Payam Noor University, Ajabshir and University in Valiasr, Iran
Received Date: July 18, 2017; Accepted Date: August 31, 2017; Published Date: September 07, 2017
Citation: Hamid S (2017) Globalization and States Political Management in Outlook of Neo-realism Paradigm. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 288. doi: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000288
Copyright: © 2017 Hamid S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Globalization effected and will be wondrous in all human life aspects. Purpose of this article is bring up and analyses of globalization effects on states political management. Technology extent and human genius in late decades cause that informatics revolution and extend of satellite and internet networks, international economic rising, international organization and codification of international rights world relation become increased and easily. This research inverse of prevalent theories that believes with beginning of globalization process, political management of national states become instable and ultimate fade, with emphasis of neo-realists theories and too case study of authoritarian countries and united states of America in political arena believe that now states are important actors in international arena and in near future cannot imagine globalization without states sovereignty and management. In this research sovereignty is consider as management and compilation method is documentary and library.
Globalization; Management; Sovereignty; Neorealism; Authoritarian countries; United States
Globalization is phenomenon that effected and will be wondrous in all human life aspects, because that longtime study of globalization effects on political, social and economic life considered by political science thinkers, international relation and international economy. Those considered globalization as main themselves study part. The wide and dimension of this phenomenon is very widely that some thinkers reckon as greatest and important of human contemporary occurrence. Hussein Bashiriah believe that globalization is comprehensive context that include vital and important global transformation in ground of technology, economy, politics, communications and culture .
Indeed globalization will be wondrous effect in political arena of human life and transformation of it. In this research globalization effects on states sovereignty will be analyses and critic as one of the important context of political arena.
In initial category theories related of this effects divide in two total class. First whose believe globalization cause destroy of states sovereignty so we see fade of states sovereignty in international arena long of globalization process. Second class reverse of first theory believes in spite universality of globalization phenomenon in international arena, states sovereignty will remain and will not occurrence fade of states sovereignty. Writers in this research agreed with second class theories. Then with study of authoritarian countries and United States try proving that in universality condition of globalization phenomenon, states are main actors in international arena. So in answer of this main question that “what globalization effects will be on states sovereignty in international arena”? hypothesis is “ although globalization wondrous effected on variety of human life aspects but in globalization era states are reckon as main actors in international arena and not seem this phenomenon cause that eliminate of states sovereignty”. In prove of research hypothesis used mainly from neorealist school like that kendt waltz, Stephen Krasner and Robert Guilpin.
About history of globalization should that said in a long of human conflicts cooperate and interdependence have been partiality motto and considered in context of celestial religion and thinkers like that xenon and politicians like that Willy brandt and javaher lal nehro. In twenty century Marxism become contender of global thinking. Globalization context entry in decade of 1960 in political science and economy literary  and after this decade extend in around world. Globalization is “compaction of time and locate in variety arenas of culture, economy, politics, communications and environment that effected of science and technology in around world with states centric”.
Some critics presented about theories that believe fade states sovereignty that indicates its:
In context of political affairs presented some critics against fade of states sovereignty that in continue mention it.
Guilpin express some thinking believe that with increasing and growth of globalization, role, control and affection rate of national economies and states acutely decline in international arena. But he believe this is misunderstand and fallacies in perceive of international issues. States and political and economic requirements in national arena have main role in shape of international process and attempt of most countries is very significant for achievement to development and increasing of economic potential in expand of world economic exchanges. They perceived with collaboration of this process can attain to capital, Technology and facilities for development.
He is one of the famous theorists in international relations in twenty one century beginning. Krasner mainly believes are:
State centric and dualistic sovereignty
Krasner as realist say that states special nation-states are main actors in international relations and whose alleged about constructive role of non-governmental actors have exaggerate express. In outlook of Krasner even in interrelated world in final decade of twenty century what be determinant states, interests, power and preferences. Whatever cause interrelated in world arena and world trade result of states interests and will. So states-nations and interstate power structures determinant and important in international relations arena.
Krasner claim that in human life in beginning of twenty one century world interrelated wholly is certain and undeniable. This matter leastwise is certainly between people and dweller of industrial countries. Whilst he agreed most fundamental evolutions but challenged with this believe that globalization transformed nature of human society and human socio-political order. He believes that we don’t exaggerate about globalization effects. Krasner not deny role of governmental weighty groups and multinational companies, but in rate and modality of affections, reckon significant and substantial internal political structures of countries. Too treat exist of non-governmental actors because of states decisions. Creation of international organizations, multinational companies and NGOs is through national states decisions special superpowers. In more cases functions and activities circle in world regulate with legal mechanism of themselves respective government and even the United States of America in this ground approved rules. Regimes create rules and values that order and conduct international actor’s manners and providing exchange possibility, dealing and interaction between them. This regimes create by body of states and in interactions, interests and securities and don’t any central authority that creation them and dictate another. Principally in international arena there is no advent possible of this authority and rules dictate. albeit in some history terms appear a hegemonic power that could play main role in creation of this regimes but this is no meaning exist of central authority and if hegemon no along with satisfaction and profit not will exist possible and continuity. So in outlook of Krasner some harmonies and collaborative in global arena result of exist and extend of international regimes that no inconsistent of survival and vital role of states and power relations in international arena.
In this part like that Waltz reasons that are foundering of neorealist, critics some extremist Universalists claims. Who’s that have alleged universal of liberal democracy, laissez-faire and fade of states and themselves national sovereignty: First Waltz say globalization restrict to little part of world. In he believes public know that not imbedded most world countries in circle of globalization. Most of African countries, Latin America, Middle East except Israel and main part of Asian. Moreover in most of countries participation level of varying regions in global economy is different. For example north of Italy is in global economy and south of Italy out of global economy. Globalization isn’t universal because that district to north regions.
Second, today interrelated in compare of past periods not increased statistically.
Statistic of economy interrelated not outgrowing from 1910.
Third, world isn’t unique and exist huge and deep different between north and south and dominant rules on economies in this region is very different. Today can perceive more assimilate of economic politics. Assimilate of German economic politics after war against united states and wholly evidenced exemplar French from German but any country don’t copying entirely and creation of similar other countries institutions. Moreover if economic politics be similar, this matter not meaning globalization of economy, because mainly part of economic exchange of countries performed inward of political boarders. Waltz believes in the United States 90 percent of goods produce for American consumptions and Americans produce 88 percent of themselves consumption goods.
Forth, states are main actors in international arena. Even internal issues and international issues, even economy and politics mainly formed by state-nations. Waltz believes in twenty century has been also and will be in twenty one century.
With scientific and hair-splitting analysis theories that believes to fade of Authoritarian states role in globalization era, we understand that all of this theorists exaggerate. If we over of neorealist school theories that is significant and scientific school among of political schools in analyses of global incidents that after September 11 reinforced scientific grounds of this school, now perform mainly role in states international politics. Kendt Waltz, Guilpin, Stephen Krasner and even in liberal-democratic societies primary preference in international politics doing by states and less than role of NGOs. Although accept some developments has been incidence afoot of globalization but don’t so deeply that cause fade of states sovereignty and functions.
Although some countries treat themselves democratic and maybe in nature have worst political systems and countries don’t express themselves disagree of democracy. Hitler devolution by legal mechanism and muted to century despotic statesman  and should have enough regard to form and nature of states. European monarchies special Britain and third world republics have noticeably different together naturally and functionally. About of Huntington narrate that say in late of twenty century involved democratic wave in world countries special Asian Latin America, southeast Asian and communist countries block, he mention this “third wave of democracy” and know its disseminate. It is accurate that liberalism and democracy idea has been most model of countries special after cold war and increased number of democratic countries after second world war to double-fold but coincide of globalization pressers some of this countries have been democratic formalistically and express this slogan grandiosity but don’t democratic naturally and rise up everyday scope of authority. Authoritarian states show dualistic manner encountered of globalization that in some case immune those from effects of world negative observes. Historic experience indicate that important principal for this regimes is power and retention it. So any time feel loose powers retreat to end and show dualistic conduct and for retain nature of power that principals believe inbound, give up them in international level and reverse . Seem authoritarian culture infiltrate in these societies and institutionalize because in some countries dictators haven’t acute problem for furthering intents and in other side politicians perceived Machiavellianism that adoration of coercion and justify politics without ethics. We are not cynic in presser to authoritarian states by globalization and in most cases bringing slogans like that feminism, human rights, individual and governmental counterterrorism, freedom of speech and press, environmental problems and to world people special authoritarian states intellectuals but this effects not enough fade of sovereignty from rulers.
Some of thinkers treat deliberately the United states of America activities about globalization and explain those as project of “world building” or even “Americanism”  those believes that because of globalization context is western word  and this countries have effective means in world building and furthering certain intent. Globalization cannot lead-in to restriction of states sovereignty and in some case available opportunities underhand of decisions in this countries. Uncountable today United States of America having dominant power of this stage of globalization. Samuel Huntington in one article entitled “clash of civilizations” imagine future that stabilized American culture in around world. first he presented subject of conflict between civilizations in future that will be greatest international challenge, in this stage liberal democracy ideology is absolute victorious. With observe of general effects in process of global transformations, claim of Americanism is not vain because of United States as country with high technology and most part of international balance of powers. So having maximum impactful and minimum impressibility. American culture issuance sorely in across of world and cause that some countries preventing impression of it and retain of themselves cultural identity. For example lately French government approved act that American programs that broadcasting in TV networks should less than 50 percent of total programs .
United states of America at long half second of twenty century carry out 22 attack against world countries and once attack a country at any 2.5 years average. After collapse of Soviet Union, United States interventions have been unilateral and without any authorization of council security of nations organization. Too deployment of missile buffer in east European that have been time part of east block and soviet satellites prove military dominant on world special to Russia as old rival and potentially. In effect of this transformations henry Kissinger say “globalization is equivalent of hegemon of the united states of America”. Main mechanism that performance strategy of the United States militarily and politically is NATO and hegemonic and unilaterally of United States is inverse of liberal optimistically theories. They emphasis under globalization will be rule democratization, progress and social evolution. It is obvious that united states under two former factors as economy and military power reinforce national sovereignty, because have trump card in most world transformation. If seem claim of twenty one century will be American century be light exaggerate but it is absolutely accurate that this country will be mainly role regarding to present prospects. According to analyses of Elmar Alet fatter Germany economist only rational justification for Iraq war is Iraq threaten under sovereignty of Saddam Hussein against world peace, western values and United States security. But secondary reason indicates to United States interests for predomination to oil resource. Now enough reason in hand that Saddam threaten has been little and what significant furthering united states intents under slogan of world security and liberal democracy sovereignty. Country that without permission of council security action to unilateral war and most of European countries accompanied in spite of propensity. Expand of capital system under neoliberalism that name of globalization is important appliance for United States access to wills. United States is greatest motive of process and nevertheless having higher interests. Vulnerability of this country in this situation is nonscientific.
Writers believes although word of globalization to world building special Americanism certainly exaggerate, it’s clear that globalization in most time bringing good opportunity for furthering of world politics for developments countries like that western Europe, japan and in head of them united states. In this countries not real fade of state sovereignty and in most cases circle of sovereignty action has been world scope moreover geographical boarders. If be restriction is wholly voluntary and side sue of themselves national interests and no danger for sovereignty action.
In current of this research we perceived about exaggerate accompanies of fade of states sovereignty in globalization era and prove in globalization era states have main role in international relations in dimension of political, economic and security. So in near future we will not see era of stateless. In affirmation of hypothesis narrate indicate to neorealist school theories too two example united states and authoritarian countries. Cited to Krasner realist reasons in undeniable states role about globalization and most of world problems indissoluble without states role like that terrorism, human rights, Global security, environmental, Political and economic crises and the speech fade of states sovereignty hereof require to states. Krasner correctly explain that sovereignty in meaning pf traditional and Westphalia that absolutely regarded to states territorial role, have been only in doctrine and theories and there is not historic documentary. So Krasner, guilpin and waltz sets states as main global actors and mention to international organizations that don’t power upper than constituent members. In economic dimension thinkers as paul herst and graham tompson impugn extremism globalist suppositions, like treat states as global actors. These argued global economic relations internationalized and nor globalized. So multinational companies origins in respective government and states are main actors in economic arena. In security dimension states by realists theories and states global current conditions and interests having main function and disagreeable fade of sovereignty. So economic interdependent and democratization not universal and international system is anarchic and so military power have vital role. Also authoritarian countries in spite infiltration of liberal contexts, liberalistic thoughts, human rights, pluralism, responsible government, factionalism and under communication revolution and globalization waves that in some cases uncontrollable. But don’t allow to fade of authoritarian states and sovereignty. This governments strictly response to littlest actions of citizens and not at all accept restrict of sovereignty.
United states of America have main role in global relations and having mainly interests from globalization process. Even G8 powerful countries risk of current reality in global arena and cynic them. If context of globalization to world building or Americanism be exaggerated, hegemonic role of this country is undeniable. In near future impossible supersede other countries such as japan, china, Russia and European Union.