Uzma Naz* and Samreen Lohdi
Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
Received Date: November 10, 2015; Accepted Date: December 30, 2015; Published Date: January 06, 2016
Citation: Naz U and Lohdi S (2016) Impact of Customer Self Concept and Life Style on Luxury Goods Purchases: A Case of Females of Karachi. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 6:192.
Copyright: © 2016 Naz U, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Luxuries are now being necessities for people day by day because people wants to be improve their life styles and by the utilization of luxury products they can fulfilled their self-concept by having a better social appreciation from society. The core reason of this research paper was to examine Impact of customer self-concept and life style on luxury goods purchases a case of females of Karachi. In today’s competitive world companies tried their best to make customer satisfied as customer satisfaction is very important because customer is the back bone of the organization. Companies know that customer want quality, authenticity and needs the history of a brand. The luxury brands are completely different offers and needed a very detailed approach to marketing and brand management. Quantitative research is used in this research paper and we have targeted females of Karachi who aged between 25-30 years. 200 is sample size of this research paper. The answers of the individuals were taken both electronically and manually. Frequency tables and pie charts were used to check the result with the help of SPSS. On the basis of result it has been accomplished that there is a positive significant impact of self-concept and life style of customer on purchases of luxury goods.
Luxury goods; Self-concept; Life style
In today’s competitive world companies tried their best to make customer satisfied as customer satisfaction is very important because customer is the keystone of the organization. Businesses know that customer want quality, authenticity and needs the history of a brand. The luxury brands are completely different offers and needed a very detailed approach to marketing and brand management.
Everyone in this world wants to feel comfortable looks different and wants to live a luxurious life and to impress others by their unique selection of goods and by make their life style better to best that’s why they go to buy luxury goods.
Luxury goods are those products that are not necessities of life but are highly desired that should support share of pocket and share of heart as well. It’s not easily affordable for everyone but now era has changed and luxury product is now own by many class of people because due to fast running competition among every individual everyone now want to raise their self-high and make their self-superior and be different from every one. Income is the key factor to support the desire and willingness of customers towards purchases of luxury good because of the frequent purchases of luxuries.
Luxury items are becoming more a necessity. As Coco Chanel said: “Luxury is the necessity that begins where needs ends”. people are nowadays conscious by many luxury brands like coco Chanel, Dior, Gucci, Armani and many more Researches are proved that women are very much in to buy luxury fashion brands because females are more in to show their self in front of everyone they want to looks different and they want appreciations from people luxuries are now became necessity that’s why more women are on work and they want show their status high.
Your concept of yourself is everything that you believe to be true. Everything you believe to be true about yourself has landed you precisely where you survive and respire every day of your life. Your believes about yourself are like the ingredient in the recopies that you employ to generate yourself concept.
The self-concept refers to how people observe and experience about themselves its image of themselves that they have shaped and created people buy and use product that supports their image and their lifestyle refers to the way a consumer lives. It represents the external characteristics that pertain to how people lives.
The reason behind chosen this topic was that nowadays everyone is getting status conscious and everyone is moving ahead and changing their life style by using luxury goods. This research is about why people want to own luxury products what they feel when they buy and use luxury goods.
The key intention of this research is to inspect that how people perceive their self -esteem while using or buying luxury goods and what factors are playing important role in buying like price, quality, service brand name etc.
This research is attended to get answers to the following questions:
• At what extant people involvement towards purchases of luxury brands?
• What people feel when they own luxury goods?
• Why people invest so much money to buy luxury products?
Significance of the study
The importance of this research is that it would provide a critical path to analysis that why people are getting very much status conscious by this research we will get to know that approx. how many people can pay a premium to own luxury goods it will help marketers to make their brand name more renewed because many researchers has did research on people of china but it is a good opportunity to find out the users of luxury goods in Karachi.
Limitations of the study
The topic of this research is very interesting and attractive we could find so many things regarding this research but due to lack of time we could not find so much material to make it more effective. It was very difficult to make questioner filled by respondent because people does not have time to stop their shopping and give time to us we could find many thing from vast area but due to limitation we conducted this research only in Karachi.
Objectives of the study
The aim this research was to obtain the opinions of individuals in Karachi city. The objective of this research was to identify the relationship between customer self-concept on luxury goods purchases and also to identify the relationship between customer life style and luxury goods consumption.
Scope of the study
The scope of the study is to provide luxury goods making companies an idea that how people perceived and how they want to raise their selfinterest in society and what factors are important for them this research can help companies to make the luxury good according to the implied requirement which is hidden somewhere in mind.
Yi  said in his research that why luxury goods are so popular in china as well as the economic impact of luxury goods. many luxury goods exhibit superior quality compare to goods from other brand luxury goods can be seen as worthwhile investment for people buying them but in some cases through luxury goods offer no visible benefits for their charges as examiners said that some times its very difficult to detect why people pay such hefty premium for the product sometimes consumer pay premium and buy luxury goods with no significant difference in quality simply to show other and to raise tour self-high and to be different from others.
According to Hareem Zeb  the branded cotton and textile industry has the highest future in the recent trade would as Pakistan fashion industry has taken keen interest and step to make such policies that leading the brands in adopting the trendy fashion clothing and the brand status attitude definitely have an importance of consumer involvement in brand fashion clothing study has finds that the female consumer who has possess strong positive attitudes towards brands shows higher self-concept will generally hold a high point of connection fashion or recognized cloths. Self-concept is also the, most important element as consumers use brand related products that match their own personality the research has justified by regression and coefficient test and they has targeted the people of Pakistan having 25-30 years of females.
The research of Hudders  shows that the more women recognize their purchases as luxurious the more their positive expectation they occurrence leading to an raise in self-worth luxury spending by offering additional insight is an individual motivation to spend large amount of their income on luxury products as an enhanced self-esteem can reinforce the chase of luxury tenure first study shows that luxury purchases may positively affect an individual and second study describes the most luxurious women perceive their purchases the higher they perceive the purchases the main target was women in this research and there were approx. 225 women asked questions to verify the research and to analysis the result researcher used multiple mediation.
According to Bopeng Zhang  factors that affect Chinese consumer’s attitude towards purchasing luxury merchandise and buying intention. A total of 161 respondents were included of China and it has used regression to analyze the study. The findings has driven that there is a significance impact on attitude towards of brand consciousness, social comparison and fashion innovations purchasing luxury goods among Chinese consumers Forman academic perspective. The study enriches the current culture on influential factors of Chinese attitude and purchasing intentions to luxury fashion product and offers a comprehensible proof of Chinese luxury consumer.
Babak Jamshidnavid  said that there is a positive significant relationship between the factors which are perceived social value, perceived pleasant value, noticeable value and perceived personal value. In this research the method which was used is descriptive statistical method. With the help of this research we come to know that consumer used goods according to their taste and interest. The luxury goods consumption specify that being wealthy and social status with esteem to ordinary standards, its cost is high and entity value support it. Consumers buy luxury products in order to support the essentials of individual perception and social needs.
Sheng-Hong Ye  explored that the influence that the status of consumers creates on their character brand connection with luxury brands, as well on regulating effects of self-esteem and arrogance from the viewpoint of Chinese cultural surroundings. The result shows that there is a positive effect on SBC between luxury brand consumers. The higher status of consumer is higher their SBC with luxury brand is implementing the brand marketing.
Haataja  examined that most of the people have a positive attitude towards the luxury products. The young group’s attitude such as their buying intensions, thoughts, beliefs toward the luxury products is increasing y time because as for young people reason for purchasing a luxury products is that either they having brand awareness on the other hand they are loyal towards the brand. Mostly marketers know that consumer having the age of 18-26 as strong and powerful source and this age group is also interesting to target.
Mohsen Alvandi  examined that the impact of self on attitude towards luxury brand among teen agers of Iran. This article investigates the relation of self on social consumption and motivation. Sample size is 419 teenagers of 14th to 19th years of age. SEM is used to test hypothesis. Respondents were asked about many different questions like ownership of mobile phone, allowance of money, parents. These were 48% male and 51% of females offers a good balance of sample. Around 36% of respondents are 16 years and 35% of people are of 17 years and so on and the result says that 89% of respondents own mobile phones. They are LISREL 8.50 to perform confirmatory factor analysis and use SEM to know the relationship of dependent and independent variable.
Srinivasan  conducted a research in which he said that this research understands the influence of age on the frequency of buying luxury products and influence to buy luxury products and intention to purchase the same brand that they have previously purchased. Data was collected from 1200 respondents in Mumbai and it is found that there is a relationship between age and kind of luxury products that consumers intended to buy luxury products and intended to repurchase the brand. The implication of this study that how age influence the purchases of luxury brands and whether there is only significant difference in financial values, financial value with respect to age of customer.
Pandelaere  said the major aim of this research was to investigate if luxury consumption may serve the reward a material goal pursuit. Luxury consumption positively affects both cognitive and effective aspects of subjective well-being and there is a direct and positive impact of luxury consumption to satisfaction with life via a both positive and negative effect. Materialistic consumers engage in luxury consumption more frequently than less materialistic once. Luxury consumption on satisfaction with life will be higher for high materialist than low materialists. It was a large scale survey in Dutch spearising people of Belgium. Luxury consumption leads to enhance positive mood and a satisfaction with life, to get result author did C.A and conducted SEM to check moderating effect of gender, age and income they conducted multi group analysis.
According to Kamolwan Tovikkai  there is a powerful point of relationship on the Thai female students towards the luxury fashion goods. The following are the personal values indicators which can be utilized on female students which are conventionality, arrogance, materialism and the need for uniqueness. On the basis of demographic information, there are two pointers which are considerable to buying intensions of Thai female students on the fashionable luxury brands. The social status is also one of the essential indicators and there are a lot of factors which impact on purchasing behavior of luxury fashion products as luxury product marketers must focus on these aspects in order to be flourishing in the marketplace.
Peshkova  said that fashion luxury merchandise in the scope of an exacting study include shoes, accessories and clothes such as hand baggage, belts, scarf ’s, socks, ties and etc. In the recent years Russia becomes a major transporter of the luxury commodities marketplace in the world. Traditionally greater part of Russian consumers by buying luxurious luxury fashion goods decided their individuality and demonstrates the position and status in society. This is recognized as a representative utilization, the procedure when individuals by using status merchandise as symbols correspond meaning about themselves to their mention groups.
Nawaz Ahmad  explored the main reason of consumption of luxury goods. The motivational value towards purchases of luxury goods. There was an online survey has chosen for collection of feedback and used ANOVA for testing the research. This research focus on 4 major points motivational value, personal value, functional value social and individual value and result were found out that functional value are most significant motivator in purchasing decision making process while purchase of luxury goods.
Arpita Khare  said that there is a significant relationship between brand personality and self -concept. Among the youth mostly brands aimed is to identify and recount to the qualities and individuality proportions appropriate to the sector and brand connections must be intended consequently. In the current era brand traits and branding, has been unstated by associations to accomplish a talented and multi-dimensional purpose of given an character to the organization and allowing in supervising communications efficiently.
According Yann Truong  there is a strong relationship between luxury goods consumption and self-esteem. This research suggested that an individual can sustain or increase self-esteem through the help of buying luxury goods. In spite of the remarkable expansion of the luxury market over the precedent two decades, luxury buyer investigates remains incomplete and limited. Data were together from 587 customers. The answer also reveals that self-esteem, a significant concept in psychology. Consumer behavior is a keystone of marketing in which personality objective and inspiration play a vital role. Aspiration manipulates motivation, which in turn manipulates a customer’s actions.
In this part, the research paper discussed research model, research design, sample size, data collection procedures, statistical techniques and operational measures of variables used in the study.
After discussed the above literature review, we make the following research model for the study.
The above Figure 1 shows that customer self-concept is independent variable as customer life style is moderating variable and luxury goods purchases as a dependent variable.
Primary approach is followed for collection of data through questionnaire. The sample size was 200.The answers were taken both electronically and manually. 187 respondents answered and only 5 respondents are unanswered because they don’t used luxury goods. Quantitative research approach was used in this research. The SPSS software was being used to examine the Impact of customer self-concept and life style on luxury goods purchases a case of females of Karachi.
To obtained data primary approach was used through questionnaires. Similarly secondary data is also been used to acquire a little help through different books and journals.
The data type used in this research was quantitative approach and all the questions in the questionnaire are closed ended as the major purpose of the study is to examine the Impact of customer self-concept and life style on luxury goods purchases.
Sample size and sampling techniques
The sample size of the research paper was of 200. Questionnaires used to collect responses from female respondents like. 187 respondents answered and only 5 respondent were unanswered because they don’t used luxury goods.
For this study the Software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) has been used to examining the research data.
Have you own any luxury product
Interpretation: From the sample size of 200 there were only 187 questioners we got back in which 5 people did not respond clearly but according to the research that has conducted it shows that 97% people from 187 sample size are using luxury goods because they feel comfortable may be they want to looks different (Table 1 and Figure 2).
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
Table 1: Have you own any luxury product.
What do you feel in yourself when you wear any luxury product?
Interpretation: In this question we have asked about self-concept like what people think about their self while using luxury good and according to them majority of people feel comfortable and then they wants to be different from others that’s why they use luxury goods and some people who want to be dominant in society they have chosen to b superior. As we see that everyone in this world wants to feel comfortable looks different and wants to live a luxurious life and to impress others by their unique selection of goods and by make their life style better to best that’s why they go to buy luxury goods (Table 2 and Figure 3).
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|Different from others||65||33.9||34.8||37.4|
Table 2: What do you feel in yourself when you wear any luxury product.
Does luxury goods effects your life style
Interpretation: As this thing has discussed above that purchases of luxury goods has a significant effect on life style of people it has also proved by research that yes to make life style better is necessary to use that things that make you look different from others.so the people are strongly agree that luxury products has an effect on life style. Luxury goods are those products that are not necessities of life but are highly desired that should support share of pocket and share of heart as well. It’s not easily affordable for everyone but now era has changed and luxury product is now own by many class of people because due to fast running competition among every individual everyone now want to raise their self-high and make their self-superior and be different from every one (Table 3 and Figure 4).
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
Table 3: Does luxury goods affect your life style.
Luxury goods are those products that are not necessities of life but are highly desired that should support share of pocket and share of heart as well. Everyone in this world wants to feel comfortable looks different and wants to live a luxurious life and to impress others by their unique selection of goods and by make their life style better to best that’s why they go to buy luxury goods. The core reason of this research paper was to examine Impact of customer self-concept and life style on luxury goods purchases a case of females of Karachi. Luxury brands are completely different offers and needed a very detailed approach to marketing and brand management. Quantitative research is used in this research paper and we have targeted females of Karachi who aged between 25-30 years. 200 is sample size of this research paper. The answers of the individuals were taken both electronically and manually. Frequency tables and pie charts were used to check the result with the help of SPSS. After done this research we got to know that consumption of luxury goods plays a vital role in the life style of people who wants to how their self who wants to be comfortable in their self who wants to b superior and that who wants to be different from others in this research we came to know that women are now very much becoming brand conscious and mostly luxury goods are being purchases by females but by this research we got to know that still in this era people are unaware about meaning of luxury and this research also highlighted this thing that high class people can own luxury goods because luxury goods can be easily afforded by everyone.
People can change their life style by adapting many things from surrounding from society by the consumption of luxury goods it can make the life style of people better and it provide an opportunity to raise their self-concept, self-esteem and get aware about yourself so this researched showed a positive relationship between customer’s selfconcept and life style to purchases of luxury goods.
As a researcher, the author has visited many places many areas to make his questioner filled up, he went to many high class malls of Karachi and also visited many average areas and he have observed that people are very unaware about many luxuries brands it’s because lack of on air advertisement for that companies must have to endorse and promote their products in all over Pakistan because in Pakistan (Karachi) many people have so much money but they don’t get any proper way to invest on it so they should advertise their product so the people will match their needs by that ads and people will have the knowledge they would try and create their standard of living developed and they will be stimulate to buy that goods.