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ISSN: 2161-0703
Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
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HIV Infection Among Potential Blood Donors

Zhiburt EB* and Madzaev SR

National Pirogov Medical Surgical Center, Moscow, Russia

*Corresponding Author:
Zhiburt EB
National Pirogov Medical Surgical Center
Moscow, Russia
Tel: 915290-00-67
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: November 27, 2015; Accepted: January 14, 2016; Published: January 18, 2016

Citation: Zhiburt EB, Madzaev SR (2016) HIV Infection Among Potential Blood Donors. J Med Microb Diagn 5:215. doi: 10.4172/2161-0703.1000215

Copyright: © 2016 Zhiburt EB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The statistics on HIV in Russia in 2013 were studied and compared with the blood service data. It was found that among different contingents the minimum detection rate of HIV infection has been registered among blood donors. Maximum detection rate of HIV among men, who have sex with men, actualizes the need for a ban on their participation in blood donation. The detection rate of HIV among donors, as well as the ratio of detection of HIV among donors and other categories surveyed indicate a lack of efficiency of formation of donor contingent of supporters of a healthy lifestyle. A direct positive correlation of HIV was detected in blood donors and region population, the volume of blood processing, as well as all volumes of blood wastage due to markers of blood borne infections except the volume due to HBs-antigen.

Keywords

HIV; Infection; Donors; Statistics; Blood; Detection; Transfusion

Introduction

HIV transmission to a recipient is the most resonant adverse effect of blood transfusion [1]. From HIV infection epidemics onset and up to 2013 inclusive, 80 cases of HIV infection transmission during transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and blood products were registered in the Russian Federation. Since 2010, two such cases have been registered annually. In 2012-2013 the key reason for infection transmission during blood transfusion was red blood cell suspension transfusion from active donors in the seronegative period (Smolensk, Kemerovo regions). In March 2013 in St. Petersburg a child was transfused with red blood cells prior to donor's HIV infection test results were received [2].

HIV infection prevention should be undertaken comprehensively as regards sources of the virus, mechanisms, routes and factors of transmission as well as sensitive population, including representatives of vulnerable groups of population [3].

It would be interesting to compare HIV detectability in donors with similar characteristics in other population groups both on regional and national scale.

Materials and Methods

The following materials have been studied:

- Main statistics on HIV infection in Russia;

- Data on HIV antibody test results;

- Data on HIV antibody test results on various subpopulation in the regions of the Russian Federation in 2013 [4].

It is worth noting that personified data on new HIV infection cases in Moscow in 2012-2013 were not given; the data includes persons who were detected in the Federal Scientific and Methodology Centre for AIDS Prevention and Control for the first time as well as the data for Moscow taken from the health monitoring form of the Russian Agency for Health and Consumer Rights.

HIV antibody test results were compared to the industry statistics on the institutions affiliate to the Ministry of Health of Russia for 2013.

The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis with the level of significance of 0.05.

Results and Discussion

The number of HIV infected persons who applied to a donor point was minimal among the groups examined (Table 1). However, as shown in Table 1, the number of seropositives per 100,000 of serum samples was maximum in MSM group. The possibility to lift the ban for men practicing sex with other men is widely discussed on the international level [5]. The observed maximum infection detectability rate in this group makes actual the need to introduce the same ban in Russia.

Group examined 2012 2013
Blood serum examined HIV+ * Blood serum examined HIV+ *
Total 26,037,319 70,744 271.7 26,826,067 79,728 297.2
Men who have sex with men 2,701 153 5,664.6 2,188 161 7,358.3
Drug addicts 245,227 9,009 3,673.7 238,885 10,037 4,201.6
Examined during epidemiologic investigation 158,141 6,332 4,004.0 176,092 6,700 3,804.8
Persons in detention 415,707 8,589 2,066.1 398,807 8,953 2,244.9
People with sexually-transmitted infections 897,260 3,857 429.9 886,168 4,337 489.4
People examined due to clinical signs 5,724,621 18,060 315.5 5,914,421 21,744 367.6
Others 9,557,200 17,157 179.5 10,147,879 19,641 193.5
Foreigners examined 1,248,832 1,944 155.7 1,501,247 2,116 140.9
Pregnant women 5,138,303 6,449 125.5 5,223,644 6,972 133.5
Medical staff working with HIV-positive patients or materials containing HIV 451,312 162 35.9 455,737 166 36.4
Donors 3,446,847 976 28.3 3,382,246 1,017 30.1

Table 1: Number of new HIV infection cases among various categories of examined persons in Russia in 2012 – 2013.

The maximum HIV detectability rate among donors is in the regions with the highest overall HIV detectability rate (Table 2).

All groups Donors
RF** constituent territory * RF constituent territory *
Kemerovo region 1,291.5 Tomsk region 109.2
Tomsk region 951.0 Kemerovo region 93.1
Sverdlovsk region 883.6 Novosibirsk region 83.8
Samara region 812.5 Samara region 68.6
Novosibirsk region 790.0 Altai Territory 67.9
Irkutsk region 726.6 Tver region 67.6
Perm region 621.1 Irkutsk region 62.4
Leningrad region 603.6 Republic of Bashkortostan 54.7
St. Petersburg 531.2 Ulyanovsk region 53.7
Orenburg region 524.6 St. Petersburg 52.9

Table 2: Regions with the highest HIV infected detectability in 2013.

Donors take a significant part of those who were tested for HIV: median and interquartile interval of this parameter made 14.3% (10.9- 18.6) in 2012 and 13.3% (10.6-17.3) in 2013.

The maximum share of donors in those tested is in the regions where plasma fractioning and collection points are located (Tables 3 and 4). The share of donors in the number of HIV-positive persons is low: median and interquartile interval of this parameter made 1.3% (0.8-2.6) in 2012 and 1.4% (0.9-2.2) in 2013. The list of regions with the highest value of this parameter is quite varying (Table 5). In 2012 no HIV-positive donors were identified in 12 regions (Republic of Kalmykia, Belgorod region, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Ryazan region, Yamalo- Nenets Autonomous District, Voronezh region, Kamchatka, Chukot Autonomous Area, Nenets Autonomous Area). In 2013 the number of such regions reduced to 8 (Amur region, Sakhalin region, Jewish Autonomous Region, Republic of Ingooshetia, Republic of Kalmykia, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Chukot Autonomous Area, and Nenets Autonomous Area).

2012 2013
RF constituent territory % RF constituent territory %
Kirov region 41.7 Tyumen region 35.3
Ivanovo region 30.9 Ivanovo region 34.1
Lipetsk region 27.7 Kirov region 30.6
Yaroslavl region 27.6 Yaroslavl region 26.2
Republic of Mordovia 25.9 Jewish Autonomous Region 25.1
Jewish Autonomous Region 24.9 Lipetsk region 24.2
Tyumen region 23.1 Republic of Mordovia 23.9
Republic of Karelia 21.5 Republic of Karelia 22.1
Pskov region 21.5 Arkhangelsk region 20.6
Sverdlovsk region 21.4 Altai Territory 19.9

Table 3: Regions with the highest number of donors among HIV examined in 2012 and 2013.

2012 2013
RF constituent territory % RF constituent territory %
Bryansk region 8.8 Moscow region 8.6
Kamchatka 8.4 Chukot Autonomous Area 8.1
Kabardino-Balkarian Republic 8.2 Bryansk region 8.0
Chukot Autonomous Area 8.1 Kamchatka 7.5
Primorsky Kray 7.8 Primorsky Kray 7.5
Volgograd region 7.6 Volgograd region 7.4
Transbaikal Territory 6.8 Transbaikal Territory 7.4
Republic of Tatarstan 6.5 Republic of Tatarstan 5.7
Moscow 5.5 Moscow 4.5
Republic of Ingooshetia 4.2 Republic of Ingooshetia 4.5

Table 4: Regions with the lowest number of donors among HIV examined in 2012 and 2013.

2012 2013
RF constituent territory % RF constituent territory %
Republic of Tuva 7.7 Republic of Tuva 15.4
Orel region 7.6 Chuvash Republic 6.5
Amur region 6.7 Republic of Khakassia 5.4
Republic of Altai 6.3 Yaroslavl region 4.4
Sakhalin region 5.4 Astrakhan region 3.7
Republic of North Ossetia 5.1 Republic of Karelia 3.7
Magadan region 4.9 Chechen Republic 3.3
Kaluga region 4.9 Kamchatka 3.3
Chuvash Republic 4.5 Tambov region 3.1
Chechen Republic 4.3 Kirov region 2.9

Table 5: Regions with the highest number of HIV positive donors in 2012 and 2013.

The ratio of HIV detectability among donors and other categories examined indirectly may show the quality of healthy donor recruiting. Median and interquartile interval of this parameter made 7.9% (4.5- 15.7) in 2012 and 9.0% (5.9-13.1) in 2013. In the regions with the highest value for this parameter, special attention should be paid to recruitment of donors without any HIV infection risk (Table 6).

2012 2013
RF constituent territory % RF constituent territory %
Republic of Ingooshetia 51.6 Republic of Tuva 87.4
Chechen Republic 45.7 Chuvash Republic 44.0
Republic of Altai 45.4 Kamchatka 42.7
Kaluga region 43.2 Chechen Republic 32.1
Magadan region 42.1 Republic of Khakassia 31.7
Kabardino-Balkarian Republic 40.0 Republic of Adygeya 28.2
Republic of Tuva 37.4 Astrakhan region 22.5
Orel region 35.9 Voronezh region 22.1
Republic of North Ossetia 32.0 Stavropol region 22.0
Amur region 30.0 Republic of Dagestan 19.9

Table 6: Regions with the highest ratio of HIV detectability among donors and other categories examined in 2012 and 2013.

The correlation relationship of HIV detectability in donors and other groups examined (Table 7) demonstrates epidemic process similarity among potential donors and the population in general, save for those who were examined during epidemiologic investigation and foreign subjects.

Group examined 2012 2013
r p r p
Non-donors 0.71 <0.001 0.82 <0.001
People examined due to clinical signs 0.65 <0.001 0.80 <0.001
Pregnant women 0.68 <0.001 0.79 <0.001
Drug addicts 0.51 <0.001 0.69 <0.001
People with sexually-transmitted infections 0.57 <0.001 0.52 <0.001
Persons in detention 0.28 <0.05 0.47 <0.001
Medical staff working with HIV-positive patients or materials containing HIV 0.28 <0.05 0.24 <0.05
Examined during epidemiologic investigation 0.05 >0.05 0.11 >0.05
Foreign subjects examined 0.11 >0.05 0.10 >0.05

Table 7: Correlation relationship of HIV detectability in donors and other groups examined.

The drawback of this study is generalization of the results of new and regular donor examination. Usually the blood service identifies two infection safety indicators: blood transmission infection incidence and occurrence rate. Incidence, or prevalence, is the number of cases of a certain disease among the population at a certain moment. In blood transfusion it means the number of diseases among new donors (usually, per annum).

Occurrence rate is the number of cases of a disease occurring during a certain period of time in a certain population. In blood transfusion it means disease finding in regular donors [6].

In this study it is not possible to differentiate between the results for new and regular donors.

HIV detectability in donors demonstrates positive correlation with all parameters of blood rejection rate using blood transmitted infection markers (Table 8). The only exception is the blood rejection rate on HBs antigen, where no correlation is present. We may assume the identity of transmission mechanisms of HIV, HCV and syphilis as well as liver lesions as a result of alcohol consumption among persons with deviant behaviour who apply to a donor point. Positive HIV test results are more common for large regions and centres with the highest blood collection rates.

Parameter r
Blood rejection due to ALT, l 0.58
Absolute rejection, l 0.57
Blood rejection due to syphilis, l 0.49
Blood rejection due to other reasons, l 0.48
Blood plate concentrates obtained, doses 0.46
Red blood cells produced, l 0.45
Plasma spent for blood components, l 0.44
Blood rejection due to HIV, l 0.44
Blood rejection due to HCV, l 0.43
Cell production for blood components, l 0.41
Cell production by centrifugation, l 0.40
Cell production from blood, l 0.40
Population of the RF constituent territory 0.40
Positions involved in blood collection 0.40

Table 8: The strongest (r>0.39) correlation relationship of HIV detectability in donors with other donorship parameters in 2013 (p<0.05).

Conclusions

1. It was found that among different contingents the minimum detection rate of HIV infection in regions of the Russian Federation in 2013 has been registered among blood donors.

2. Maximum detection rate of HIV among men practicing sex with men actualizes the need for a ban on their participation in blood donation.

3. The detection rate of HIV among donors, as well as the ratio of detection of HIV among donors and other categories surveyed indicate a lack of efficiency of formation of donor contingent of supporters of a healthy lifestyle.

4. A direct positive correlation detection of HIV in blood donors and region population, the volume of blood processing, as well as all volumes of blood wastage due to markers of bloodborne infections except the volume due to HBs-antigen.

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  1. kimyang
    Posted on Nov 24 2016 at 7:03 am
    Hello my name is kim …HIV has been a threat to me ..I lost my job to HIV. As we all know medically, there is no solution or cure for HIV and the cost for Medication is very expensive. Someone introduced me to a man (Native Medical Practitioner) in Africa called Dar Olori. I showed him all my Tests and Results and I told him that i have already been diagnosed of HIV and have spent thousands of dollars on medication. I said I will like to try him cause someone introduced me to him. He asked me sorts of questions and I answered him correctly. To cut the story short, He gave me herbal medicine {in liquid and he thought me how am going to use them all. At first I was skeptical but I just gave it a try. I was on his Medication for 7 to 8 days and I used all the herbs according to his prescription. That he will finish the rest himself. And I called him 3 days after, I arrived and I told him what is the next thing he said, he has been expecting my call. He told me to visit my doctor for another test. Honestly speaking, i never believe all he was saying until after the test when my doctor mention the statement that am, HIV negative and the doctor started asking me how do I do it….Am telling this story in case anyone may need this man’s help. you can contact him directly on this email; [email protected] or [email protected] reach him on his mobile contact +2349053311935 You can also reach him on website http://drolorimiraclemedicine.webs.com/
  2. Safoorah
    Posted on Oct 17 2016 at 5:07 pm
    Article predicts a direct positive correlation detection of HIV in blood donors and region population, the volume of blood processing, as well as all volumes of blood wastage due to markers of bloodborne infections except the volume due to HBs-antigen. The article also highlights on the environmental factors that influence the occurrence of HIV. The document is a significant addition to the scientific literature in this field.
 

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