Higher education institution, National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Received date: July 12, 2016; Accepted date: July 29, 2016; Published date: August 04, 2016
Citation: Djumabaeva J (2016) Graduonymy as a Semantic Phenomenon in Uzbek Linguistics. Arts Social Sci J 7:208. doi:10.4172/2151-6200.1000208
Copyright: © 2016 Djumabaeva J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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As a linguist and researcher the author would like to express some ideas on Gradable Contrariety and Synonyms. It would be reasonable to write first of all about graduonymy. What is it? This phenomenon was introduced by Uzbek linguists’ professor Nigmatov , Bozorov . This word means graduation of words. In Uzbek linguistics the units situated from the right and left side of a graduonymic row’s centre/dominant are synonyms the last word on the right and the last word on the left are antonyms eg. tiny ~ small ~ medium ~ big ~ enormous ~ gigantic.
According to this phenomenon, sameness, synonyms, differentiation, the words with opposite meanings, synonyms and antonyms were joined – they are joined in one graduonymic relation. Such kind of relations gives opportunities to study them on lexical, morphological and syntactic level. Phonologic gradual opposition research considered only less/more letters/consonants/vowels in a definite type of words. Graduonymic row has to contain not less than three words.
Let’s then come back to the article which was very interesting, and also has become a question for which graduonymy is an answer. As noted, some theorists use antonym to refer only to contrasting gradable predicates such as cold/hot, bad/ good, big/little. Such predicates are gradable in that they can hold to varying degrees (e.g., hardly/very cold, hotter than), and their relation is contrary in that the assertion of one entails the negation of the other (if something is hot, then it is not cold), but not vice versa (if something is not hot, it’s not necessarily the case that it’s cold – it could be tepid). Thus, there is some neutral semantic ground between the two antonyms. Gradable contraries are particularly interesting because they often exhibit markedness phenomena . This passage was taken from ELL Antonymy and Incompatibility, University of Sussex, Brighton.
In this case we can speak about neutral semantic ground which exists in a graduonymic row: hot →warm →cold , empty →half →full .
These gradual relations were the sources of some researches of Uzbek linguists as Bozorov , Arifjonova . According to the theory of graduonymy it would be possible to create the structure of graduonymic rows.
• Minimum ~ Standard/Normal ~ Excess ~ Maximum
• Tiny ~ small ~ medium ~ big ~ enormous ~ gigantic
• Normal ~ Excess ~ Maximum
• ?... ~ nice ~ charming ~ delightful
• Excess ~ ... ~ Maximum
• ?... ~ old ~ ancient ~ antique
• Nothing ~ ... ~ Normal ~ ... ~ Maximum
• Empty ~ half ~ full
The second row includes synonyms, but at the end of the row the most exaggerative forms of an adjective are situated (nice ~ delightful ). It can be continued if there are more words with more colorful meanings.
The third row includes only from excess form up to maximum, sometimes it even includes as the last word – literary word, which is used very seldom (one can meet it very seldom or archaic word e.g. old ~ antique ).
The last one includes such kinds of words which mean emptiness and at the end of the row full of something. Here as an example and explanation was given these words as empty ~ half ~ full . Besides them can be taken another words for example, colors, white ~ sky blue ~ aquamarine ~ azure ~ blue ~ dark blue ~ grey ~ dark grey ~ black .
Graduonymy or graduonymic rows help us to differentiate which word is weaker or stronger than its synonym (adjectives, nouns, verbs, pronouns etc.). The following examples may give us full information or imagination about graduonymy:
hut →bungalow →house →palace →castle →chateau (noun, according to the richness)
room →flat →hut →home →house →bungalow →dwelling →fortress →castle →palace (according to the size)
like →be infatuated with →love →be smitten with →adore →idolize →be besotted with →worship →dote on (verb, according to the expressiveness)
Newborn →infant →toddler →child →teenager/adolescent →youngster →middle -aged →man /woman →old man /old woman , oldster (noun, according to the age)
thin →gaunt →slight →willowy →lean →slim →slender →bony (according to the expressiveness)
boring →dull →dreary →tediuos →monotonous →colourless → lifeless
never →rare /infrequent →seldom →frequent →constantly →always / forever
(according the expressiveness)
Here we can also speak about hypergraduonym of the group, it means that can be used instead of the other members of the group, it includes the words according to the expressiveness, or according to the size if it is a noun, if it is a verb, it can also create a group of graduonymic line according to the speed of an action, place of use and etc. [7-9].
Graduonymy in Lexicology and Lexicography, looking at different kinds of dictionaries gives us synonyms and antonyms. As a source we have taken Compact Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus, Longman Advanced American Dictionary. These dictionaries gave us synonyms and antonyms from which we can create dictionary of graduonyms. Taking into account that English is not the authors; mother tongue, above given graduonyms were created only according to the above mentioned dictionaries. Because these words are in one synonymic group gust, draught, wind, breeze, gale, storm, tornado, typhoon. And their meanings are given separately from which we can differ their strength and weakness (Figure 1).
In order to define real graduonymic rows should be held online questionnaire among native speakers (English and Uzbek).
We decided to take an example from Nofiza Vokhidova’s works Webumfrage zur Graduonymie.
Prepared words for questionnaire are nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and demonstrative pronouns. Why only demonstrative pronouns? According to Bozorov’s  works in Uzbek was given as en , sen , u it means I , you , he /she /it – are in one graduonymic row. But we decided that I <we <they can be put in one row. I – singular, only one person, we – plural, me and others, they – the other people without me. This can be explained as I am, I and the others, the others without me – according to the presence of the person (Figure 2).
Demonstrative pronouns are not always as a graduonymic row in Uzbek Bu <u < ana u – translation of it is this <that <that is over there. The last one is absent in English as one demonstrative pronoun. The results of online questionnaire help us to create dictionary of graduonyms. Graduonyms dictionary helps language learners to differentiate synonyms of the words. It also can be added to the Corpus. Our future works are as followings: to identify and explain the difference between: Gradation, intensification and gradation in stylistics. But it’s clear now that gradation is in speech, graduonymy is in language. One of the tasks of Uzbek linguists is to create dictionary of gradual words which should contain all gradable words. One can decide that if there are dictionaries and thesaurus which contain synonyms and antonyms, why do we need such kind of dictionaries? These dictionaries will help us to differentiate if it is the strongest form or the weakest form of this or that word.