroisale yidi down to alowolodu in the north lack access to potable water and other areas. Other areas lack access to boreholes water are Oyekola, areas along oyo – Ibadan expressway, Estate and Ahoyaya.

Figures 16 shows virtually all areas in the community possesses hand dug well, however, some areas especially the developing areas such as Adewale, Tafa, Boroboro- agunpopo and Estate lacks hand dug well and borehole and almost lack access to well water in the study area. A sample survey of two hand dug wells (well 13 and 57) in Figures 17 and 18 below shows the extends of coverage, the number of houses covers, the estimated population serves, this was calculated by number of building divided by household standard and the number of street covers (Table 8).

Well No. of Buildings Served Estimated Population Daily Consumption/Person(Litre) Number of Consumption/Day (M3) Fig
13 134 804 230 184.92 13
57 155 930 230 213.9 14

Table 8: Buffer of well 13 and 57.

Overlay operation

Union: Another important spatial operation performed is Union. This computes a geometric union of the input feature class. The buffering of the boreholes and hand-dug wells were overlaid to be able to know those who have access to both the boreholes and the hand dug well. The result showed that 607 buildings depend on the boreholes and the hand dug wells for their water needs. On the other hand, 127 buildings according to the set criteria of 200 m waking distance have no access to the facilities. The result is shown in Figures 20 and 21.

geophysics-remote-sensing-served-boreholes

Figure 20: Map of buildings served by boreholes and wells.

geophysics-remote-sensing-not-served-boreholes

Figure 21: Map of Buildings Not Served by Boreholes and Wells.

Discussion of result

Buffer operation was employed to determine localities that hand dug wells and boreholes served. There was a clear indication that Alowolodu, Femi Fajobi, Tola, Boroboro and oyekola area all in the centre of the community have a clustering arrangement, possesses much amount of boreholes and hand dug wells thereby have large access to water supply in the study area while Isale-yidi Agunpopo, Ahoyaya, Estate and Adewale area have a low numbers of borehole and hand dug wells and have little or no access to water facilities. And these areas are extensions of Boroboro community that are just witnessing development.

This research also shows virtually all the boreholes in this community were in a good condition but owns by individual (private) only two are public and some hand dug wells are in a bad condition due to bad maintenance culture of the users. The analysis performed shosws out of 1701 buildings which has a total population of 8505 (number of buildings multiply by estimated Nigerian household standard) in the study area, only 603 buildings with total population of 3015 people have access to borehole water while 971 building with the population of 4855 people have access to hand dug well. Also, 607 building with the population of 3035 people have access to both boreholes and hand dug wells while 127 buildings with total population of 635 people could not access boreholes or hand dug wells.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary

The aim of this study is to access the spatial distribution of hand dug wells and boreholes in Boroboro community of Atiba LGA in Oyo. This study was therefore used as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) which is an aid to support decision making. Data set for the study included spatial and non-spatial data. Imagery of the study area Boroboro was downloaded via the Google Earth pro, geo-referenced and digitize in ArcGIS 10.3 from the various analyses. The various features were represented by symbols, well-structured database was created through proper design and construction faces using ArcGIS 10.3 for the implementation of the data analysis, queries were issued and buffering was done in respect to criteria for the location hand dug wells and boreholes. The data generated was analyzed through ArcGIS 10.3 software and the buffering of the boreholes and hand-dug wells were overlaid to know those who have access to both the boreholes and the hand dug well. The result shows as the community expands, the distance to the existing and available boreholes and hand dug wells increases. It is recommended government should assist in the provision of potable water through sitting of hand dug wells and boreholes with good depth in the study area.

Conclusion

GIS has been demonstrated as a tool capable of handling effective referenced problems. This research shows hand dug wells and boreholes were not evenly distributed in the study area. The central part of the community enjoys adequate access to water sources, as the community expands outward leaving the developing areas out of coverage as lack of accessibility and distance to existing the hand dug wells and boreholes.

Recommendations

Base on the outcome of this research, it is recommended government should assist in the provision of potable water through sitting of hand dug wells and boreholes with good depth in the study area. Opened Hand dug well should be cover, those that are not up to 18 m deep are not meant for the consumption because some of the hand dug wells failed to meet the 60 ft depth standard required by the World Health Organization (WHO) and additional boreholes should be made available from the government for better living of the people. During dry season require depth should be dug so that potable water can be available year-round for the people living in the study area. It is also recommended that proper maintenance practice should be carried out periodically by the people as well to prolong the span of the borehole submersible pumps. Further research can be carry in the study area to include testing for the quality of the water assessed.

References

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

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Engineering Journals

James Franklin

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
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