The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, Japan
Received date: Aug 25, 2016; Accepted date: Sep 06, 2016; Published date: Sep 12, 2016
Citation: Ozaki S (2016) Global Warming Can Be Protected by Promotion of CO2 Assimilation Using NOx. J Climatol Weather Forecasting 4:171. doi:10.4172/2332-2594.1000171
Copyright: © 2016 Ozaki S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The earth is warmed up by the heat evolved by the burning of fossil fuels releasing carbon dioxide. On the other hand, the plant is growing by absorbing heat and carbon dioxide by carbon dioxide assimilation. Earth warming comes from the too much heat evolution by burning of fossil fuels and too less heat absorption by plant growth. Global warming can be protected by promotion of plant growth, by promotion of CO2 assimilation, by promotion of CO2 absorption and heat absorption using NOx produced in the burning process.
Nitrogen oxide; NOx; Carbon dioxide; Carbon dioxide assimilation; Global warming; Nutrient N
The plant is growing by absorbing carbon dioxide and water making carbohydrate and oxygen absorbing energy. This reaction is called CO2 assimilation and fix CO2 and absorb heat. The plant grow fixing CO2 and absorbing heat. The earth is warmed up by the heat evolved by the burning of fossil fuels. In this burning process much NOx is produced. NOx is a good nitrogen fertilizer when dissolved in rain. Global warming can be protected by promotion of CO2 assimilation, by promotion of plant growth, by promotion of CO2 fixing and heat absorption using all NOx produced in the burning process. CO2 assimilation is a reverse reaction of burning of fossil fuels.
Carbon dioxide assimilation produces carbohydrate (glucose) and oxygen absorbing heat 114 kcal
CO2 + H2O + 114 kcal → 1/6 C6H12O6 + O2
44 g; 18 g; 114 kcal; 30 g; 32 g
When burning reaction, left going reaction ← is predominant, earth warming is predominant. When CO2 assimilation reaction, right going reaction → is predominant earth cooling is predominant by enough absorption of carbon dioxide and heat by carbon dioxide assimilation, earth can be cooled down.
Carbon dioxide concentrations increase annually, in 1750, 278 ppm, in 1986, 350 ppm, in 1996, 357 ppm, in 2000, 372 ppm, in 2010, 390 ppm, in 2014, 387 ppm in 2015, 397 ppm. This is due to the predominant production of CO2. We must increase the absorption of CO2 by CO2 assimilation. To increase the CO2 assimilation we must increase the concentration of nutrient N, nitrogen fertilizer, NOx.
CO2 assimilation at rice field. Rice produce 430 kg rice at 1000 m2 field fixing 1470 kg CO2 and absorbing heat 3.8 × 106 kcal without nutrient N and P, no rice is produced. CO2 assimilation at forest, wood grow by eating CO2, nutrient N and P. CO2 assimilation at sea, weed and plankton grow by eating CO2, nutrient N and P. Without nutrient N and P, no weed and no plankton grow. At no weed and no plankton sea, no fish can live. Nutrient nitrogen such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) is produced much amount at the burning process of large amount of fossil fuels. NOx turn into nutrient N, nitrogen fertilizer, by dissolving in rain water and promote the CO2 assimilation.
NOx is hated as environmental pollution gas and not good for health But no report as to the sickness caused by NOx is reported.
By the complete use of nitrogen oxide for carbon dioxide assimilation and promotion of plant growth, we can absorb CO2 and heat evolved by the burning of fossil fuels.
Production of NOx
Nature has natural systems to change N2 to nutrient nitrogen. By the high temperature at fire place for cooking, warming up of room by burning of wood, by thunder storm, by forest fire, by forest burning, by bonfire, following reactions proceed.
1/2 N2 + 1/2 O2 → NO-21.6 kcal
2NO + O2 → 2 NO2 + 13.5 kcal
3NO2 + H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO
NOx (mixture of 90% NO and 10% NO2) is produced and dissolved in rain water, giving nutrient nitric acid ion NO3- Produced. NO3- ion is a natural nitrogen fertilizer and promote the growth of plant and plankton.
In 1 L rain water, 0.8 mg ammonium ion and 0.44 mg nitric acid nitrogen, total 1.2 mg of nitrogen are contained in 1970. As 1200 mm water fall in one year, 120 L of rain fall in in 1 m2. 15 kg nitrogen in 1 hectare area are given as fertilizer to all area irrespective mountain, field or sea. Old agriculture such as rice production was carried out without synthetic fertilizer. Old proverb say that many thunder storm year gives good harvest.
In such way, use of nitrogen and recycle of nitrogen are done for 10 thousand years. The equilibrium of burning of plant (CO2 generation) and production of plant (CO2 absorption), and the equilibrium of heat generation and heat absorption were maintained.
Amount of Produced CO2, Evolved Heat, Fixed CO2, Absorbed Heat and NOx
As civilization advances, people use fossil fuel like oil, natural gas and coal. Large amount of CO2 was released. Many reports on the production of CO2 and effects of CO2 on climate and how much CO2 was fixed by land plant and sea weed [3-20]. Large amount of NOx is liberated in the process of burning of fossil fuels, In 2010. Fossil 1.4 × 1010 t was burned and carbon dioxide 4.4 × 1010 t was produced. As C/N ratio [21-22] of plant is around 5/1-50/1(average 25/1). NOx 1.4 × 1010 t × 1/50 = 2.8 × 108 t is estimated to be produced. Plant is growing by eating CO2 and nutrient N by the ratio of CO2/N 5/1-50/1(average 25/1). One N can fix 5-50 (average 25) carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide evolved in whole world is 4.4 × 1010 tone in 1 year. By land plant 10-20 × 1010 tone carbon dioxide is fixed and by sea plankton 2-3 × 1010 tone CO2 is fixed by carbon dioxide assimilation. The CO2 assimilation is promoted by the increase of nutrient N and P. The most available nutrient N is NOx. Therefore we should use all NOx produced by burning as it is produced. We should not eliminate NOx. Nature look likes set up the amount of NOx to balance the loss of burning material (fossel) and increase of burning material (plant) by promoting the growth of plant by produced NOx.
Fossil fuel 1.4 × 1010 t was burned at whole world in 2010 and about 4.4 × 1010 t CO2 was produced and 2.5 × 1015 kcal is produced and NOx 2 × 109 t is estimated to be produced. If we use this all NOx 2 × 109 t, we can fix CO2 5 × 1010 t (25 × 2 × 109 t). This amount is almost same as 4.4 × 1010 t (CO2 produced in 2010). We can protect global warming by promotion of CO2 assimilation by using NOx.
Total wood weight in the world is 700 × 108 tone. Tree grow 1-2% annually then annual CO2 absorption is 7-17 × 108 tone. Annual CO2 fix by land plant is (10-20) × 108 tone and annual CO2 fix by ocean plant is (20-30) × 108 tone. Ammonia production of world in 2010 is 1.8 × 108 tone. Fix of nitrogen by bioorganic compound is 1.8 × 108 tone. NOx produced by exhaust gas is 0.4 × 108 tone. We must promote the production of wood such amount to compensate fossil fuel burned by using all NOx produced.
NOx is a Good Fertilizer and NOx Elimination is Stopping CO2 Assimilation and Fish Production
Example 1: As mentioned at previous paper , Setoinland sea (sea between Shikoku and Chugoku in Japan) was filled with sea weed and fish before 1980. Two news about the red sea (red plankton grow) at near hatchery fish plants at Kagawa prefecture, and much water weed grow at Biwako lake were reported. These were special event at special district. But Japan Government established Environment Ministry. This Ministry established strict rules to inhibit the growth of all plankton and weed effective for all over Japan by eliminating all NOx, nutrient N, nutrient P. By this rule, Setoinland sea changed dramatically since 1985. Sea weed do not grow. Plankton do not grow. Nori growing plant stopped. Fish decreased. Fisher man decreased. Carbon dioxide assimilation decreased. Fixing of carbon dioxide and absorption of heat decreased. Setoinland sea became dead sea. Area of Setoinland sea is 47000 km2. 4.7 million times wider than 1 hectare. If we can do the assimilation with the same efficiency as rice field, by giving sufficient N and P supply. 1.47 t × 47 × 105 = 69 × 106 t of carbon dioxide is absorbable and 114 × 47 × 106 = 5.3 × 1012 kcal heat is absorbable. And 47 × 106 t of fish will be produced.
Example 2: At all Japan sea area: Where Kuroshio (poor N, P nutrient sea current) is running: Rocky-shore denudation is seen. Fish decreased. Especially Pacific saury (sanma) Tuna (maguro), Bonite (katsuo), Sardin (iwashi) decreased, Bream(tai), Sea eel (anago) Shell fish like Oyster (kaki), Basket clam (shizimi), Short-neck clam (asari), decreased. All these fish were cheap than meat before 1970. Japanese can live longest by eating these fish [23-29]. But now fish is much more expensive than meat since NOx and nutrient P elimination rule. We Japanese may loose long life record.
Example 3: The very recent news that almost all Japanese pond smelt and cap died at Suwa lake Nagano, Japan by the lack of oxygen [30,31]. The reason of lack of oxygenlack of CO2 assimilation (provide much oxygen), lack of weed and vegetable plankton, by the lack of nutrient nitrogen and phosphorous.
Example 4: Old Japanese proverb say. Mizu kiyokereba uosumazu. Where water is very pure, no fish can live. In no nitrogen, phosphorous water, no fish can live, no weed, no plankton can live.
The facility like power station have denitration process. Flue gas is reacted with ammonia and NO is converted to N2 gas
4NO + 4NH3 + O2 → 4N2 + 6H2O
2 × 106 t; 1.13 × 106 t
Equimolar amount of ammonia is required to eliminate NO.
The production of nitrogen oxide by persons operation in Japan is two million tone. If destroy NOx by ammonia, 1.13 million tone ammonia is necessary. This amount is 2 times of nitrogen fertilizer used in Japan. To make ammonia 1.13 million tone, 0.2 million tone hydrogen gas is required. To make 0.2 million tone hydrogen, butane 0.64 million tone is required. As the result, 1.76 million t carbon dioxide is released. This is a huge promotion of global warming.
C4H10 + 8H2O → 9H2 + 4CO2
0.64 × 106 t → 0.20 × 106 t 1.76 × 106 t
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
In Japan very special rule about the incinirator was set up in 2002. By this rule, incinirator must be burned at higher temperature than 800°C by adding excess fuels to keep higher temperature. Operation of this high temperature incinilator is using much excess fuels releasing much varbou dioxide.
Global warming can be protected by promotion of CO2 assimilation by using all NOx. evolved at burning process.
Diesel engine car is encouraged. Diesel engine car has 30% high fuel efficiency and produce 10 times more NOx than normal car. This NOx can promote the CO2 assimilation.
Catalyst to eliminate NOx should not be accommodated in a car.
Fuel efficiency of the car without catalyst is 30% higher and the car without catalyst produces more NOx.
Elimination process of NOx in power station, petro chemical station and iron work station should be stopped. Elimination action of NOx is retarding the CO2 assimilation. Elimination process use much fossil fuels. Therefore elimination action is double promotion of global warming.
Use of tri polyphosphate as detergent additive is recommended.
Promotion of foods like rice, wheat, cone and potato production by giving sufficient N, P fertilizer is recommended.
Because excreta is best food for plant. Ocean dumping, field dumping and forest dumping of excreta are recommended.
Elimination process of nutrient nitrogen and phosphorous and organic compound in drainage should be stopped.
The earth is warmed up by the heat evolved by the burning of fossil fuels. We can protect the global warming by promotion of CO2 assimilation, reverse reaction of burning, absorbing CO2 and heat using NOx.
Estimated amount of buried fossil. Oil is 100 years, natural gas is 200 years, coal is 200 years. We must save the consumption of fossil fuel considering how can we drive a car and airplane after 200 years. How electricity is generated. Fossil is limited precious treasure. We should not use fossil for elimination of NOx. We must use produced NOx for promotion of CO2 assimilation.