alexa Growth Response of Juveniles of Rohu, Labeo Rohita to Different Levels of Lipid in the Diet | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2150-3508
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Growth Response of Juveniles of Rohu, Labeo Rohita to Different Levels of Lipid in the Diet

Roopma Gandotra, Ritu Kumari*, Monika Sharma and Dalbir Singh

Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, India

*Corresponding Author:
Ritu Kumari
Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, India 180006
Tel: +91 9419192591
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 06, 2017; Accepted date: July 03, 2017; Published date: July 10, 2017

Citation: Gandotra R, Kumari R, Sharma M, Singh D (2017) Growth Response of Juveniles of Rohu, Labeo Rohita to Different Levels of Lipid in the Diet. Fish Aqua J 8:210. doi:10.4172/2150-3508.1000210

Copyright: © 2017 Gandotra R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal

Abstract

Present study was conducted to study the effect of varying level of dietary lipid on the growth, Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body composition of the juveniles of Labeo rohita. Group of 25 juveniles in triplicate (average weight 0.022 gm ± 0.002 gm) were fed on three iso-nitrogenous experimental diets containing (40% protein) and varying levels of lipid i.e., 6%, 9% and 12% for a period of 60 days. Results revealed that the best increment in growth was obtained with 9% supplementary lipid (%WG 26.08 ± 0.681) followed by the diet containing 12% lipid (%WG 23.41 ± 1.646) and least with 6% lipid (%WG 22.71 ± 1.540). FCR and FCE shows inverse relation as highest value of FCE (9.35) and least value of FCR (10.70) was obtained in juveniles fed on 9% lipid diet with significant differences (p ≤ 0.001). Further biochemical analysis revealed that highest value of muscle lipid has been found in juveniles fed on 9% lipid diet i.e., 1.11 gm and least with diet containing 6% lipid i.e., 0.78 gm. Thus, based on the present results, it could be concluded that an artificial feed with 9% supplemented fish oil is sufficient without any adverse effects on growth performance and muscle quality.

Keywords

Dietary lipid levels; Weight gain; Feed conversion ratio; Fish oil; Percentage weight gain (WG); Labeo rohita

Introduction

Lipids are a group of natural organic compounds that comprise of fats, oils, phospholipids and sterols. As a necessary nutrient, lipid is assimilated by fish for tissue remodelling and new tissue growth [1]. Dietary lipid play a major role in providing a good source of concentrated energy, essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins as the fishes have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrates as an energy source. Apart from this, dietary lipid play an important role to spare proteins, thereby providing essential fatty acids needed for the proper functioning of many physiological processes and maintenance of membrane fluidity and permeability as well as for growth and survival [2].

Requirement of fatty acids vary considerably from species to species. Fish generally require omega-3 (linoleic acid) while terrestrial animals prefer omega-6 (linoleic acid) fatty acids. Fish oil is the main source of lipid used in the formulation of commercial aqua feeds, providing essential n-3 fatty acids. A recent trend in fish feeds is to use higher levels of lipids in the diet. Although increasing dietary lipids can help reduce the high costs of diets by partially sparing protein in the feed, problems such as excessive fat deposition in the liver can decrease the health and market quality of fish. Thus the objective of the present study was to find out the suitable lipid level for the juveniles of Labeo rohita and also to evaluate the effect of lipid level on the rate of growth and body composition.

Material and Methods

Experimental fish and acclimatization

Juveniles of Labeo rohita were brought from Nawabad fish farm in Jammu City and brought to the Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, where they were kept in plastic troughs of 20 L capacity. Fingerlings captured, were then acclimated in plastic troughs at a temperature of about 22-25°C for about 7 days and were fed on a mixture of rice bran and mustard oil cake.

Experimental diets

Three iso-nitrogenous diets with 40% crude protein were formulated to contain three lipid levels (6%, 9% and 12%) shown in Tables 1-3. Control diet was not supplemented with fish oil and contain 6% lipid from feed ingredients, while the other two experimental diets contained two supplemental levels of fish oil (9% and 12%). Dietary ingredients were ground into fine power and passed through the sieve. Distilled water and fish oil were added to the premixed dry ingredients and dough was made. Using a hand pelletizer 0.5 mm thick pellets were obtained and dried in oven at 40°C.

Ingredients Wt. in grams % contribution
Crude protein Crude lipid Ash Moisture Crude fibre Nitrogen free extract.
Fishmeal 38 18.7 3.08 8.57 2.7 0.625 1.175
Soybean 26 8.91 1.14 2.6 1.72 1.753 6.12
Mustard oil cake 22 10.33 1.4 3.39 1.81 1.684 5.881
Rice bran 5 0.55 0.16 0.65 0.21 1.055 1.625
Wheat bran 8 0.53 0.01 0.82 0.32 0.143 3.27
Vitamins+minerals 1 1 - - - - -
Total 100 39.02 5.79 16.03 5.261 5.261 18.071

Table 1: Showing the proximate contribution of ingredients in diet containing 40% protein and 6% lipid.

Ingredients Wt. in grams % contribution
Crude protein Crude lipid Ash Moisture Crude fibre Nitrogen free extract
Fishmeal 39 19.7 3.08 8.57 2.7 0.642 1.206
Soybean 26 8.91 1.12 2.6 1.72 1.753 6.12
Mustard oil cake 21 10.33 1.38 3.39 1.81 1.604 5.614
Rice bran 4 0.45 0.15 0.65 0.21 0.851 1.3
Wheat bran 6 0.53 0.08 0.32 0.32 0.115 2.615
Fish oil (FO) 3 - 3 - - - -
Vitamin+minerals 1 1 - - - - -
Total 100 39.92 8.81 16.03 6.76 4.965 16.855

Table 2: Showing the proximate contribution of ingredients in diet containing 40%protein and with 9% lipid.

Ingredient Wt. in grams % contribution
Crude protein Crude lipid Ash Moisture Crude fibre Nitrogen free extract
Fishmeal 39 19.7 3.08 8.57 2.7 0.642 1.206
Soybean 26 8.91 1.12 1.14 1.72 1.753 6.12
Mustard oil cake 21 10.33 1.38 2.4 1.81 1.604 5.614
Rice bran 4 0.55 0.15 0.65 0.21 0.851 1.3
Wheat bran 6 0.53 0.08 0.82 0.32 0.115 2.615
Fish oil (FO) 3 - 6 - - - -
Vitamins+minerals 1 1 - - - - -
Total 100 39.92 11.81 16.03 6.76 4.965 16.855

Table 3: Showing the proximate contribution of ingredients in diet containing 40% protein and with 12% lipid.

Experimental design

Juveniles of Labeo rohita at the beginning of experiment were stocked at a density of 25 in each plastic trough of 20 L capacity in triplicates. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. Initial weight and proximate composition of muscle of fish were determined prior to the commencement of the experiment. Juveniles of Labeo rohita were fed at 5% of their body weight twice daily. The left over feed and excreta were removed on every second day by siphoning method separately from each tub. Before stocking, weights of the fingerlings were recorded.

Measuring indices and methods

Weight gain=Final weight (g)-Initial weight (g).

Specific growth rate (SGR)=In final weight (g)-In initial weight (g) × 100/time (days).

Feed conversion ratio=Diet fed (g)/total weight gain (g).

PER=Increment in body weight (g)/Protein intake (g).

Analysis

At the end of the experiment (after 60 days), juveniles were observed for weight increment followed by biochemical analysis. Proximate composition of the feed ingredients and experimental diets were determined in the laboratory using standard methods. The crude protein and lipid contents of feed ingredients were determined by Lowry method and Folch method. The ash content was determined by first igniting the sample and then heating it in the muffle furnace at 550°C (± 10°C) for 6 h [3]. Crude fibre was determined by acid and alkali digestion [4].

Statistical analysis

Differences between treatments were analysed using independentmeasures one-way ANOVA. The values were expressed as mean ± SE. values p<0.05 were considered as significant and p values <0.001were considered as highly significant p.

Results and Discussions

Growth

Growth parameters of juveniles of Labeo rohita are shown in Table 4, it is clear that fish fed on diet containing 9% supplemented lipid attained a maximum weight of 0.120 ± 0.002 gm, while those fed on diet containing 12% reached 0.103 ± 0.003 gm and fish fed on control diet attained 0.097 ± 0.006 gm in 60 days. The statistical evaluation of results revealed that fish fed on diet containing 9% fish oil had significantly (p<0.05) higher weight followed in a decreasing order (p<0.05) by the 12% and the control group [5].

Growth parameters % Of Lipid In Diet
6% (R1) 9% (R2) 12% (R3)
No. of Fishes 25 25 25
Initial Average Weight 0.430 ± 0.001 0.435 ± 0.002 0.439 ± 0.003
Final Average Weight 0.527 ± 0.006 0.580 ± 0.001 0.541 ± 0.003
Weight Gain 0.097 ± 0.006 0.120 ± 0.002 0.103 ± 0.006
% Weight Gain 22.71 ± 1.540 26.08 ± 0.681 23.41 ± 1.646
Survival 93.56 ± 1.63 95.76 ± 1.190 93.51 ± 0.057
Specific Growth Rate 0.184 ± 0.038 0.253 ± 0.010 0.231 ± 0.042
Feed Conversion Ratio 14.02 ± 3.328 10.70 ± 0.508 11.21 ± 2.39
Feed Conversion Efficiency 7.37 ± 1.55 9.35 ± 0.462 9.14 ± 1.835
Percentage Efficiency Ratio 0.194 ± 0.001 0.246 ± 0.002 0.241 ± 0.001

Table 4: Showing various growth parameters of the juveniles of Labeo rohita fed on diets containing varying levels of lipid.

Specific growth rate

The value of the Specific Growth Rate was calculated at the termination of the experiment and the highest value for the SGR was found to be the diet 9% (0.253 ± 0.010) followed by diet 12% (0.231 ± 0.042) and least with diet 6% (0.184 ± 0.038). Similarly, Jafri et al. [6] while working on the fingerlings of Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) recorded the best SGR in the group of fishes fed with 5 to 7% dietary lipid as compare to 3%, 9%, 11% and 13%. Gumus and Ikiz [6] also evaluated that 6% dietary lipid to be effective in the diet of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss . Similarly, Erdogan et al. [7] reported that 9% lipid is the optimum level for weight gain in juvenile African cichlids (P. socolofi and H. ahli ).

Feed conversion ratio and feed conversion efficiency

In the present investigation the best FCR and FCE were obtained in experimental groups fed on diet containing 9% lipid level i.e., 10.70 ± 0.508 and 9.35 ± 0.462 followed by 11.21 ± 2.039 and 9.14 ± 1.835 in 12% and poorest i.e., 14.02 ± 3.328 and 7.37 ± 1.555 in diet 6%. Thus, the present finding clearly shows that there is significant difference (P<0.05) among diet Control (6%) and fish oil supplemented diets 9% and 12%. However, diet containing 9% shows best results. Through the present finding it can safely informed that FCR could be improved by increasing dietary lipid levels. Similarly, Chou et al. [8,9] reported that supplementation of diet with sardine oil shows improved FCR. Koprucu [10] observed in juveniles of Ctenopharyngodon idella that increase in dietary lipid level does not shows any negative effect on FCR. That might be due to increase in dietary lipid helps in protein sparing and also in best feed utilization.

Protein efficiency ratio

The value of protein efficiency ratio was found to be maximum for the fingerlings fed on diet 9% i.e., 0.246 ± 0.011, followed by diet 12% i.e., 0.241 ± 0.048 and least with diet 6% i.e., 0.194 ± 0.041.). PER is an indicative of the lipid level that gives optimal growth at a particular protein level. In this study, with increasing dietary lipid level, the PER tended to increase up to a certain level and then decrease. It shows that high dietary level could improve the utilization of protein in feed. This study shows the improvement in growth and PER with increasing dietary lipid level.

Proximate composition

Biochemical analysis of fish whole body are shown in Table 5, there was no significant differences (p>0.005) in protein content between fish fed on 9% lipid level and 12% lipid level. In the present study, the highest value of muscle lipid has been found in the fingerlings fed on diet R2 i.e., 1.11 and least with diet R1 i.e., 0.78%. This shows that with the increase in dietary lipid level, the carcass lipid content also goes on increasing. Similar trend has also been found by [11]. Similarly, Du et al. [12] reported that body lipid content of grass carp increased with increase in dietary lipid levels, indicating that this fish could deposit lipid in the muscle. Thus in many fish species, the increase of dietary lipid levels should be evaluated carefully for it may lead to increased fat deposition in fish. Koprucu [10] reported an increase in carcass muscle lipid with increasing dietary lipid levels (Figures 1 and 2).

Diets Crude Protein Crude Lipid Moisture Ash
R1 7.61 0.78 71.33 1.48
R2 8.19 1.11 70.3 1.4
R3 8.1 1.06 70.46 1.43

Table 5: Showing proximate composition of the muscle of juveniles of Labeo rohita fed on different lipid diets.

fisheries-and-aquatic-juveniles-Labeo

Figure 1: Showing increment in weight of the juveniles of Labeo rohita fed on different lipid diets.

fisheries-and-aquatic-lipid-diets

Figure 2: Showing proximate composition of muscle of Labeo rohita fed on different lipid diets.

The proximate moisture content shows inverse relation with dietary lipid levels. It was maximum in diet R1 i.e., 71.33% and minimum i.e., 70.30% in diet R2.

Ash content almost showed similar value of 1.48, 1.40 and 1.43 respectively.

Present study thus suggest that supplementation of dietary lipid up to 9% could support good growth of the juveniles of Labeo rohita . Dietary lipid above 9% can have negative effects in the growth.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 270
  • [From(publication date):
    September-2017 - Nov 20, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 212
  • PDF downloads : 58
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords