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ISSN: 2378-5756
Journal of Psychiatry
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Hashish-Induced Olfactory Hallucination: A Novel Finding

Jamshid Ahmadi*

Professor of Addiction Psychiatry, Founding Director; Substance Abuse Research Center; Dual Diagnosis Ward; Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Jamshid Ahmadi
Professor and Founder Director
Substance Abuse Research Center
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz, Iran
Tel: 98711229502
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 28, 2015; Accepted Date: September 26, 2015; Published Date: September 30, 2015

Citation: Ahmadi J (2015) Hashish-Induced Olfactory Hallucination: A Novel Finding. J Psychiatry 18:330. doi:10.4172/2378-5756.1000330

Copyright: © 2015 Ahmadi J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Background: Hashish abuse and hashish induced disorders are common in the world.

Objective: To present an interesting patient with hashish-induced olfactory hallucination.

Results: Our patient developed olfactory hallucination after hashish abuse.

Discussion: Hashish commonly induces auditory or visual hallucinations. Our case developed olfactory hallucination which may be finding rarely. Therefore this case-study represents a novel and significant information.

Conclusion: Hashish caused olfactory hallucination, so this case-study adds an innovative and important finding to the literature.


Hashish; Psychosis; Olfactory hallucination


Psychiatric and psychological problems have been growing disorders globally. Nowadays, health authorities and researchers pay much attention to the epidemiology, etiology, prevention and treatment of mental problems [1-13]. Among psychiatric diseases, substance abuse and substance related disorders, especially stimulants induced disorders have been considered as progressive worldwide problems and now, stimulants abuse and stimulants induced psychiatric presentations to the hospitals and also clinics is a growing problem [13- 54]. In the past times, cannabis and methamphetamine were illegally smuggled in from other parts of the world especially the west, but now it is prepared illegally in Iran in ‘underground’. In the past and present years, cannabis has not only been illegally smuggled in from the east and the west countries, but also has been cultivated in ‘underground’. Hashish is more potent than marijuana and is sometimes associated with psychosis. A single episode of abuse has been accompanied by hallucinations and paranoid persecutory delusions. Now, we would like to discuss our case with the diagnosis of cannabisinduced olfactory hallucination with onset during intoxication.

Patient Presentation

Mr. A.E. was a 27-year old single man, unemployed with education up to last grade of high school, living with his mother in Shiraz city of Fars province in southern Iran. He did not report any history of psychiatric or medical problem in his past personal history. He has been consuming hashish occasionally since 7 years prior to admission (PTA). Since 2 weeks PTA, he increased the amount and frequency of hashish abuse to daily heavy smoking. Then he developed paranoid delusion, aggressive behaviors, poor sleep, self-talking, auditory, visual and also olfactory hallucinations (he said that he smelled the odor of paradise and hell). He did report any type of olfactory hallucination before beginning of hashish smoking. He was brought to the emergency room of Ebnesina hospital and was admitted in dual diagnosis ward. At the time of admission, in complete physical and neurological examinations we could not find any abnormal findings such as history of vascular headaches, brain trauma or seizure disorders.

Laboratory tests including screening tests for HIV and hepatitis were carried out which were normal. Urine drug screening test was positive for cannabis only and no positive findings were detected for morphine, benzodiazepines, amphetamine derivatives, cocaine and other hallucinogens. According to DSM-5 criteria, and also complete medical, psychiatric, and substance use history he was diagnosed as "cannabis induced psychosis with onset during intoxication". He was monitored and interviewed for hashish induced symptoms, 3 times a day (morning, afternoon and evening). He was taking anti-psychotic medications every day and his hashish induced olfactory hallucination was improving. After 2 weeks of hospitalization his symptoms including olfactory hallucination and persecotory delusion subsided.


Our patient developed olfactory hallucination after hashish abuse.


Hashish usually causes auditory or visual hallucinations. Our case developed olfactory hallucination which is rare. Therefore this casestudy of an Iranian patient could represent a novel finding.


Hashish caused olfactory hallucination; therefore this case-study represents a new finding.


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