alexa Immuno-Oncology Overview | OMICS International
ISSN: 2376-0419
Journal of Pharmaceutical Care & Health Systems
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Immuno-Oncology Overview

Nagwa Ibrahim*

Department of Pharmaceutical Services, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author:
Nagwa Ibrahim
Department of Pharmaceutical Services
Prince Sultan Military Medical City
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tel: 00966-4777714
Email: [email protected]

Received date: June 30, 2017; Accepted date: July 27, 2017; Published date: August 3, 2017

Citation: Ibrahim N (2017) Immuno-Oncology Overview. J Pharma Care Health Sys 4:e145. doi: 10.4172/2376-0419.1000e145

Copyright: © 2017 Ibrahim N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Pharmaceutical Care & Health Systems

Editorial

The essential feature of the immune system is the ability to recognize and differentiate any foreign body or abnormal cells such as tumor cells from normal cells. Tumor cells produce tumor antigens which activate the immune system. These antigens attract immune cells to the tumor site where they invade and attack. Accordingly, the immune system recognizes the tumor cells and targets them for elimination.

In order for the tumor cells to survive and grow, they apply different strategies to avoid recognition and elimination by the immune system through disrupting antigen presentation mechanisms. This might occur either through down regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules or by disabling antigen-processing machinery. In addition, the tumor cells may suppress the immune system though disrupting pathways involved in controlling T cell inhibition (checkpoint) and activation to avoid being attacked by the immune system.

These checkpoints could be activated or inactivated to start an immune response. PD-1 is a checkpoint on the T cells, which acts as a type of “off switch” that helps keep the T cells from attacking other cells in the body including tumor cells. It does this when it attaches to PD-L1, a protein on cancer cells. When PD-1 binds to PD-L1, it basically tells the T cell to leave the other cell alone. Some cancer cells have large amount of PD-L1, which helps them evade immune attack. Monoclonal antibodies that target either PD-1 or PD-L1 can block this binding and boost the immune response against cancer cells.

Immune-oncology refers to the treatment modalities that are designed to target and harness the patient’s immune system directly to kill tumor cells. These modalities include:

1. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) binding antibody (ipilimumab and tremelimumab);

2. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) targeted antibodies (Nivolumab and pembrolizumab);

3. Anti-PD-L1 antibodies (Atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab).

Safety profile of the immuno-oncology drugs is in some cases unique and different than what may oncologists have experienced with chemotherapy or targeted drugs. These side effects are manageable and can be successfully dealt with. It is mainly immune related adverse events due to excessive immune activity. Early recognition through patient education, early diagnosis and appropriate management of these toxicities are the key points to minimize life threatening complications.

Immune-mediated adverse events might affect the following organs:

1. Respiratory tract: Dyspnea and cough;

2. Endocrine system: Fatigue, headache, psychological changes/mood swings, significant changes in thyroid function tests and /or serum chemistry;

3. Liver: Increased hepatic values as AST, ALT, total bilirubin;

4. Kidney: Blood in urine, increased serum creatinine, decreased urine output;

5. Gastrointestinal tract: Diarrhea, stomach pain, blood in stool;

6. Skin: Itching, rash.

Rash is the earliest side effect that might be detected. It might appear about 4 weeks after treatment. Diarrhea might appear 5-6 weeks after starting treatment while changes in liver values might start 6-7 weeks after therapy.

Management of the side effects will depend on the severity as follows:

• Grade 1: Generally treated symptomatically;

• Grade 2: Generally treated with oral corticosteroids. Discontinue the treatment until symptoms resolve;

• Grades 3 and 4: Generally treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Delay or stop treatment depending on the affected organ system.

Patient education for early recognition and education of healthcare professionals for early diagnosis and proper management are essential factors to minimize the life threatening side effects of immunooncology drugs [1-4].

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

  • 10th World Congress on Pharmacology
    Jul 30-Aug 01, 2018 Barcelona, Spain
  • 3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    October 29-31, 2018 Brussels, Belgium
  • 18th Annual Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis Congress
    November 05-06, 2018 Madrid, Spain

Article Usage

  • Total views: 339
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2017 - Dec 18, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 298
  • PDF downloads : 41
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version