alexa Globalization and its Effects on Democratic Systems at Authoritarian Edge of Persian-Gulf Countries in Outlook of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington Theories
ISSN: 2167-0358
Journal of Socialomics
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Globalization and its Effects on Democratic Systems at Authoritarian Edge of Persian-Gulf Countries in Outlook of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington Theories

Hamid Sarmadi* and Mortaza Badri

Department of Politics and Law, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Hamid Sarmadi
Ph. D. of Political Science, Department of Politics
and Law, Science and Research Branch
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Tel: + 98 21 22 56 51 49
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 26, 2017; Accepted date: June 26, 2017; Published date: July 05,2017

Citation: Sarmadi H and Badri M (2017) Globalization and its Effects on Democratic Systems at Authoritarian Edge of Persian-Gulf Countries in Outlook of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington Theories. J Socialomics 6:204. doi:10.1472/2167-0358.1000204

Copyright: © 2017 Sarmadi H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Socialomics

Abstract

Terms formation like that globalization, world village, information era, lattice society and international common language indicate rising substantial changes in our peripheral circumstance. Today rate of life changes is very fast with widely range effect that intensify modernity dynamics. Today we are in subject appearance of global industry communications, formation of transnational institutions, fade of political borders, structural and institutional similarity of societies, internationalization of local issues, increase of social interactions and communications bulk and another common global challenge. All this change realizable in globalization paradigm. This phenomenon with its increaser validation along with global language, realize unprecedented level of transnational and human communications. Globalization by this method rescue little and vulnerable framework of societies from restrict of local features and combine them with big and national organizations along with social diverse backgrounds that has been agent of political, economic and cultural orders in global scale. According with process, even increased critical outlook of life, cultural arena of life alters to challenge sphere that with increasing of resistant forms, considered fundamental questions about social and cultural power ties. According to this process expect that in political dimension. Globalization facilitate with creation potential preparation prerequisite for many non-democratic Persian-gulf edge countries for reduction democracy like that extend of compare and political participation. Writers believe that foundation of democratic systems in globalization era that its main feature is extension of human communication by communication networks, strengthen democratization process and evaluate any political and social transform in this region. In framework of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington theories should be said the democracy is inevitable fate for authoritarian Persian-gulf edge countries and Arab spring prelude of democratization and forth wave in non-democratic regions.

Keywords

Democratization; Globalization; Authoritarian edge of Persian; Gulf countries; Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington

Introduction

Today we are in subject appearance of global industry communications, formation of transnational institutions, fade of political borders, structural and institutional similarity of societies, internationalization of local issues, increase of social interactions and communications bulk and another common global challenge. All this change realizable in globalization paradigm. Study globalization effects on political, social and economic in life considered political and international relation scientists that some specials pertain its as mainly human occurrence [1].

Globalization considered to mechanism and incentives dominant across of world that accompany with this process compel for all because of having aspects of positive and negative. But seem the important dimension of this phenomenon concerning with democratization and foundation of democratic systems.

Main question research: What globalization effects on democratization process in authoritarian edge of Persian-gulf countries?

Hypothesis: Globalization cause democratic values issuance from democratic countries to non-democratic edge of Persian-gulf countries and backup theories of this research are liberal theorizations of Huntington and Fukuyama.

Literature Review

Globalization cause that weakness of national borders, restrict of state domination on information stream and traditional borders and broadcast of democratic values by new communication instrumentals that stable democracy to favourite aim and too success method in world people minds. Effects of globalization on democracy is vast because inter in all basis such as speech freedom, freedom of religion and believe, modern communications, civil rights, state function arena, legitimacy of sovereignty, liberty of the press etc. in stream of globalization state context transform that mean change of state role and duties and states isn’t society superior. Some believe transformation of state context in 21 century and globalization era under communication revolution, democracy spread. With increasing of information bulk and give and take and cultures and values conflict and civil rights and persons compare themselves to another, awareness what occurrence in world scape and so demand democracy and more right in themselves boarders. Range of this developments predominantly concern authoritarian countries that with globalization beginning perceived democratic values issuance at self-societies.

Definition contexts of globalization and democracy

Generally, globalization indicate to time and location process that people rather than consciously consolidate in unite global society [2] and according to Castles definition, globalization indicate of new society and information centring and society experience structural transformation in power relation, product and functions [3].

Regardless that we pertain globalization to project and process, this important is continuity and extended process and those centrality reduction roles of time and location under communication technologies that cause people in farthermost of world according with some contexts and democracy is mainly result of this agreement [4].

Democracy type of political system that more than of other systems able provide of political equality, support of freedom, Defence of public interests, provide of citizens needs and people moral advancing and provide effective decisions for coverage of public interests.

Briefly political aspect of democracy has three principals:

• Generally, democracy is type People sovereignty, mainly devolution of public decision power, legitimate to government and supervise on all citizens in society.

• Political equality, mainly any mature citizen with another any mature citizen have parity right in public decision process.

• Majority government, mainly as people disagreement together, government act on majority request and not minority [5].

Generally, democracy is type of government method that people in select, critic and dismissal of rulers are plenipotent because this manner have been result of human rational contrivance in a long time. Intellectuals like that kandt, luck, rossue to pooper, Huntington, Fukuyama are heralds of democracy. Regarding to government type Beseem manner of democratic government become to unrivalled element and according to more than two-third of world countries (outwardly or real less than in government structure) adopted democracy as government model [1] and according this Giddens said in all across of world conduced eminent progress with democratization of political systems as in decade of 1960 and beginning of globalization era, percent of authoritarian countries has reduction and from 68 percent come to 26 percent and democratic countries in world increase double-fold and arrive to 73 percent [6].

Samuel Huntington theory

All liberal theorists believe globalization progress paralleled democratization. In quarter of twenty century in most countries occur remarkably political transformation. On the whole Huntington call those “third wave of democratization”. In his book, he divides three stage transition from dictator and authoritarian governments to democratic governments.

First wave: Democracy rising from France revolution waves.

Second wave: Democracy began second world war and with end of war western Germany, Italy, Japan, Austria and south Korea move onto democracy and too Turkey and Greece began at the end of 1940 decade. Countries in Latin America has same situation but at first decade of 1960 majorities experience refer to different variety to authoritarianism. Transition of third wave to democracy began with subversion of Salazar and Kantano government in Portugal in 1974 and then continue in Greece, Spanish, African countries, southeast of Asia, southern Europe and other countries.

Third wave: Including along of 15 years in southern Europe, Latin America and Asia that treat democracy as inevitable fate [7].

A lot of before uprising prodemocracy in middle east Islamic authoritarian countries believe that middle east only region that not experience inclusivity third wave, but seem if Huntington live discuss from forth wave of democracy that is meant democratization in middle east Islamic countries, revolutions that is shadow of globalization and communication that main component issuance dimension of this movements and rise prodemocracy wave in this countries that almost having many century dictatorship precedent. This facility presented by globalization that information and communication network appearance like that satellite and internet that is transfer agent vast bulk of information in brief time. Now beginning of globalization process people of authoritarian countries challenging itself traditional political systems and for rescue of common fetters, will create of egalitarianism and justice centre principals. The connection rise between people and world activists that as potential for attain to democratic political system. Albeit it is reductionist that democracy is merely voting right and government designate. Democracy is method of government that is bloody trade in human history and anthropologically respect to human nature. So, in outlook of writer democracy including three component 1. appointing of rulers 2. Stewardship (critic) of rulers 3. Rulers dismissal, and main factor is dismissal element while transgress to people rights and one-sided conduct. While people having entirely this element should be expect to democracy. At this condition, we achievement to humanistic values of democracy such as political freedom, press, parties, big civil society, civil rights and recognize and known and attain to human respect is main nature of human and merely possible in democracy that act all individual legitimate right reliable to rational freedom.

Francis Fukuyama: End of history theory and liberal democracy victory

Fukuyama is one of the famous liberal democracy theorists that contemplate two fundamental principles for globalization:

First, victory and global accept of liberal democracy model as ultimate governing model and regulate social ties and second, end of conflicts and ideological history contradictions that has been important in current of human history.

He teat thought convergence and political and economic ideology as important dimension of globalization. He says under globalization appear substantially consensus about democracy legitimacy and vindication and government model and dominant to rival ideologies like that fascism inheritable monarchy ad lately communism. He doesn’t treat religious fundamentalism special Islamic as serious rival for liberal democracy and express many reason:

• Islam not acceptable for non-Muslims that formation four fifths of world people.

• Applied models of Islamic systems in edge of Persian-gulf is not success and ideal in late decade and political Islam trends falling.

• Even in edge of Persian-gulf Islamic countries, democracy model as not meaningful way for problem resolve of societies [1].

Qavam believe in Islamic arenas Islamic geminshaft had decamp and its values could not be universal because in act is not sufficient and reckless to human legitimate rights as occur in edge of Persian-gulf countries [8] that verify Fukuyama opinion. Late uprising in edge of Persian-gulf indicate this country confirm democracy model and sue establishment it.

Fukuyama mention political and cultural as mainly dimension of globalization and so present two globalization processes 1. Convergence and 2. separate cultural identities. He mentions despite stabilized diverse cultures; main essence of globalization is convergence that indicate it’s in politic format and this globalization is human rights and democracy model and those intrinsic values have universal admission. He said a lot of industrial innovations in late twenty centuries like that information and communication revolution indicate have more capability for realize democracy system.

Feasible outcome of liberal democracy in globalization era in Fukuyama view, decamp of totalitarianism and authoritarian ideologies that is justification of human dictatorship. Facts indicate after September 11 world people will be resistant against totalitarianism and dictatorship governments because of its nature in violence of human values [9].

Conclusion

As above mention Islamic ideology for Huntington and Fukuyama is serious rival of universal liberalism ideology but late transformations in middle east countries in Huntington view conducted us to forth wave of democracy. Too in opinion of Fukuyama political Islamic is not favourite in this country. Under this condition they consider democratization as resolving of problems. Beseem communication revolutions in globalization era that conduct wave of prodemocracy from country to another country. not that be Islamic ideology rival against liberalism ideology but also this country will establishment of democratic institutions and values in themselves societies. The edge of Persian-gulf authoritarian governments has not alternative except acceptance of democracy and values. It possible this governments carry out to self-corrective or anecdotally of Huntington democracy by elites to preventing to formation of bloody uprising. Democracy is wave that seem authoritarian Persian-gulf countries unable to encounter and expanding it because as classic state unable sovereignty on all news and information stream. North Africa and middle east revolution analysable in this range that authoritarian countries will assimilate in democratization process. Under globalization people in this country consider as rightful humans and rescue from imposed obligations and slavery by misunderstand of religious ruler. Now if not be uprising in reactionary countries like that Qatar Arabic united emirate reason that have social and economic freedoms. If admission discordant development, this country shall be uprising for restitution of political freedoms as Brezhnev sky outlook about china. He believes after saturation of economic requirements we will look try to achievement of political freedoms. So, Globalization cause that weakness of national borders, restrict of state domination on information stream and traditional borders and broadcast of democratic values by new communication instrumentals that stable democracy to favourite aim and too success method in world people minds. In globalization era strength democratization process and evaluate any political and social transform in this region. In framework of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington theories should be said the democracy is inevitable fate for authoritarian Persian-gulf edge countries. Arab spring prelude of democratization and forth wave in non-democratic regions because freedom, equality and justice are common values between world people that is hide in democracy nature.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 244
  • [From(publication date):
    July-2017 - Dec 16, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 204
  • PDF downloads : 40
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version