Received date: August 11, 2017; Accepted date: August 24, 2017; Published date: August 31, 2017
Citation: Ahmed TSA (2017) How do Saudi Arabians Perceive the Egyptian Tourist Destination through Drama and Films? J Tourism Hospit 6: 300. doi: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000300
Copyright: © 2017 Ahmed TSA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The aim of this study is to measure the immediate impacts of a film on the perceptions and behavioral aspects of the Saudis relating to the Egyptian tourist destination. The methodology of the research is a survey. Data was obtained through questionnaire conducted among a random sample of students of Saudis. The survey was conducted by one field researcher between January 15 and March 20, 2016/17. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed only to those who agreed to respond to the survey either electronically using Google form and through Saudi Arabian airlines office at Hail city. Out of 250 questionnaires distributed 28 were inadequate and thus rejected from the study. As a result, there were only 143 usable questionnaires for data analysis was accepted for the purpose of final analysis, representing a response rate of 57%. There is no statistically significant difference between gender, age except the first reason, social status, qualification and position except the fourth reason regarding reasons for watching Egyptian drama. There is a statistically significant relationship between their perception about (the level of cleanliness, the Egyptian people, means of transportation, the atmosphere in Egypt, the existence of natural landscapes in Egypt; variety of tourist attractions; historical and cultural sites; Restaurants; shopping centers; the standard of living in Egypt) and the level of watching Egyptian drama and films. There is statistically significant contribution for the motivations four and five in predicting the perceived image. The other motivations do not have any effect of the perceived image.
Egypt; TV drama; Films; Image; Perception
Television (TV) is one of the most popular and influential means for attracting people’s attention among different visual media alternatives. It is considered as a significant part of our leisure life [1,2]. Watching a film is a common way to be amused in this time . The phenomenon of film induced tourism is due to the revolution of media nowadays [4-6]. Where tourists visit destinations featured through films representing unofficial promotional campaign .
There are numerous methods in which individuals can watch a film (e.g.; cinema, on their home’s television, or even in a car while driving . The film-induced tourism became a new technique owing to increase the international tourism markets [8,9]. As it reaches a vast audience in important tourism markets , individuals are very concerned to have actual experiences where films are showed  which is very much personalized and exclusive to each of them based on their own understanding .
The crucial role of film, in the whole tourist experience, is in creating images of destinations, including consciousness, motivations, anticipations, familiarity . Understanding to what extent watching movies contributes to form destination images positively or negatively is an important question [9,13-15]. So, image strategies require the assessment of the role that films play to boost the destination’s positive characteristics . Film–induced tourism as a new form of cultural tourism still receives little attention in the research literature in the field of tourism because of the lack of knowledge of the advantages of film on tourism . Besides, there is little understanding of how film tourists perceive, interact and relate to the destination. Film induced tourism research were not achieved till the mid-1990s. Butler  advocates that the significance of visual media in influencing images and visitation is in all probability very much under-researched. Enticing tourists to film sites has received attention of both tourism marketers and many researchers .
This study primarily deals with a case study that examines the effects of the Egyptian drama on attracting Saudis to visit Egypt. Egyptian TV programs are spreading, to other countries and cultures. Interestingly, these TV shows found a great popularity in the Arab countries including Saudi Arabia. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of the Egyptian drama on Saudis perceptions and behaviors. This study investigated the reasons for watching the Egyptian drama. This research aims to discover whether or not Saudis are interested in film induced tourism. In other words, to find out if Saudis are influenced by popular movies when making a destination choice and if movies can create a desire to travel to the country featured. More specifically, the main research questions that will be addressed in this thesis are:
-If viewing a film generates a certain level of motivation to visit a destination, what specific aspects of the film motivate viewers to visit the destination?
- Are respondents interested in visiting movie sets or film locations?
- Can places featured in movies influence respondents’ travel decisions?
- How do Saudis perceive the Egyptian tourist destination based on watching the Egyptian drama and films?
To answer the research questions, both secondary and primary research were carried out. Secondary research will include a literature review and primary research will be done by means of a questionnaire addressed to Saudis. The previously identified research gap has shown the relevance of undertaking such research and the result will shed a light on the issues of Saudi’ travel behavior in connection with film induced tourism. This research contributes for the promotion of Egyptian tourism through its film industry by determining which factors affect watching the Egyptian drama, in addition to assess the image of the Egyptian tourist destination in the eyes of Saudis through drama, providing recommendations for harnessing Egyptian films for tourism industry.
Thus the results of this study will offer evidence to whether or not the Egyptian drama encourages Saudis to travel to the Egyptian destination.
Film tourism-definition, types
Busby and Klug  discussed the notion of film tourism concerning cultural tourism and its different interpretations. There appear to be numerous terms for this phenomenon have been presented in earlier studies for the term film tourism, which is also commonly called film induced tourism, movie induced tourism or media induced tourism [4,6]. Film tourism is defined ‘as tourist visits to a destination or attraction as a result of the destinations being featured on television, video, or the cinema screen’ . The reason that they use the term film, instead of movie, is because the latter usually refer to films that showed on a silver screen. Film, on the other hand, encompasses more than just cinematic films, but also video, DVD, or a blue-ray disc that is now available due to the advancement in technology . Bolan and Davidson  defined the film induced tourism as ‘the aspect of a film or television series being shot in one place but in reality representing somewhere else entirely, which means that the location where the film or television series was recorded, may not positively gain from its international release’. According to  film induced tourism can be referred to as ‘an experience that is very much personalized and distinctive to each individual based on their own understanding and use of media images’. Beeton  has developed a comprehensive definition of film induced tourism which as it includes visits to film sets and film locations of movies and television series as well as visits to film studios and film theme parks. Hudson and Ritchie  defined Film induced tourism as ‘the collective term used for the study of tourist visits to a destination or attraction as a result of the destination being featured on the cinema screen, DVD, television or on video’. Roesch  defined film tourism as ‘a specific pattern of tourism that drives visitors to see screened places during or after the production of a feature film or a television production’. Film tourism has been defined by Buchmann et al.  as ‘visitation of a site or a location that is or has been used for or is associated with filming’. Riley et al.  argue that when people search for the scenes they have seen on the silver screen; it is then that they, indeed, become movie induced tourists’. According to [14,24] Movie induced tourism refers to on-location visits of shooting locations and movie sets. An important distinction in the area of film induced tourism is made between on-location tourism and off-location tourism. On-location tourism describes visiting locations found in the environment that have been featured in a movie or visits to film sets that have been left at the destination, such as visiting the Hobbiton movie set or the landscapes featured in The Lord of the Rings. Off-location tourism refers to visits of a film set that has been constructed in a studio or an artificial setting, such as visiting the set of Desperate Housewives at the Universal Studiosin Hollywood. Roesch  separated the terms film tourists and film location tourists. Film tourists travel to a place because they have previously seen it in a movie, for example, a person might be interested to travel to Salzburg because of the city’s exposure in the popular movie Sound of Music. While film tourists might visit a country, region or city because of it being featured in a movie, they do not visit the exact shooting locations; however, there is a segment of film tourists, the so-called film location tourists, that desires to visit the precise shooting locations of a certain movie.
Tourist is influenced by different reasons to visit filmed locations according to cultural affiliations. Film tourism can take diverse forms, activities and motivations [9,11,18] such as Visits to sites showed in films or television series ; Visits to studio where films are produced ; Visits to themed parks and attractions with a film theme [27,28]. Recognizing these types of tourism induced by film and their characteristics can be the starting point in designing the touristic supply given to the tourists potentially interested in visiting film locations . Sellgren  mentioned three different kinds of film induced tourists general tourists are those tourists whom do not engage in film induced tourism; they might know that certain sites have been featured in movies but do not show an interest in visiting. Incidental film tourists are those who do not have the intention to visit a specific film location, but come by during their holidays and decided to visit it and dedicated film tourists are those who travel to the destination specially to see the exact locations portrayed on screen or to visit a movie set.
Studies of film induced tourism
Investigating the correlation between Films and of tourism is relatively new subject [15,19]. Research on film tourism can be found since the early 1990s . Only a decade ago, it was noted that there is a lack of academic research in film-induced tourism [4,30], but the popularity and extensiveness of research in this part has increased recently [31,32], with most researches investigating the growth of visitor numbers to film sites [33-41]. But practical studies measuring the impact of films on the behavioral characteristics of the watchers in relation to a specific destination are scarce, and understanding of the cultural implications pertinent to film-induced tourism is limited [4,42]. Roesch  pointed out that many movies induced tourism were based on best-selling novels and concluded that more research is required here. O’Connor  indicated that there is a lack of research relating to off-location movie destinations asserting that further research in this topic in different countries is needed.
Some researchers have argued that movies or TV programmes afford intangible advantages to a destination such as (image improvement or an growth in the level of awareness of the host city [10,23,40] economic benefits on the film destination [18,35,40,43] the impact of film on developing tourism in rural destinations and towns [41,44] the impacts of film induced tourism for tourists and locals the impact of film on developing tourism in rural destinations and towns; the power of TV programmes affecting contemporary social life.
On the other hand, some studies focused on the impacts that film tourism TV programmes have on a location from a tourism marketing standpoint . Few studies investigated the experiences of tourists visiting films locations.
Film induced tourism and tourism image
Morgan and Pritchard  argued that the defy for destination marketers is to find the best method to capture the tourist’s attention and construct the destination’s brand using images, stories and emotions. Visual media is particularly successful in to modifying, creating and strengthening the destination image . Visual stimuli shapes attitudes toward tourism products  including films which contribute to create images of tourist destinations [48,49]. Tooke and Baker  highlights that as publics read less, what is shown in visual media will become all the most important. Fictional cinema is one of the means that forms the image of each country formed internationally. It captures viewers’ imagery, and it can influence their choice of tourist destinations. Films and media can create positive destination images .
Film can be used to draw attention towards lesser known destinations. Film induced tourism have powerful impacts on shaping and changing an individual’s image on a destination showed in it create a first-time image or alter an existing image in a relatively short period of time and increase the awareness of the host city  besides, influencing tourists’ anticipations of a specific location .
The image created could generate too many (or few) visitors, and a changed image may change the type of visitors.
Riley and Van Doren  suggested the utilization of film to form new images of tourism destinations as a useful tool for destination promotion, suggests that those who are exposed to the film have more favorable destination image towards destinations featured through films than those who are not exposed to films. Television series are even more influential since they can constantly emphasize the appeal of the destination that builds top-of the mind awareness.
In order to induce tourism by television drama series or movies, it is crucial that an appropriate and positive destination image is depicted in an attempt to put across a harmonious and legitimate destination image and in order that spectators are of interests to visit. Films that imitate a real image of the destination and are likely to be more successful in being an inducement for film tourists . Riley and Van Doren  point to that when films and television series are created in location, they can create specific images of these destinations for the watcher. Beeton  gave a number of examples indicating how successful, film has impact pre-imaging rural destinations such as Heartbeat in Goathland and SeaChange in Barwon Heads.
Other decisive factors influencing such tourism are the amount of exposure or length of time the destination is on the screen and more importantly the profitable link needs to be made between the film and the destination, for example The Lord of the Rings and New Zealand, Brave heart and Scotland, Crocodile Dundee and Australia. In terms of coverage, The Lord of the Rings unquestionably had a powerful effect on tourism because of its scope (over 100 million people have seen the films to date) and the fact that it was a trilogy thereby reinforcing the images . In the popular culture literature, movies are often associated with mere entertainment that also inform people and shape their images in profound methods. Croy and Walker  have indicated, more research is needed to assess the evaluative components of image and to measure the effect films have on image.
Butler  discusses the impact of the media and the ways in which individuals get images, information and awareness of destinations. Cousins and Andereck  confirmed that film can have considerable effects on destinations used as film locations from two regions in North Carolina.
Schofield  discusses that the deconstruction of space by film or TV and its rebuilding of the image of place, arises as a post-tourist experience at a border between authentic and unauthentic worlds. He indicates that hyper-reality and simulacra, which govern visual media, affect watchers to admit scenes and historic events showed in film and Television programmes through soft filtering.
Morgan and Pritchard  investigated the Las Vegas brand personality among British residents. The result revealed that the film and television played an important role in forming the image of that destination. The image amongst those who had and those who had no familiarity with the destination was similar.
Croy and Walker  conducting a research into the significance and use of films in imaging destinations in New Zealand surveying New Zealand’s local government offices and Regional Tourism Authorities10 (RTA) showed that 71% of respondents declared that films turned out in their region could be utilized for destination image promotion, while 58% considered the use of films produced in the area to be important in tourist promotions.
Kim and Richardson  offered a practical proof that suggests that, probably due to individual characteristics, a popular film could influence some components of the destination image and concern about travelling to the filmed location. They used an experimental model, assessing impacts of the 1995 movie Before Sunrise on the image formed of Vienna either cognitively or affectively. Their results revealed that it affected positively on Vienna`s image in Austria. Besides improving the awareness of the destinations shown and having tourist inducing effects, Hahm  conducted a study to measure the differences between pre and post image composed from watching a destination specific movie. Results revealed that certain images about the destination were different before and after the show; level of interest in visiting the destination did not change; there was a significant coreelation between destination image and the willingness to visit the destination. Warnick et al.  examined the effect of a movie on the Thailand`s image amongst student voyagers. It was found that it enhanced the image of that country leading to a better destination consciousness of Thailand, but its influence was not enough to pull tourists to visit it. Connell (2005a, b) found that about 40% of the local tourism operators responded that a TV programme for children presented a positive image of the locale to visitors. Iwashita indicated that the destinations associated with exciting stories, symbolic contents and famous actors come to be distinctive locations for potential tourists. Hudson and Ritchie  examined the impact of ‘Captain Corelli’s Mandolin’ on the Island of Cephalonia in Greece. A study conducted by Kim et al.  showed image on a destination changed due to TV dramas.
Wang  conducted a study about the role played by movies in destination images of four different UK movie locations with the majority of the participants being students in the UK. She concluded that students’ main motivation to visit Oxford is the international academic reputation of the city followed by the movie location.
Şahbaz and KiliÇlar  examined impact of films and TV dramason the image of the destinations Mardin, Turkey. The research results revealed that tourists who find the films and TV dramas interesting which are shootings taking place in Mardin have a positive image about Mardin. In addition with this, when watching rate of the production shoot in that city are growing, perceived image is affected positively. Films and TV dramas affected on the image of Mardin as a tourist destination. O’Connor  examines the impact of films and television series on locations brandingportrayed in them.
Campo, Brea and Muñiz  studied the effects of the film “Vicky Cristina Barcelona” on Barcelona’s destination image. The study found that the images that contribute to the placement of the destination in the mind of the tourist were considerably different after viewing the film.
Sellgren  conducted a study to investigate influence of movies on destination image construction regarding “foreign” countries. Results indicated that although a movie with a negative plot, respondents showed an interest to visit the place because of the beautiful landscapes surpassing that negative plot.
Soliman  comparing students’ destination image before and after watching the film Captain Hima on domestic tourism in Egypt, he found that the attitude towards Al Fayoum changed favourably and some students indicated an interest in visiting the place affected by the beautiful landscapes viewed in that film.
Croy  show a significant relationship between The Lord of the Rings and the international image of New Zealand. Results indicated that the film images are indicatively positive for international travellers, and media and promotional materials sustained the positive image.
Mestre et al.  propose a typology of films that contribute to form the image of Spain (lcon Films, Pastiche Films, and Tourist Poster Films). They argued that this threefold typology may help increasing of a cultural tourism.
Film induced tourism and tourist perception
Visual media influences perceptions of what is fashionable, exciting, and attention capturing. It is assumed that cinema is considered a creative, innovative and strategically necessary factor for introducing tourist destinations in the minds of persons. It may be a relatively reliable and effective tool to change people’s image of place .
Film-associated promotion can be one of the most successful means for boosting tourist consciousness, as it shows tourist attractions features and builds a visual image of a destination . It includes emotional charm and visual images, which enables potential tourists to form a pre image about the destination. Cohen  proposes that the more the destination is in the front place of the story, the more it will leave an impression on the potential tourist’s mind. The location of the film will shape the tourists’ perception of a destination. Practical researches investigating the impact of films on the perception and behavioral aspects of the spectators with regard to a specific destination are limited.
Kim and Richardson  analyzed how ‘Before Sunrise’ filmed in Vienna and ‘Groundhog Day’ filmed in Pennsylvania can influence the watchers’ perceptions of a destination. Kim et al.  investigating the impacts of the Korean television (TV) drama series titled, Winter Sonata, that the perceptions of older Japaneses bout Korea changed more favourabley as a result of watching the Korean drama than that of younger Japanese ones. Hudson et al.  conducted a study to evaluate the impacts of a film entitled (the Motorcycle Diaries on the perceptions of watchers from United States of America, Canada and Spain). The results showed that the film did change their perceptions of South America. Hoa et al.  conducted a study to examine the impacts of Korean films on the intention to visit Korea in the context of Vietnam. The results revealed that film topics and contents; actors, music and backgrounds; culture and tradition significantly affected the frequency of watching and perception change on country image reflected in the travel intention.
Film induced tourism and tourist motivation
Movie is a stimulusto visita destination . Bolan and Davidson  argue that various media do certainly have a strong influence on people’s preference of tourist destinations. Furthermore, film above all, can be a powerful motivating factor to induce tourist visitation. It can generate all kinds of motivations.
The travel motivations of movie tourists are quite similar to other types of tourists . Many researchers have applied the push and pull factor theory of motivation to develop a framework to study film tourism from a tourist perspective [7,15,31,33].
Many film scenes all over the world become the pull factors for tourists to visit. For example the American soap opera ‘Sex and the City’ that contributed significantly to attract tourists to visit New York affected by sites showed in the film . Macionis  divides pull factors into three groups: place, personality and performance.
Films, which reflect the accurate characteristics of a destination, are enticing tourists visiting the sites they have seen in the movie . Schofield  argued that movie-induced tourism will rapidly be a fashion, as the individuals are very concerned about forming an initial image about destinations though watching movies. When persons seek to visit sites seen on a film, this refers to film-induced tourism. Push factors are internal stimulus such as the socialization and escape needs.
A number of researchers mentioned that the main drivers behind film induced tourism are namely the wish to escape the real world for a while, as the main driver behind film induced tourism, declared that film tourists are motivated by escape, fantasy, homesickness or a sense of an indirect experience when searching for film destinations.
Repeating experience of watching would give more familiarity, attachment and affection. All these elements will become the push factors for the audience to visit the site, to meet the local citizens and share in the local experiences and fantasies depicted in the film people, experience and fantasies showed by the film [7,51]. Busby and Klug  studied the visitor profiles in Notting Hill, London. They found that the majority of respondents recognized that movies inspire tourism to destinations and would consider visiting film sites in the future.
In a survey about the travel behavior and motivations of students from eight different countries, Richards and Wilson  declared that students are searching for experiences at the destinations rather than activities of relaxation in general. During their trip, they like to engage in various activities, ranging from sightseeing to different kinds of amusement and sport.
Carl et al.  investigates the film tourists’ motivation, anticipations and level of satisfaction of scenes of the location of ‘Lord of the Rings’. They suggested that when watching a film, the audience live in a state between the imaginary and the real world and that film tourism is somewhat based on tourists’ calls to escape and to experience the cultural assets potrayed in films.
Wang  conducted a study about the role movies play in destination images of four different UK movie locations with the majority of the participants being students in the UK. One of the four movie locations mentioned was Bodleian Library in Oxford, which was used for the dining hall scenes in the Harry Potter movies. She concluded that students’ main motivation to visit Oxford remained the worldwide academic reputation of the city but the movie location became an additional sight. As this is just one movie location, it would be interesting to find out if studies at other Harry Potter film locations, such as Gloucester Cathedral, the Goathland Railway Station and different spots in London will bring the same results.
Kim et al.,  concluded that Japanese’s who are exhausted of the mechanical and materialism factors are to be expected to seek the humanistic interest, nostalgic affection, and indirect satisfaction through watching dramas. Viewers’ desire to visit a site can be naturally related to tourism besides visiting the showed in destination toevoke pure love and to go back over nostalgia which they viewed on the TV drama  outlines the relationship between the power of film (both movies and television series) as a motivational and image-making tool and the attractiveness of tourism destinations.
Walaiporn  discussed concisely why movie locations appeal to tourists. Watching a movie is not a real experience, however by visiting film locations, a part of the intangible movie experience can be turned into something more tangible. Meaning that visiting a film location gives individuals the opportunity to recreate part of the feelings they experienced during watching a movie and re-live it for themselves. Roesch  further mentioned also that the majority of film tourists have one common characteristic, nevertheless of the underlying film kind which is the desire to connect with the imaginary world through visiting the real places.
According to Roesch  estimates about international tourists in the UK and their travel motivations said that every tenth international tourist of all international tourists in the UK during 2006 chosen the UK as a destination as a result of its media exposure. Another survey in the UK uncovered that 8 out of 10 Britons get their travel thoughts from movies, further; one in five will hence visit the destination of their favorite film.
O’Connor et al.  uncovered that Ever since the prologue about film, various viewers had been inspired by the scenery and local culture of film locations, which have stimulated them to spend their vacations at these destinations. According to films and television series set in different areas of South Korea have contributed to increase the international tourist flows, particularly Japanese female tourists. Sellgren  aimed to find out the motivations and travel behavior of film tourists by conducting focus groups amongst students.
It is significant to understand of how decisions are done and why how individuals choose certain destinations [7,59]. O’Connor et al.  argues that the tourist industry has recognized that tourists are affected by films they have watched when making their decisions to travel.
Films can strongly influence on tourist decision-making . Film has the power to influence tourists’ actions by creating their interest which can incite them to proceed in certain manners . Iwashita stated that film television can form the travel preferences and destination choices of individuals by exposing them to the characteristics and attractions of destinations.
Not all spectators for any film will react by deciding to visit the location of the film likely. Morgan and Pritchard  supposed that tourists can actively make their own explanation of films and television series . There must be more focus on the consumer and the impact of films on travel decisions .
Film as a stimulus to travel has not yet been included in the tourist decision-making models as main variables . In this context, Macionis  and Di Cesare, et al.  further noted that film is not a principal motivator, rather a supplementary experience of general tourists. Research on the impact of film on tourist decision-making is even lacking [18,30,54]. Only a few studies have been conducted to explore the phenomenon in any detail .
Characteristics and behaviors of film tourists
The Scottish Tourist Board conducted a study in the Stirling region showed in the film Braveheart. The result revealed that seeing the film had a considerable effect on tourists’ decisions to visit Stirling and to see specific attractions and destinations shown in the film Stewart 1997 . Busby and Klug  found that the majority of respondents demonstrated a level of agreement on the question of whether TV programmes and films push tourism to a region.
Warnick, et al.  concluded that the fact of having watched the film “The beach” didn´t raise the intention of visiting Thailand, even though the country’s image was modified, both negative and positive.
Hudson and Ritchie  declares that film watching could affect decision making process of travel to a destination. Wang  exploring impact of movie locations in the UK destination image formation and travel behavior, found that that tourists’ travel decisions were made primarily based on word-of-mouth The results showed tourists to be aware of movie locations, but with a rather passive attitude towards film tourism.
Rewtrakunphaiboon  focusing on the influence of Korean films on destination selection, suggested a framework for researches conducted to investigate the influence of film on the choice of destination. FutureBrand found that television shows and films were the next key influencer on the travel decision to a certain country after family and friends and the Internet. Hoa, et al.  focuses on the influences of film-specific factors of Korean TV drama series or movies on Vietnamese watchers about their nation`s image and Vietnamese people‟ intention to travel to film location after repeatedly watching Korean films.
The objective of this study was to measure the impacts of a film on the perceptions and behavioral aspects of the Saudis relating to the Egyptian tourist destination.
This part describes the research methodology used to test the hypothesized model presented in Figure 1.
H1: There is a statistically significant difference between demographic variables regarding reasons for watching Egyptian TV drama and films.
H2: There is a significant correlation between level of watching TV drama and movies and the perception about the Egyptian destination.
H3: Motivations for visiting Egypt contribute to predict the image the perceived image.
Questionnaire design: To validate the conceptual model and the proposed research hypotheses, the researcher developed a survey. A questionnaire for the current study was designed with three sections as follows:
1) Respondents’ characteristics (gender, age, social status, qualification, position).
2) Respondents’ behavior of travel to Egypt.
3) Respondents’ watching experience of Egyptian movies.
4) Respondents` image about the Egyptian tourist destination.
In order to design the survey questionnaire, several journal articles related to film-tourism studies were reviewed. It was 17 items being measured in 5-point Likert scale with 1=agree, 2=neutral, 3=disagree, 4=agree and 5=I do not know. Furthermore, the survey questionnaire was written in Arabic language and was tested through a pilot study in order to have better amendments.
This study included three university professors in the tourism management and archaeology department who reviewed the questionnaire. Each one of them was asked to examine the relevance, representativeness, clarity and wording, item content of the questionnaire. Based on their review, the questionnaire was modified, revised.
Assessing scale reliability with coefficient alpha
In order to assess the reliability of survey questions, the researcher obtained a coefficient Cronbach’s Alpha score. The Table 1 shows that the coefficient of consistency for survey is 0.936. It declares that this survey is reliable.
|Case Processing Summary|
|Cronbach's Alpha||N of Items|
Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
Table 1: Scale reliability.
Consistency Internal (using t-test)
The researcher identified the peripheral groups (the top one 27% and the lowest one 27% of the total sample (111) depending on the total score in the test of innovative thinking. In order to compare the scores of the higher and lowest groups by calculating the statistical significance of the difference between the means of the test dimensions, a t test was used for two independent non-homogeneous samples.
The results of test (T) shown in Table 2 indicated that after reference to degrees of freedom=(60) and the significance level of 05.0, it was 6.1, which is smaller than all calculated values of test dimensions. The calculated values ranged from (13.006) to (20.795) and thus accept the hypothesis that there are statistically significant differences between the peripheral groups in the dimensions of the test, It was reviewed in the analysis of T-test results.
|t||df||Sig. (2-tailed)||Mean Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|The level of cleanliness in the streets of Egypt is high||20.795||60||.000||2.50820||2.2669||2.7495|
|Health services in Egypt are of high quality and satisfactory quality||19.399||60||.000||2.67213||2.3966||2.9477|
|The Egyptian people are friendly and enjoy the hospitality||15.462||60||.000||2.09836||1.8269||2.3698|
|Egypt is a safe tourist destination for the visit||15.184||60||.000||1.90164||1.6511||2.1522|
|Egypt is a convenient tourist destination for relaxation and relaxation||14.706||60||.000||2.03279||1.7563||2.3093|
|It is easy to obtain suitable accommodation for all segments||13.006||60||.000||2.04918||1.7340||2.3643|
|Roads in Egypt are good and equipped with safety and security measures||20.668||60||.000||2.70492||2.4431||2.9667|
|Transportation in Egypt is available all the time||13.755||60||.000||2.03279||1.7372||2.3284|
|Transport and transportation in Egypt are of good quality and price||20.119||60||.000||2.65574||2.3917||2.9198|
|The atmosphere in Egypt is moderate||13.994||60||.000||2.06557||1.7703||2.3608|
|There are many natural landscapes in Egypt||14.668||60||.000||1.90000||1.6408||2.1592|
|Egypt enjoys a variety of tourist attractions||13.179||60||.000||1.65574||1.4044||1.9070|
|Egypt has great historical and cultural sites||12.591||60||.000||1.45902||1.2272||1.6908|
|Restaurants in Egypt are diverse and offer good services||14.329||60||.000||2.04918||1.7631||2.3352|
|There are plenty of places to shop||15.270||60||.000||2.11475||1.8377||2.3918|
|The lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people are similar to the way of life in my country||15.942||60||.000||2.09836||1.8351||2.3616|
|The standard of living in Egypt is high||18.786||60||.000||2.50820||2.2411||2.7753|
Table 2: Consistency Internal (using t-test).
Sampling and data collection
The methodology of the research is a survey. Data was obtained through questionnaire conducted among a random sample of Saudis. It consists of three parts: the first part: contains a preliminary data about Respondents’ characteristics (gender, age, social status, qualification, position). While the second one: focuses on respondents’ behavior of travel to Egypt. The third part: focuses on Respondents ‘watching experience of Egyptian movies. The fourth part focuses on respondents` image about the Egyptian tourist destination. SPSS software, descriptive tables, the One-Way ANOVAs analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The survey was conducted by two field researchers between January 15 and March 20, 2016\17. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed only to those who agreed to respond to the survey either electronically using Google form and in co-operation with Saudi Arabian airlines office at Hail city. Out of 250 questionnaires distributed 28 were incomplete and thus eliminated from the study. As a result, there were only 143 usable questionnaires for data analysis was accepted for the purpose of final analysis, representing a response rate of 57%.
In order to test research hypotheses in the proposed model (Figure 1), a structural equation modeling (SEM) was run using (SPSS) statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. Statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics, one –way ANOVAs and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to achieve the objectives of this study.
Respondents’ demographic characteristics
As Table 3 shows, the size of this research sample was 143. About two thirds of respondents were males. Respondents’ years of age consisted of 20-30 (75.5%), 31-40(15.4%), 41-50 (5.6%) and 50 and over (3.5%). There were more (2) (65.7) than (1) (32.9). The vast majority learned in public schools. Half of respondents have educational level of some college or college. About one third are unemployed followed by Self-employed (31.5). The sample contained a variety of occupational groups, including 36.6% Public sector employee, 11.2% Private sector employee, 31.5 self-employed. 33.6% unemployed and 11.2% other including students.
|Less than Secondary school||5||3.5|
|Bachelor or licence||73||51.0|
Table 3: Respondents’ demographic characteristics (N=143).
Table 4 revealed that the majority of respondents did not visit the Egyptian destination (67.1). One and three times visits represents about one quarter among respondents who have travel experience to Egyptian tourist destination.
Table 4: Travel behavior of the sample.
This study dealt with movies and TV drama and their impact on an individual’s image formation, and movie experience of the respondents was included in the questionnaire. The results of respondents’ movie experience are presented in Table 5 (33.6%) of the respondents indicated that they had seen less Egyptian drama. 30.1% on average. 14.0% more and 22.4indicated that they had not seen the movie selected. Respondents who do not have any experience of following up the movies and TV drama were not included.
|I do not watch||32||22.4|
Table 5: Movie Experience.
Mean scores and standard deviations of scale items
Table 6 presents the mean scores and the standard deviations for each item of the scale. The means scores of the items that were used to measure the perception of respondents about the Egyptian destination based on their Egyptian drama Experience including: cleanliness, healthy services, the Egyptian people, security level, relax, availability and quality of modes of accommodation, level of roads, availability and quality of transportation services, climatic conditions, natural landscapes, variety of tourist attractions, historical and cultural sites, Food services, shopping service, Lifestyle and standard of living in Egypt.
|The level of cleanliness in the streets of Egypt is high||2.4505||.87114|
|Health services in Egypt are of high quality and satisfactory quality||2.4685||1.05158|
|The Egyptian people are friendly and enjoy the hospitality||1.9369||1.01156|
|Egypt is a safe tourist destination for the visit||1.8829||.99762|
|Egypt is a convenient tourist destination for relaxation||1.9459||1.03430|
|It is easy to obtain suitable accommodation for all segments||2.0541||1.18964|
|Roads in Egypt are good and equipped with safety and security measures||2.5946||1.03904|
|Transportation in Egypt is available all the time||1.9369||1.12233|
|Transport and transportation in Egypt are of good quality and price||2.3874||1.01955|
|The atmosphere in Egypt is moderate||1.9820||1.10356|
|There are many natural landscapes in Egypt||1.7273||.95696|
|Egypt enjoys a variety of tourist attractions||1.5405||.94180|
|Egypt has great historical and cultural sites||1.3784||.85338|
|Restaurants in Egypt are diverse and offer good services||1.9910||1.06597|
|There are plenty of places to shop||1.9910||1.06597|
|The lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people are similar to the way of life in my country||2.0901||1.04054|
|The standard of living in Egypt is high||2.5045||.98048|
|Valid N (listwise)|
Table 6: Mean scores and standard deviations of scale items.
It indicates that respondents they agree to (Egypt has historical and cultural sites of high value with a mean of (1.3784). On the other hand, they tend to be neutral that (Egypt enjoys a variety of tourist attractions (1.5405); There are many natural landscapes in Egypt (1.7273); The Egyptian people are friendly and enjoy the hospitality (1.9369); Transportation in Egypt is available all the time (1.9369); Egypt is a convenient tourist destination for relaxation and relaxation (1.9459); The atmosphere in Egypt is moderate (1.9820); Egypt is a safe tourist destination for the visit (1.8829); Restaurants in Egypt are diverse and offer good services (1.9910); There are plenty of places to shop (1.9910); It is easy to obtain suitable accommodation for all segments (2.0541); The level of cleanliness in the streets of Egypt is high (2.4505); Health services in Egypt are of high quality and satisfactory quality (2.4685); The lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people are similar to the way of life in my country (2.0901); Transport and transportation in Egypt are of good quality and price (2.3874). At the end, they disagree that roads in Egypt are good and equipped with safety and security measures (2.5946), the standard of living in Egypt is high (2.5045).
H1: There is a statistically significant difference between demographic variables regarding reasons for watching Egyptian drama. To verify H1, the researcher calculated the One-Way ANOVA analysis of difference between respondents according to (sex, age, social status, scientific qualification and position regarding reasons for watching Egyptian drama. The tabulated data revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between gender, age except (the first reason with p-value of 0.019), social status, qualification and position except the fourth reason with p-value of 0.039) (Table 7).
|R1: Because of the similarity between Egyptian culture and culture in my country||2.149||.145|
|R2: Because of my desire to learn about Egyptian customs and traditions||1.742||.190|
|R3: Because of the interest of the Egyptian drama in topics related to the family||1.395||.240|
|R4:Because of the Egyptian drama's interest in topics that concern human life or society||.181||.671|
|R5: Because of the performance and fame of Egyptian actors||1.881||.173|
|R6: Because the contents and themes of the Egyptian drama that are characterized by modernity||.323||.571|
|R7: Because of curiosity and curiosity||.097||.756|
Table 7: There is a statistically significant difference between demographic variables regarding reasons for watching Egyptian drama.
H2: There is a significant correlation between level of watching TV drama and movies and the perception about the Egyptian destination: To verify hypothesis 2, the researcher calculated Pearson correlation coefficient between level of watching and the perception about Egyptian destination. According to Table 7, the results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between their perception about (the level of cleanliness, the Egyptian people, the availability and quality of Egyptian means of transportation, the atmosphere in Egypt, the existence of natural landscapes in Egypt; variety of tourist attractions; historical and cultural sites; Restaurants; shopping centers; the standard of living in Egypt) with values of (0.006, 0.001, 0.003, 0.022, 0.003, 0.000, 0.004, 0.013, 0.007, 0.003, 0.009 ) at a significant level of 0.05. On the other hand, there is no statically relationship between level of watching and their perception about (health services, level of safety, the suitability of the Egyptian tourist destination for relaxation, the availability of suitable means of accommodation for all segments; the states of roads, the lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people) with values of (0.149, 0.500, 0.194, 0.059, 0.100, 0.245) at a significant level of 0.05 (Table 8).
|The level of cleanliness||Pearson Correlation||.258|
|Health services in Egypt||Pearson Correlation||.138|
|The Egyptian people||Pearson Correlation||.299|
|Leve of security in Egypt||Pearson Correlation||.065|
|Egypt is a convenient tourist destination for relaxation||Pearson Correlation||.124|
|Availability and quality of means of accommodation||Pearson Correlation||.180|
|Level of roads||Pearson Correlation||.157|
|Transportation in Egypt is available all the time||Pearson Correlation||.280|
|Transport and transportation in Egypt are of good quality and price||Pearson Correlation||.217|
|Climatic conditions||Pearson Correlation||.282|
|Natural landscapes||Pearson Correlation||.342|
|Variety of tourist attractions||Pearson Correlation||.271|
|Historical and cultural sites||Pearson Correlation||.235|
|Restaurants in Egypt||Pearson Correlation||.255|
|Shopping services||Pearson Correlation||.278|
|Lifestyle in Egypt||Pearson Correlation||.111|
|Standard of living||Pearson Correlation||.248|
Table 8: The correlation between level of watching and the perception about the Egyptian destination.
H3: behavioral intention contribute to predict the image: To verify hypothesis 3, the researcher calculated the stepwise multiple regression of motivations of visiting Egypt as an independent variable to determine their impact on the perceived image.
The results were shown in Table 9. All reached a significant goodness of fit, and the explained variance of word of mouth as 16%, in significant overall test (F=2.878, p<0.001) reached a significant level. The tabulated data reveal that there is statistically significant contribution for the motivations four and five (0.055 and 0.037) in predicting the perceived image. The other motivations do not have any effect of the perceived image (Dependent Variable: image, R=0.404a, R Square=0.164, Adjusted R Square=0.107, F=2.878).
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
Table 9: Motivations of visiting Egypt contribution to predict the image the perceived image.
The purpose of this study is to measure the immediate impacts of a film on the perceptions and behavioral aspects of the Saudis relating to the Egyptian tourist. It indicates that respondents they agree to (Egypt has historical and cultural sites of high value. On the other hand, they tend to be neutral that (Egypt enjoys a variety of tourist attractions; there are many natural landscapes in Egypt; The Egyptian people are friendly and enjoy the hospitality; transportation in Egypt is available all the time; Egypt is a convenient tourist destination for relaxation and relaxation; The atmosphere in Egypt is moderate (1.9820); Egypt is a safe tourist destination for the visit (1.8829); Restaurants in Egypt are diverse and offer good services; There are plenty of places to shop; It is easy to obtain suitable accommodation for all segments; The level of cleanliness in the streets of Egypt is high; Health services in Egypt are of high quality and satisfactory quality; The lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people are similar to the way of life in my country; Transport and transportation in Egypt are of good quality and price. At the end, they disagree that roads in Egypt are good and equipped with safety and security measures, the standard of living in Egypt is high. The tabulated data revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between gender, age except the first reason, social status, qualification and position except the fourth reason with p-value of 0.039) regarding reasons for watching Egyptian drama.
The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between their perception about (the level of cleanliness, the Egyptian people, the availability and quality of Egyptian means of transportation, the atmosphere in Egypt, the existence of natural landscapes in Egypt; variety of tourist attractions; historical and cultural sites; Restaurants; shopping centers; the standard of living in Egypt) and the level of watching Egyptian drama and films. On the other hand, there is no statically relationship between level of watching and their perception about (health services, level of safety, and the suitability of the Egyptian tourist destination for relaxation, the availability of suitable means of accommodation for all segments; the states of roads, the lifestyle, traditions and customs of the Egyptian people).
The tabulated data reveal that there is statistically significant contribution for the motivations four and five (0.055 and 0.037) in predicting the perceived image. The other motivations do not have any effect of the perceived image. The results of the study have both theoretical and implications in the field of tourism marketing. From one part, the findings support the theoretical implications for the SET. From the other hand, the applied implication, it seems that responsible of tourism and mass media in Egypt have to take serious steps to make use of the Egyptian drama through a long term plan considering the quality of the TV dramas and films in order to enhance the image of the Egyptian tourism destination. We need to revise all materials that contribute to deform the real face of Egypt. This leads to increase the tourist flows to Egypt. This study has some limitations. It is applied to a sample of only one country (Saudi Arabia). This study developed a valid instrument for measure the immediate impacts of a film on the perceptions and behavioral aspects of the Saudis relating to the Egyptian tourist. The conceptual model proposed would be test for other countries other than Egypt and the sample needs to expand to include others from other countiesin the Arab world. Comparative studies need to be applied for future research through investigating Arab citizens’ perception of Egypt according to The Egyptian TV drama and films.