alexa Health Aspect of Nanostructured Materials | OMICS International
ISSN-2155-9929
Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Health Aspect of Nanostructured Materials

Pratima R. Solanki*

Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India

*Corresponding Author:
Pratima R. Solanki
Special Centre for Nano Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi 110067, India
Tel: 011 2674 2575
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

Received December 15, 2015; Accepted December 17, 2015; Published December 20, 2015

Citation: Solanki PR (2015) Health Aspect of Nanostructured Materials. J Mol Biomarkers Diagn S8:e001. doi:10.4172/2155-9929.S8-e001

Copyright: © 2015 Solanki PR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

Keywords

During the last decade, nanostructured materials are being arbitrarily utilized for biomedical applications like imaging, diagnosis and drug delivery due to their unique properties [1-3]. Beside this, nanomaterials products are commercial available for hair care, sunscreens, pigments, coatings, ceramic products, and paints. The worldwide commercial value of nanoproducts is estimated approximately as $1 trillion. As the public concern of nanoproducts, the potential harm effects of nanomaterial have an important issue because of their cyto and geno toxicity effect that is not yet much studied. There is also an ongoing debate about the regulation of nanomaterials.

Due to their small size, surface charge, high surface energy and provide more accessible binding reactive sites on nanomaterials surface resulting in easily internalized into the cells. Internalization of nanomaterials could be occurred via different endocytic pathways comprising phagocytosis (“cell-eating”) and pinocytosis (“celldrinking”), clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and other alternative routes. The internalization of nanomaterails also depends on their size, shape, chemical composition, and surface modification. Simultaneously, their interaction depends on their dynamic physicochemical properties, kinetics and thermodynamic exchanges between nanomaterial and cell surfaces and organelles (e.g. proteins, DNA, membranes, phospholipids, endocytic vesicles, organelles and biological fluids) [4]. Whenever, the nanomaterial reacts with cells, induces their prooxidant effects in term of oxidative stress, inflammation, genetic damage, and the inhibition of cell division and finally cell death. On the based on various reported, it is fund that nanomaterials also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (which can be either protective or harmful during biological interactions). Some nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to activate inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils which can result in the increased production of ROS. The mechanism for ROS generation is different for each NP and to date the exact underlying cellular mechanism for ROS generation is incompletely understood and remains to be elucidated.

Among the various nanomaterials including metal oxide NPs are widely utilized in biomedical applications and give more attention towards toxicity study. Seabra et al., [5] summarized the results reported on in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies of graphene-related materials Khan et al., [6] evaluated the toxic effect of zinc and titanium oxide NPs at different concentrations (50, 100, 250 and 500 ppm) used human erythrocytes and lymphocytes as in vitro model species. Concentration dependent hemolytic activity to RBC’s was obtained for both NPs. ZnO and TiO2 NPs resulted in 65.2% and 52.5% hemolysis at 250 ppm, respectively indicates that both are cytotoxic to human RBCs and both NPs were found to generate ROS concomitant with depletion of glutathione and GST levels and increased SOD, CAT and lipid peroxidation in dose dependent manner. Recently, Golbamaki et al., reported in a report after the critical analyzing the various research articles based on metal oxide or silica nanoparticles, found that the nanomaterials of same core chemical composition did not show different genotoxicity study calls (i.e. positive or negative) in the same test [7]. Nanomaterial’s in different size, surface area variation, various purities of nanomaterials; variation in surface areas for nanomaterials with the same average size; differences in functionalization/ coatings; differences in crystal structures of the same types of nanomaterials; differences in size of aggregates in solution/ media; differences in assays; different concentrations of nanomaterials in assay tests. However, extensively well designed, genotoxicity studies are required, with a particular need for more in vivo experiments. Indeed, due to the observed inconsistencies in the recent literature and the lack of adherence to appropriate, standardized test methods, reliable genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterial is still challenging.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 7884
  • [From(publication date):
    specialissue-2016 - Dec 16, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7830
  • PDF downloads : 54
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version