alexa Glucosamine Derivatives Sulfo Disaccharides Co-Working with Klotho | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-9600

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Glucosamine Derivatives Sulfo Disaccharides Co-Working with Klotho

Ozaki O*
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa Wokoshi Saitama, Japan
Corresponding Author : Ozaki O
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
2-1 Hirosawa Wokoshi Saitama, Japan
Tel and Fax: + 810467670991
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: August 28, 2015; Accepted: September 07, 2015; Published: September 14, 2015
Citation: Ozaki O (2015) Glucosamine Derivatives Sulfo Disaccharides Co- Working with Klotho. J Nutr Food Sci 5:416. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000416
Copyright: © 2015 Ozaki O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google

Visit for more related articles at

Abstract

I found sulfo disaccharides which co-working with Klotho. The disaccharides have glucosamine structure and similar structure with hyalunoic acid and chondroitin. Relations of the disaccharide, Klotho, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin, glucosamine with health and anti-ageing were discussed. Klotho makes disaccharide from glucosamin and glucuronic acid and co-works on site with produced disaccharide and gives stable Ca homeostasis and consequent health, anti-aging and long life.

Keywords
Sulfo disaccharide; Klotho; Glucosamine; Hyaluronic acid; Chondroitin; Anti-aging; Heath food; Long life.
Introduction
Glucosamine, hyanunoic acid, chondroitin are now used as health food by many persons in Japan. Suntory sold 19 million bottles of glucosamine and chondroitin as nutrition supporting food. Setagaya shizenshokuhin sold 200 million bags of glucosamin, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin as health food for 11 years. Taishoseiyaku are selling glucosamine and chondroitin. Zeria Shinyaku is selling chondroitin as medicine for 60 years. Wada calcium pharmaceutical sold 10 million bags containing glucosamin, chondroitin sulfate and collagen as nutrition supporting food. About 5 million persons are drinking and eating these materials and enjoying health and long life. Average life in Japan: male is 80.50 (third) female is 86.83 (top in the world). Food will be concerned with long life. I am trying to find the reason way glucosamine; hyaluronic acid and chondroitin are so much used. By the studies of of glucosamine derivatives.I found one reason why these compounds are consumed as health food..
Glucosamine derivatives
When we look at glucosamine derivative from natural products, we can find many compounds like hyarunoic acid, chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate, chitin, chitosan, keratan sulfate, proteochonroitin sulfate (chondromucoprotein). Hyalunoic acid is poly (glucuronosyl (1- 3) glucoside) and chondroitin is polt (glucuronosyl (1-3) galactoside).
image
Soft bone, cartilage: Proteochonroitin sulfate is proteio-glycan aggregate composed of Hyarunoic acid and core-protein.
Klotho and sulfo disaccharide
Nabeshima found that mutation of mouth Klotho gene leads to a syndrome resembling ageing [1]. Since then many reports [2-29] are published. Petotou et al. reported that saccharides are involved in the binding of Klotho and FGF. Martin-Lumas report the activation of fibloblast growth factors by heparin Klotho is a nobel β-glucuronidase capablr of hydrolyzing steroidβ-glycuronides.
Nabeshima found a sulfo disaccharide from mouse liver cell. This saccharide binded with αKlotho and regulated the binding of αKlotho and FGF23. Mass analysis of this compound showed Mass number 843.28. C30H49N7O19S.coresponding Thr-His-Gln-O-(β-D-3-sulfo-glucuronosyl) (1-4)-2-acetoamid-2- deoxy-D-glucopyranoside 9205
Gln-His-Thr-(β-D-3-sulfo-glucuronosyi -(1-3)-2-acetoamino-2- deoxy-glucopyranoside 9205
I planned to identify the real structure of this natural disaccharide by organic synthesis starting from known starting materials. Several disaccharides having similar structures were synthesized and relation of chemical structure and binding activity with Klotho and FGF 23 were studied
Synthesis of sulfo disaccharide and measurements of binding activity
I have synthesized following compounds and measured their binding activity with Klotho and FGF23
Structure activity relationship
The binding activities of synthesized compounds, 9214, 9188, 9583, 9279, 9244 were measured. The activities of these 5 compounds were almost same irrespective of (1-4) or (1-3) bond, glucopyranoside or galactopyranoside, p-methoxyphenyl, or esteron, or serine.
Structure of sulfo disaccharides
I planned to determine chemical structure of natural disaccharide by synthesis. But I cannot determine (1-3) bond or (1-4) bond. Because both bond compounds showed activity. Disacharides have close relation with hyaruronic acid and chabdroitin. Hyaruronic acid and chodroitin have (1-3) bond. Therefore I wish to propose (1-3) bonded two structures: Sulfo-Glucuronosyl (1-3)-Glucoside , Sulfo- Glucuronosyl (1-3)-Galactoside as natural disaccharide
Sulfo-Glucuronosyl (1-3)-Glucoside Sulfo-Glucuronosyl (1-3)-Galactoside (A: attached molecule like estrone, vitamine D, amino acid, oligo peptide)
Relation of Klotho,sulfo-disaccharide, glucosamin, hyaruronic acid and chondroitin
Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene [2]. This gene encodes protein that is related to β-glucuronidases. Klotho is a novelβ-glucuronidases. β-Glucuronidase is an enzyme that can cleave glucuronosyl bond and this enzyme must do reverse reaction that is this enzyme can bind glucuronosyl group. Therefore Klotho can make disaccharide from glucuronoic acid and glucosamine. Hyalunoic acid is poly (glucuronosyl(1-3)glucoside) and chondroitin is polt(glucuronosyl(1-3)galactoside).
Hyalunoic acid gives gulcronic acid by Klotho
Chondroitin gives glucronyic acid by Klotho
Depolymerization of chitin gives N-acetylglucosamine. Depolymarization of chitosan gives glucosamine
Klotho combine glucronic acid and glucosamine to afford disaccharide
Klotho co-work with produced disaccharide on site to afford stable Ca homeostasis and subsequent Health and Anti-aging.
These schemes indicate that Klotho is playing multiple roles
• Production of glucuronic acid
• Production of disaccharide
• Production of stable Ca homeostasis co-working with disaccharide
These schemes show that disaccharides, Klotho, Hyalunoic acid, Chondroitin, glucosamine are working closely related all together and giving us heath and anti-aging. 
Function of Klotho and sulfo disaccharide
To show the function of Klotho and disaccharide, I picked up typical papers about anti-aging, Ca homeostasis, phosphate balance, and control of other compounds
Anti-aging
• Mutation of the mouse klotho gene leads to a syndrome resembling ageing» [1]
«Suppression of Aging in Mice by the Hormone Klotho» [3]
«Association of human aging with a functional variant of klotho» [4]
Life Extension Factor Klotho Enhances Cognition, [5,6]
Challenge of overcoming aging-related disorders [7]
«Klotho and aging» [8]
«Klotho, a gene related to a syndrome resembling human premature aging, functions in a negative regulatory circuit of vitamin D endocrine system». [9]
«Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging» [10]
«PPAR-gamma and aging: one link through klotho?» [11]
Ca homeostsis
• Alpha-Klotho as a regulator of calcium homeostasis [12]
• Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. Regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism by FGF23/Klotho]» [13]
• Discovery of alpha-Klotho and FGF23 unveiled new insight into calcium and phosphate homeostasis» [14]
• Molecular function of α-Klotho in calcium homeostasis [15]
Phosphate balance
• «Fibroblast Growth Factor 23-Klotho: a new axis of phosphate balance control» [16]
• «FGF23-mediated regulation of systemic phosphate homeostasis: is Klotho an essential player?» [17].
• «Fibroblast Growth Factor 23-Klotho: a new axis of phosphate balance control»[18].
• «Klotho gene, phosphocalcic metabolism, and survival in dialysis» [19].
• «Discovery of alpha-Klotho and FGF23 unveiled new insight into calcium and phosphate homeostasis» [20].
• Control of other compounds
• «Functional variant of KLOTHO: a breast cancer risk modifier among BRCA1 mutation carriers of Ashkenazi origin» [21].
• «Klotho: an anti-aging protein involved in mineral and vitamin D metabolism [22].
• «Genetic variation in healthy oldest-old» [23].
• «KLOTHO gene polymorphisms G-395A and C1818T are associated with lipid and glucose metabolism, bone mineral density and systolic blood pressure in Japanese healthy subjects» [24].
• «The Klotho gene family and the endocrine fibroblast growth factors» [25].
Klotho is a regulator of Calcium homeostasis [12,15] working with produced disaccharide Klotho makes disaccharide from glucosamine and glucuronic acid and co-works with produced disaccharide on site and gives stable Ca homeostasis and consequent health and anti-ageing.
Summary
Klotho makes disaccharide from glucosamin and glucuronic acid and co-working with produced disaccharide and contribute to Ca homeostasis and subsequent health and anti-ageing Glucosamine, chondroitin and hyarunoic acid are starting material to make sulfo disaccharide.
Acknowledgements
The author wish to express gratitude to Dr Yoichi Nabeshima and Dr.Katsuhiko Mikoshiba for their advice and suggestion and Dr. Ryota Maeda for activity measurement and Dr Yukito Ito, Dr Yuji Matsuzaki and Dr.Hideki Ishida for helpful advices for the synthesis of compounds.
References





























Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

  • 21st World Congress on Nutrition & Food Sciences
    July 09-10, 2018 Sydney, Australia
  • World Congress on Nutraceuticals and Natural Medicine
    July 18-19, 2018, Czech Republic, Prague Prague, Czech Republic
  • 7th International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics, Functional and Baby Foods
    July 18-19, 2018, Czech Republic, Prague Prague, Czech Republic
  • 14th International Congress on Advances in Natural Medicines, Nutraceuticals & Neurocognition
    July 19-20, 2018 London, UK
  • 28th World Nutrition Congress
    August 9- 10 2018 Manila, Philippines
  • 6th International Conference on Sports Nutrition & Fitness
    August 06-07, 2018 Tokyo, Japan
  • 27th World Congress on Diet, Nutrition and Obesity
    September 7- 8, 2018 Auckland, Newzealand
  • 17th World Congress on Nutrition and Food Chemistry
    September 13-15, 2018 London, UK
  • 8th Annual Congress on Probiotics & Functional Foods
    September 24-25, 2018 Tokyo, Japan

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12292
  • [From(publication date):
    specialissue-2015 - May 21, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8504
  • PDF downloads : 3788
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7