Payame Noor University, Tehran Province, Tehran, Iran
Received Date: April 24, 2017; Accepted Date: May 08, 2017; Published Date: May 10, 2017
Citation: Houzorri MJ, Sarlak MA, Qorbani A, Abdi A (2017) Identification of the Strategies of Organizational Brawl Management. Int J Econ Manag Sci 6: 427. doi:10.4172/2162-6359.1000427
Copyright: © 2017 Houzorri MJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The emergence of brawl behaviors in public institutions and organizations may face organizations with serious crises due to their influence and importance in the minds of clients and other employees. Some employees in organizations commit uproars for reasons that these misbehaviors are outside the standards of organizational behavior and result in the blemishing of organization reputation, the decrease of productivity and the loss of work time. Therefore, it is necessary that management identifies and implements strategies to prevent the repeat of such misbehaviors.
Purpose: so far no research has been done in the field of strategies of brawl management and its results. In practice, many organizations are faced with its paradoxes. The purpose of present research is to achieve these strategies in the organization.
Present research is applies in terms of purpose. It is descriptivesurvey in terms of the manner of collecting data, and it is correlation in terms of the relationship between the variables of research. It is based on the modeling of structural equations. Statistical population includes managers and employees of one of the affiliated companies of agriculture ministry. Sample size is 294. Sampling was done by systematic random sampling method. We used SPSS 16 and PLS software's to analyze data and test the existence of relationship between variables after the implementation of descriptive statistics methods and questionnaire distribution.
The analysis of research findings is based on the modeling of structural equations. Results show that brawl is inversely related with the administration of justice, transparence, and legality of manager (the removal of broken windows), socialization and training of employees in the organization. In addition, it influences the productivity of employees, brand, organizational productivity and clients' satisfaction.
The emergence of brawl behaviors in public institution and organizations by employees may face organizations with serious crises due to their influence and importance in the minds of clients and other employees. Misbehaviors in organization in which human's life is spent undermine public confidence, the reputation of the organization and efficiency of the organization . We have found that today the present of uproarious individual is one of the main problems of organizations and this will definitely influence the thought core of leaders. It seems that administrative brawl is one of the phenomena that have traversed the time and space boundaries in organizations especially in the third worlds countries. There is a significant gap in the study and identification of this kind of misbehaviors in the organization . Some individuals in the organizations commit behaviors that are outside the standards of organizational behavior and corrective actions must be performed immediately regarding them. The success of an organization depends on the behavior of employees, the extent of satisfaction among Managers and employees and prioritization, classification and effective use of behaviors. Employees are key elements of organizational survival. Cooperation of employees is the main factor of organizational effectiveness. Move towards development and knowledge-based economy require the recognition of employees and their behaviors in workplace. Many managers believe that unethical behaviors of workplace are a type of work cancer for today organizations. When competitive power of people decreases, their unethical behavior increases. These misbehaviors are challenges of today organizations. The positive effect of desirable behaviors on facilitating the performance of individuals, teams and systems has always been emphasized in advancement of organizational goals. The emergence of behavioral problems is not a new matter in the organized workplace . Despite made attempts by organizations to reduce or avoid incorrect behaviors, many researchers have shown that these behaviors are increasing . While managers often face behavioral problems in the organization, they also experience various forms of misbehaviors in workplace. Misbehaviors in the organization are voluntary behaviors that are made by employees to violate important organizational norms, organizational policies and rules and to achieve the interested goal . It should be noted that misbehaviors are a part of the life of every organization, and so should be considered .
Organizational scientists have recommended that such behavioral problems should be managed and analyzed to prevent the spread of these behaviors and their negative consequence. Misbehaviors in organizations are intentional behaviors that are made by clients of (internal or external) organization and violate the norms of organization. These misbehaviors can create a number of problems for employees and organization. Violations of workplace norms destroy the life . Misbehaviors in workplace are detrimental for both employees and organization due to abuse or political behaviors. Reports have shown that approximately 15% of employees in workplace commit misbehavior. Although misbehaviors in the workplace may arise on behalf of every person (employees, subordinates and top leaders), behavior of employees results from their attitude and may be suspicious about the organization. Researchers believe that pessimism is anywhere is an organization . Boss believes that misbehavior is used to satisfy other motivations. For example, a person may use threat to compel others to fulfill his demands or a person may use this method to attract the attention of others . In fact, wherever there is an organization, there will be administrative brawl more and less.
According to above cases and the fact that the creation of brawl in the organizations undermines their reputation, present search tries to identify the strategies for brawl management and then hypothesize, test and analyze them in the form of a conceptual model. Theoretical foundations and research background brawl means a loud noise and brawl for getting the properties of church (legal definition). Brawl has been defined as brat, rude, irrelevant, to insist in violent conditions, abuse, roar, clamor, turmoil, quarrel, uproar, disruption, gullible and impolite. The presence of factors like stressors in workplace (the high demand in the job, controlled jobs, organizational changes, role conflict, job insecurity, prevalence of illegal behaviors in the workplace and illegal expectations of clients), leadership styles (bureaucratic behaviors that don’t allow employees to participate, lack of delegation to employees and uncivil behaviors like pessimism about the employees and disgrace them), work systems (lack of resources, lack of education, inappropriate work program, continuous work changes and inappropriate evaluation of performance), weak working relationships (weak communications, isolation, low level of support and hostility of working group), characteristics of work force (young workers, training, minority groups in terms of sex and religion, unimportant workers, new workers, damaged workers) have caused to arise misbehavior in organizations. Since these misbehaviors influence financial, social and physical resources, today have become a public concern for organizations . In other words, misbehaviors increase organizational costs and decrease commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational productivity . Researchers have shown that the experience of unfairness is one of the main cause of misbehavior in the organization, particularly interpersonal unfairness or where personal courtesy and respect are blemished. These conditions influenced the self-esteem of individuals and result in misbehavior employees . Fair behavior is a demand that all employees who spend their time and energy in an organization expect from it. These expectations cause that leaders have higher tendency to emphasize the fairness. Now this question is raised. What might happen when managers don’t pay attention to the expectation? Greenberg concluded that managers who violate these norms by unfair behaviors causes that their employees show negative reaction to the misbehaviors. Therefore, the reflection of justice in the behavior of managers provides desirable conditions for both organization and employees. Justice or merit based compensation has been considered equivalent to equality. Organizational justice is an important predictor of personal results such as job satisfaction, payment and also organizational results such as organizational commitment and subordinate evaluation of supervisor . Training results in job satisfaction, the increase of personal efficiency and organizational effectiveness, the decrease of rebellion, conflict, absenteeism and other misbehaviors and reduction of costs and personal and organizational events . Promotion of a culture of peace, negotiation and cooperation regarding control and publicizing various technologies can decrease such misbehaviors in workplace. Researchers have suggested that two groups of factors have led to misbehavior in the organization. These factors are personal (awareness, negative emotionality, compatibility, moral deliverance, age, sex, education level, primogeniture, marital status and emotional intelligence) and organizational (organizational justice, perceived organizational support, social pressure to conform, distrust and negative attitude towards managers and colleagues, the lack of consensus on goal and expectations, uncertainty in the job, management style, organizational ethical climate and organizational climate) [3,15]. Ten key factors lead to the misbehavior of employees. 1: the lack of attention to people, 2: learning from people and the media and imitating others, 3: examining rules and regulations (if they feel that laws are weak, the possibility of misbehavior will increase), 4: lack of skill, 5: lack of autonomy, 6: inability to control emotions, 7: unsatisfied needs, 8: audacity to meet personal demands, 9: the lack of attention to mental health of people and 10: seeking power and control . According to conducted researches, misbehaviors originate from intra organizational factors or extra organizational factors depending on their location. Researches show that employees may commit unethical behaviors to achieve their goals. The findings of research emphasize the relationship between frustration, anger and misbehavior.  Place of residence, employment rate in the society, immigration and population play role in the creation of brawl in the organization. Uproarious individuals are people who have all necessary conditions and field for creating uproar. Therefore, organizations should design strategies to prevent the entry of such people to the organization via socialization.
Kant et al. found that uncertainty in the job leads to
1: The increase of conflict in the organization.
2: The decrease of organizational commitment.
3: The increases of dissatisfaction of job, colleagues and supervisors.
4: The decrease of organizational participation.
Ashford et al. showed that reception and presentation of feedback are useful for effective implementation of performance. Discrimination, the lack of attention to the necessary needs of employees and nepotism are strongly seen in most organizations. Certain, measurable, relevant, timely and participatory targets lead to brawl in the organization. Broken window theory not only is very efficient in Urban management, but also in managing all private and public organizations, profit and non-profit corporate and even personal life. According to the theory, every turbulence or unfavorable case that is creased should return to initial state as soon as possible to spend less energy for changing it and to minimize the motivation to repeat and recreate it . Lawbreaking is a broad social problem that currently affects a large part of the country. Commitment and involvement of the community's people in the laws and proper implementation of the laws or disregard them have overt and hidden effects and consequences in social, political, cultural and economic dimensions . So far no research has been conducted on the identification of brawl management strategies, but several researches have been conducted on misbehaviors that here we refer to them. David et al.  studied the impact of organizational and environmental factors on misbehavior of police. Negative binomial regression analysis of 497 police stations found that organizational characteristics are important for predicting of misbehavior including organization size, the existence of a permanent unit of internal affairs and training on the job. The rate of violent crimes is the only environmental criterion that influences police misbehavior. These results not only highlight the importance of organizational structure in effect on police misbehavior, but also show that police stations have the ability to change that can decrease police misbehavior. Barati et al.  studied the impact of organizational climate and organizational justice on counterproductive behaviors in employees of one of the organizations of Isfahan city. Research included 132 employees of the organization that were randomly selected. Results showed that there is a negative correlation between counterproductive behavior toward the organization and innovative organizational climate, collaborative organizational climate, distributive justice and procedural justice. In addition, innovative and collaborative climate and procedural justice have direct impact on counterproductive behaviors, while distributive justice has indirect impact on counterproductive behaviors. According to findings, organization can encourage innovation, cooperation, procedures development and fair distribution, and prevent destructive and counterproductive behaviors of employees . Shiri et al.  studied the relationship between narcissism of mangers and hypocritical behaviors with mediating role of Machiavellian behaviors of managers in public organizations of Kermanshah city. Population size was 8844. 588 persons were selected as statistical sample by simple random stratified sampling method and Cochran formula. Results showed that mangers narcissism has a direct and meaningful impact on Machiavellian behaviors. Vardi  found that frustration of employees, lack of commitment, locus of control, culture and climate of organization lead to a tendency to misbehaviors. Saimon studied the relationship between 5 dimensions of organizational structure and abnormal working behaviors . Results showed while punishment is positively related to the misbehavior, participation in decision making is inversely related to misbehaviors. Wasim et al. studied the relationship between organizational variables (organizational pessimism, organizational injustice and violation of the social contract) and organizational misbehaviors among doctors and nurses in a hospital in Pakistan. Statistical sample included 300 doctors and nurses of general ward. Results showed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between above organizational variables and misbehavior. John write conducted a research on “building a better working environment” in Canada. Statistical population included 1200 employees of 500 companies that worked in 25 different sectors. In addition, he used 500 human resources professionals. Researcher focused on engagement of employees and professionals to the organization and society. Results showed that the greater the confidence in the senior leadership, the greater will be the level of commitment. Livestock Support Company is an affiliated company of agriculture ministry that its function is to preserve the strategic reserves of the country in the field of protein materials and livestock inputs, regulate the market of these products and support the producers of agriculture sector in the field of above products.
In this research, organizational justice, organizational transparency, training, the removal of broken windows of management (legality), interaction culture and socialization are noted as the strategies of brawl management. They were identified, hypothesized, modeled and analyzed according to data based theory. Then, hypotheses of research were noted as follows.
Hypothesis 1: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between management interactions and brawl behavior.
Hypothesis 2: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between organizational justice and brawl behavior.
Hypothesis 3: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between training of employees and brawl behavior.
Hypothesis 4: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between organizational transparency and brawl behavior.
Hypothesis 5: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between organizational broken windows and brawl behavior.
Hypothesis 6: there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between socialization and brawl behavior.
According to hypotheses 1-6, conceptual model of research is presented in Figure 1.
In this research, 294 employees of livestock Support Company of the country were selected as sample. It should be noted that the size of statistical sample was estimated by Morgan table. Statistical population included 1400 employees. As a general rule, the number of sample must exceed 200 cases in most cases . According to the availability of data, sampling was made by systematic method. Variables of research: brawl management strategies were considered as independent variable and brawl was considered as dependent variable. Present research was conducted in 2016. The main tool collecting data was author made questionnaire. In order to determine the reliability of questionnaire, we distributed 30 questionnaires among statistical population and then collected them. The coefficient of Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaire was 82%. In order to test the validity of questions, we used content validity in the form of face validity. We used the opinions of experts, university professors and specialists to assess the face validity of questionnaire.
The methods of data analysis
We used spearman rank correlation test to test hypotheses using SPSS 16 software. Then, we assessed the correlation between variables. These coefficients represent the meaningfulness of correlation between independent the meaningfulness of correlation between independent variable and dependent variables with confidence interval of 99%. The causal relationship between independent and dependent variables of research was tested by modeling method of structural equations with the help of PLS software. We used the modeling of structural equations in PLS method to estimate the coefficients of path (Beta) in the section of inferential statistics. In addition, we used Boot strap test (open method of sampling via substitution) to calculate the meaningfulness of path coefficients and obtain T statistics. It is notable that we used SPSS software to analyze data.
Findings of research
The study of demographic characteristics of statistical sample shows that of the total sample, 11% were female and 89 percent male. The higher frequency relates to male group. According to education, the highest value of frequency distribution relates to diploma and below it. According to the age of respondents, 14.97% were between 20-30 years old, 23.8% were 30-40 years old, 44.22% were 40-50 years old and 17.01% were above 50 years old.
The results tested model of the relationship between strategies and brawl are presented in Figures 2 and 3. As it is seen, strategies have a meaningful impact on brawl.
According to the obtained coefficients of Beta, the value of these coefficients is meaningful for all independent variables. In other words, the relationship between the strategies and brawl is confirmed. In fact, this coefficient represents the importance and role of independent variables in the prediction of dependent variable. The value of determination coefficient (R2) shows that about 52% of the variations of dependent variable i.e. brawl are related to independent variables, and the rest dependents on other factors.
According to the fact that the meaningfulness level is smaller than 0.05 and the value of t statistics is greater than 1.96, so all of the variables have desirable conditions. Respondents believe that the strategies of brawl management have a meaningful impact on employees’ brawl. The study of validity of research conceptual model Cheen recommended two criteria for validity study or divergent validity of structures. First, the items of a structure must have the highest factor load on their structure i.e. have little cross load on other structures. Gifen and Eshtrab suggest that factor load of each item on its structure should be at least 0.1 higher than that of the same item on other structures. Second, AVE root of a structure must be greater than its correlation with other structures. This shows that the correlation of that structure with its indicators is greater than its correlation with other structures. Table 1 reports cross load of components on the structures of research.
|Dimension/variable||The structures of brawl management||Brawl|
|The removal of broken windows||0.86|
Table 1: Cross factor load for validity study.
According to above table, all dimensions have the highest factor load on their structure and the minimum interval of their structure related factors load is greater than 0.1. This shows that the structures of research have appropriate validity.
Structure pattern test
The proposed conceptual pattern was studied by modeling method of structural equations. According to the hypotheses of research, we used partial least squares method to estimate pattern. The test of research structural pattern and research hypotheses in PLS method is possible via studying path coefficients (factor loads) and R2 values. In addition, we used boot strap method (with 500 sub samples) to calculate the values of T Statistics for determining the meaningfulness of path coefficients. Path coefficients are used determine the contribution of each the predictor variables in explaining the variance of dependent variable. R2 values represent the explained variance of dependent variable by predictor variables. In addition, we used Q2 coefficient of stone - Giesser to study predictive power of dependent variables based on independent variables. Positive values of this coefficient represent predictive power. These values are shown in Table 2 and the section of structural pattern fitness refers to them. Figure 3 shows the tested model of relationship between research variables. According to this figure, the impact of strategies of brawl management on results is positive and meaningful. The numbers in the circles are explained variance. Figure 3 shows T coefficients of research path. T coefficients above ±1.96 to ±2.58 are positive at 5% level and T coefficient above ±2.58 is meaningful at 1% level. Table 2 shows the coefficients of path and explained variance of research model. As it is shown in Table 2, the impact of brawl management strategies on results is positive and meaningful. In addition, 69% of brawl management strategies and 40% of results are explained by research model.
|Variables||Path coefficients||Explained variance|
|The impact of brawl management strategies on the results||0.67||0.40|
Table 2: Path coefficients and explained variance.
Fitness of structural model
Finally, we used indices of structural equations models in partial least squares method to show the validity of research of research model findings. There are methods in PLS to study model validity. These methods are called cross-validation (CV) that includes CVcommunality and CV-Redundancy. Communality index measures the quality of the measurement model of each block. Redundancy index that is called Q2 coefficient of stone - Giesser measures the quality of structural model for each endogenous block by considering measurement model. Positive values these indices show appropriate and acceptable quality structural and measurement models. As it is seen in Table 3, the positive values of CV-communality and CV-redundancy for all variables in present research show acceptable and appropriate quality of structural and measurement models. In addition to indices, the index of total fitness of the pattern in PLS is GOF index that can be used to study the validity or quality of PLS pattern. This index acts like fitness indices of Lisrel model that is between 0 and 1. Values that are close to 1 represent appropriate quality of the model. This index studies general predictive power of the model and whether the tested model has been successful in predicting endogenous latent variables or not. In present research, the index of absolute fitness of GOF was 0.67 that represents appropriate fitness of tested pattern. Values those are greater than 0.40 show appropriate and desirable quality of model. Table 3 shows CV-Communality and CV-redundancy of research variables. As it is seen in Table 3, all values of CV-communality and CV-redundancy are positive that represent appropriate and acceptable quality of present research model (Figure 4).
|Brawl management strategy||0.16||0.674|
Table 3: CV-Communality and CV-redundancy of variables.
The results of pattern test show that the intensity of relationship between brawl management strategies and their results is equal to 0.67 and determination coefficient is equal to 0.4. This indicates that independent variable has explanation power of dependent variable by 0.40%. General results of the test showed that the intensity of highest impact on management satisfaction was 0.92 and determination coefficient was 0.40 in all organization.
First hypothesis note that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between management interactions and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99% confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.79 in the test and the value of explained variance by management interactions is equal to 0.65. Therefore, first hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that management interactions influence the extent of brawl of employees in livestock Support Company of the country. Second hypothesis notes that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between organizational justice and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99% confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.834 in the test and the value of explained variance by organizational Justice is equal to 0.85. Therefore, second hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that organizational justice influences the extent of brawl of employees. Third hypothesis notes that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between employees training and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99% confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.82 in the test and the value of explained variance by employees training is equal to 0.71. Therefore, third hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that employees training influence the extent of brawl of employees. Fourth hypothesis notes that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between organizational transparency and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99% confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.87 in the test and the value of explained variance by organizational transparency is equal to 0.79. Therefore, fourth hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that organizational transparency influences the extent of brawl of employees. Fifth hypothesis notes that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between managerial broken windows and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99% confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.86 in the test and the value of explained variance by broken windows is equal to 0.84. Therefore, fifth hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that the removal of managerial broken windows influences the extent of brawl of employees. Sixth hypothesis notes that there is an inverse and meaningful relationship between socialization and organizational brawl. Results show that there is a meaningful relationship between two variables at 99 percent confidence level according to the fact that meaningfulness level is less than 0.05. The intensity of relationship is equal to 0.85 in the test and the value of explained variance by socialization is equal to 0.68. Therefore, sixth hypothesis is confirmed. Thus we can conclude that socialization influences the extent of brawl of employees.
1: The age is organizational age. The realization of justice in the organization means the realization of justice in the society. One of the fundamental needs of employees and one of their most impact concerns in the organization is the perception of organizational justice at all dimensions (interactional, distributive, procedural) that leads to job satisfaction and organizational justice. The management of present organizations cannot ignore the fact. They must have a fair treatment with their employees. Employees fear that justice and fairness might not be observed in the allocation of duties and process or even justice in treatments and interactions. Therefore, if managers' of organizations want to have a productive and reputable organization, they should institutionalize justice in their organization.
2: Honesty is very import in the organization. There should be consistency between word and action of manager. Manager should fulfill his promises and behaves honestly with employees. If employees can predict the potential reaction of manager in different conditions, it will be less likely that commit uproarious behaviors.
3: In organizations, the work of clients is delayed every day, nepotism is a common approach, legal managers are ignored, and administrative violations are not dealt with, so the removal of these broken windows prevents the creation of brawl.
4: A particular training system should be designed for all organizational levels to promote efficiency level of employees according to organizational missions. In fact, training on the job of employees (perceptual, human and technical skills) should design in line with their job and job promotion.
5: This belief must be institutionalized in employees that organizations progress is impossible without communication with other parts of the organization. Therefore, maintenance and continuation of relationship with employees and the removal of factors that cause pessimistic are very important and prevent the creation of brawl.
6: Uncontroversial human resources are a competitive advantage in the organization and this competitive advantage can be useful and efficient for the organization.
7: Clear organizational purposes, strict enforcement of laws, elimination of personal relationships and nepotism assigning of jobs, delegation of authority and responsibility to individuals based on their merit will lead to the elimination of uproarious behaviors in the organization.
8: When a manager tends to be benevolent, respects the dignity of others and has transparency, employees will not act opportunistically and will trust him.
9: Managers should avoid dictatorship, pride, selfishness and ill temper and seek humility, accountability and mental relaxation in employees to create an environment that lacks brawl.
10: Organizational communications should be clear and transparent. Therefore, managers have a duty to aware the members of the organization of their policies and decisions using sessions. Even if there are problems and limitations, should be clearly noted. Managers can aware of the ideas of employees in the sessions and use them.
11: Deterrent laws, correct enforcement of them by management and commitment of mangers to the rules (manager Legality) prevent uproarious behaviors of employees.