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ISSN: 2162-6359
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Impact of Effective Vision Attributes on Employee Satisfaction

Saqib Mahmood* and Atiq Ur Rehman

Department of Management Science, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Saqib Mahmood
Department of Management Science
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: +920345 8411957
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 16, 2015; Accepted date: December 21, 2015; Published date: December 27, 2015

Citation: Mahmood S, Rehman AU (2015) Impact of Effective Vision Attributes on Employee Satisfaction. Int J Econ Manag Sci 5:315. doi:10.4172/2162-6359.1000315

Copyright: © 2015 Mahmood S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyze the impact of the vision attributes, individually as well as in combinations, on employee satisfaction, and testing the mediating effect of vision sharing. Analysis is based on the data collected from 314 employees working in public, private and development sectors. The study finds that five vision attributes including clarity, brevity, challenge, stability and abstractness have significant effect on employee satisfaction, while effect of two attributes i.e. future orientation and desirability is statistically insignificant. The study has also examined the effect of vision attributes in combinations. Combinations include clarity with brevity, future orientation with desirability and challenge, and stability with abstractness. Effect of all combinations on the employee satisfaction has also been found significant. Similarly, the mediation effect of vision sharing between each combination of vision attributes and the employee satisfaction has also been found significant.

Keywords

Employee loyalty; Employee perception; Employee satisfaction; Organizational performance; Talented employees; Vision

Introduction

Vision is critical to the performance of organization [1]. But the problem is that businesses are experiencing unprecedented rate of changes in market and technology in the contemporary era, which force the organizations to change their vision, satisfaction of employees is important for sustainable growth of the organizations [2]. A satisfied employee brings satisfied customers and satisfied customers are the root cause of extraordinary performance of the organization [3]. However, extensive review of literature has revealed that there is hardly any study which has examined direct effect of vision attributes on the employee satisfaction. Slack et al. [4] also suggested a study for investigating direct impact of vision on employee satisfaction with organization.

The critical element of a vision statement is how it would inspire the key stakeholders of the organization like customers, employees and shareholders [5]. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the separate effect of each attributes of vision on the employee satisfaction. While Testa found a positive and significant relationship between vision and the employee job satisfaction.

Vectors represent the magnitude as well as the direction of forces. Process of the geometrical addition of vectors is different from that used for the addition of any two numeric quantities [6]. With some change in the direction of any vector, value of sum will change. In view of this constraint, Eigeles and Motzkin opine that all vectors should be in same direction to have a maximum magnitude. Literature suggests that changes in market and technology force the organizations to change their vision. Hence, other dimension of forces (vectors) is very likely to get misaligned, negatively affecting the satisfaction of employees. Such variations explains credible role of vision and also address a leader that how to develop, formulate and define effective vision for his followers [7].

If the employees have chance to get success, then it’s obvious thing they would have the picture of the ideal future, leader identify such opportunity of common picture of future in the mind of every employee and then formulate the vision accordingly by ensuing this common picture and generate the focal point accordingly, from where he visualizes that how to communalize the future pictures of the organization and associated it with the organizational goals and objectives, furthermore he observes the collective and common commitment of employees in order to share the organizational vision [8]. If all employees have same direction then it is obvious thing to have higher results. But it would be possible when the shared vision is understandable to all employees, and eventually it would enhance employee satisfaction towards work. That’s why vision is most prominent factor for a successful organization. Above than the size and type of organization whatever it is small or large, private or public but it needs a charismatic leadership and he must know what should be the attributes and contents of the vision which would inspire an employee to work for the better performance of an organization [9]. Limited study is available which explains how to formulate an effective vision then share and realized to employees about its significance, whereas the significant importance of vision is the reason of satisfied employees. While in this research work researcher have made attempt to take the seven attributes of vision in combine form, vision clarity with brevity, vision stability with abstractness and vision future orientation with desirability and challenge as independent variables and examine the impact of each independent variable on the satisfaction of employees with mediating effect of vision communication.

Objectives of the Study

Following are the major objectives of the study:

• To investigate the effect of vision attributes, individually and in combinations, on employee satisfaction.

• To test the mediation effect of vision communication between vision attributes and employee satisfaction.

Literature Review

Concepts and operational definitions

Earlier theories related to leadership was on the basis of rational, simultaneously with the paradigm shift in leadership theories towards behavioral aspect, now these theories are emphasizing on the emotions, norms and values, beliefs as well as ideologies. Now leadership need to know that how they can influence the followers to commit them with the vision of the organization, with the philosophy as well as with the ideology of the organization [10,11].

Leaders are not for making plans, and not for solve problems, what is for them? They just communicate the vision to their followers. Leadership gives the focal points to the senior executives of the organization to explain the expected future success of organization. Vision must be structured on the foundation of some essential pillars are as follows.

Vision clarity and brevity: The finest way to share vision with employees is with clear, simple and brief language and the words using in the vision must be simple and must be minimum in count for the better understanding of an employee [12]. A vision can be said clear, if it has 10 to 12 words and can be communicated in short time period, maximum in 3 to 5 minutes.

Future orientation, desirability and challenge: The vision which attracts key constitutes of an organization towards the desirable future state of an organization, and that can wins employees trust [13]. And eventually that can creates the idealistic future state image of an organization in the mind of employees with the support of some accepted wisdoms that give hope to subordinates about the sustainability of the organization [14].

Vision stability and abstractness: It means that vision is not for one time goal and objective, once the organization achieved the particular objective and then vision redundant, meanwhile it must be stable and consistent over the period of time [1,7,12,15].

Vision sharing: Vision sharing support to strengthen the employee commitment and share the organizational values in order to bring excellent and desirable performance of an organization in the near future [16,17].

Employee satisfaction: The degree to which an employee satisfied with his work environment, like to work for the organization as well as shows happiness with the salary, benefits and other remunerations provided by the organization [18,19].

What is vision?

To communicate substantial values of the organization, vision plays an imperative role. The notion of core values of an organization as well as the objectives and purposes remain constant which shows the stability of vision. The little alignment of vision with organizational values is becoming questionable. The core values of an organization have been recognized as durable opinions, beliefs, philosophies, and ideologies; eventually it has accepted as the vision of organization.

It triggers the tiny involvement of employees in the organizational work culture; ultimately it becomes the cause of unsatisfactory staff (Slack et al.). The vision also depicts the corporate policy, and vision enlightens the eye-catching future shape of an organization. Primarily, it is the responsibility of leadership to shape and frequently supervise the vision, which creates a connection between present and future state of the organization. Charismatic leaders formulate and implement the vision according to the strategy of the organization which connects the employees with organizational core values, philosophy and ideology of the organization [20].

Vision narrates to an idealistic future state of an organization with the support of realistic ideas, notions and accepted wisdoms of leadership. Leadership should have the capability to create vision that employees can believe and shows their ownership [21]. Meanwhile vision grants the good judgment of direction, purpose and intention that articulated by the charismatic leadership and at the same time tells that where they are now and where they would be in the future. In order to portray the beautiful image of the vision before employees a leader must have two major dimensions the core philosophy and idealistic future state of the organization [22]. Vision also portrays the credible, inspiring, rational, eye-catching and explanation of the better position of organization than current position [23].

It gives signal to organizational leadership to assess and evaluate their existence again and again. Apparently the fundamental competency of an organization depends upon competent leadership; and leadership may be delineated in term of vision. Vision specifies the future targets and at the same time it explains the existence purpose of an organization. The vision of an organization also emphasize about the desired state of its future [24]. Vision shows the direction, that how an organizational can increase its rate of success and growth. Vision should have a high quality of attributes in order to catch the persistent action of the organization [25]. Furthermore, vision reinforces the purpose of existence of an organization and provides a central point for staff direction. Regardless of imperative state of vision, it is still not delineate by several scholars that what should be the exact definition of vision? And still they don't agree on a common definition of vision. Although the vision is a key of motivation and satisfaction for employees, several scholars has believed that the effective vision motivates, nurture behaviors, enhance commitments and impact positively on the performance of employees. Vision and charismatic leadership both impact positively on employee’s attitude and performance, but the vision has more impact than the available charismatic leadership on the attitude, performance and satisfaction of employees. Vision sets the targets for the organization and shows the path with a solid foundation for sensible actions. It plays an essential role to maintain the organizational identity inwardly as well as outwardly. Once the subordinates understand the norms and values in the light of vision then they are more satisfy towards the future state of the organization. Primarily vision delineates the corridor to future achievement of an organization. Vision is an idea that must be communicated and share with employees in order to empower them to achieve the future state of an organization, while vision is tool for leaders to show future picture to employees.

But this question is still infancy, which attribute of vision positively impact on employee’s satisfaction? But since 1980 the evolving theories of vision of leadership are shifting the paradigm of leader attributes into the articulation of vision, mostly the organizations are facing undergoing changes with respect to up gradation of technologies. In order to achieve the continued competitive advantage a vision must be articulated in the light of essential attributes of charismatic leadership. However in many organizations' leadership is in quest of how to share the vision in an effective way for employees which guaranteed the sustainable development and long term growth for the organization.

First time Baum et al. identified the seven attributes of vision, the mixture of these seven attributes are the reason of the effective vision including clarity with brevity, abstractness with stability, and future orientation with desirability and challenge [26]. The presence of each attribute has its own essence towards the effectiveness of vision. The presence of clarity in the vision would not generate a positive significant impact on the satisfaction of employees it should have the contribution of other attributes [27], primarily the communication of effective vision helps the subordinates to the share information’s for better performance which reduce the factor of conflicts and confusion among the employees as well as towards leadership [28].

The question arises here what should be the attributes of an effective vision which must be understandable and acceptable to employees? Baum et al. was the first scholar who identified the seven attributes of vision affects the future performance of venture growth but other constructs vision contents, communication, venture growth, organization age and past venture growth have taken as independent variables. Whereas, Kantabutra [29] also tested the impact of vision components and contents independently to the employee and customer satisfaction in an Australian store. This research study will examine the direct impact of each shared vision attribute/attribute independently on the employee satisfaction. It will further propose to the leadership, the essence of which attribute should be included more before articulation the vision for the employees. In order to create the shared picture of the future by forming the effective vision several scholars identified many attributes of a vision. As far as the creation and then sharing of vision are two key activities of charismatic leadership and the next steps is dissemination of the vision among employees for better understanding. Leaders realized the creation of vision when he supposed anxiety about the future of organization and at the same time he thinks what should be the attribute and elements of an effective vision. Absolutely, many features in the relationship of vision impacts significantly on the performance of an organization and an individual as well. The literature synthesis demonstrates that the formulation of an effective vision should have seven components or attributes which would effect in all dimensions on the work satisfaction of an employee. During formulation of vision the brainstorming of both follower and leader is necessary. Fortunately the vision has become the most and overused word, and unfortunately the least understood word of the language.

The extensive literature review of the leadership expose seven major attributes of an effective vision, first time explore by Baum et al. similarly in order to make more attractive norms and values of the organization literature suggest some key constructs to develop the vision, and fundamentally these are the guiding principles for a leader to formulate and then share the vision with employees, clarity of the vision towards foster well-being of employee eventually it is the reason of employee satisfaction towards work [30], the communication and correspondence of vision should be brief, as the brief vision is understandable effectively as compare to lengthy vision statements, simultaneously the essence of abstractness of vision during communication to employees plays an essential role and it would be significantly effects on employee performance as well as satisfaction towards work and at the same time it must be universally known and understandable in the entire organization [31]. Before communicating the vision for employees a leader must care about the particulars of the vision that it should be inspiring and focused otherwise employees would not embrace with the vision articulated by the organizational leadership. Similarly the essence of challenge in the vision significantly improves employee self-esteem eventually it satisfies an employee. In order to increase effectiveness of an organization a vision must be stable and it is more focused to employees for their development [32]. Future orientation of the vision and employee satisfaction is interlinked.

The extensive look of literature provides the seven major attributes of the vision like clarity, brevity, abstractness, inspiration/desirability or ability to desire, challenge, stability and future orientation. The above mentioned all seven attributes of the vision must be the part of a vision statement, missing of one attribute from the vision statement would not impact significantly on the performance of an organization [33] and ultimately it would not show satisfaction of employees towards work. So the leaders with such vision having above mentioned attributes/ characteristics/attributes not only empower himself towards work but also empowers their employees towards work culture which ultimately improve the performance of the organization.

Vision clarity and brevity

The finest way to share vision with employees is with simple language and the words using in the vision must be simple and less as possible for the better understanding of an employee. Clarity in the vision speaks to employees and gets them with organization towards clear and acceptable direction where it must be move. Primarily the words must have real meanings [34]. So, a vision statement whether communicated or written must be very short, whereas a short statement of vision can be delineated in short time. A brief vision statement means it contains maximum eleven to twenty words. A brief vision creates the motivation towards economic self-interest of an employee. The brief vision is verifiable, focused as well as understandable to all employees which ultimately would be the cause of inspiring employees, at the same time inspired employees are more satisfied towards the work and daily task assigned by the leadership. As vision is the fundamental way to share the organizational values with employees as well as with customers so in the work culture a shared vision must be quest of excellence, it would be possible only through brief vision. During the assimilation of vision a leader must taking in account the brief essence of the vision. Leader needs to know that his follower can easily translate only a brief vision, so vision must not lengthy than maximum two sentences whether communicated or written. Vision needs to be communicating frequently, massively and continually that would only allow by the brief vision; interestingly the brief vision resides in the mind of employee for long time as compare to lengthy one. Similarly it would be more difficult to communicate the lengthy vision to employees again and again and it would be the cause of frustration of employees towards work. For daily operation and tasks assigned by the managers can be achieved by the frequent communication of a brief vision, in short a brief vision is guiding rule to perform daily operations efficiently and which significantly impacts on the employee satisfaction towards work, as he can create the linkages between his activities more easily. The brevity of the vision is not enough when the organizations are very dynamic, interactive and reactive with respect to changes in technology, knowledge cultures and linkages around the globe, so a leader must drive the followers towards the right direction and it should for him to give them central point [8,35]. With the brevity of vision a vision must has the essence of clarity in it that it must be specific, clear and identifiable for particular future, in the meantime it must be understood and accepted for all the employees at each level of the management. If the vision is clear than it would be understandable for employees in order to achieve the prime goals more easily. The most impressive object of any successful organization is the clear message, idea or vision for his employees. It is invisible idea for the competitor, as a competitive advantage for the organization as they are communicating the clear, simple, brief and precise message to the employees. Several scholars of communication emphasize that vision must be shared with the clear and minimum words as likely. It is very imperative for leadership to communicate and share the vision clearly and show them the overall direction to perform their daily task and whereas the without clear vision leaders face so many black holes and an organization performed desperately and it impacts negatively on the employee satisfaction. If the clear vision has shared with the employees within the entire organization than employees performed better as the clear direction overcome the level of frustration in order to perform daily operations efficiently.

Future orientation, desirability and challenge

Moreover an effective vision must be future oriented with the attributes of brevity and clarity, as well as future oriented vision ensures the employees about organization’s long term sustainability with gradual development. Middle managers have firm believed that vision shared with the other members of the organization must be desirable [36]. To articulate an attractive, realistic and credible future, that would be possible if leader has clear and future oriented vision for his followers. For change creative and influential leaders take their follower in confidence and empower them to take decisions independently, the resistance comes during the intimation of such changes but future oriented vision evoke the confidence of subordinates and prepare them for better practices related to daily operation [37]. In support of the notion of future oriented vision, Nanus and Bennis said that vision should be desirable for employees as well as the future oriented with alignment of the future state of an individual. Consequently a vision exhibits the idealistic future state of an organization with the support of some accepted wisdoms that give hope to subordinates about the sustainability of the organization which in turns improves employee trust towards the work to build trust for customers in order to increase the growth and performance of the organization. To predict the desire state of organization a vision must has the attribute of future orientation and same must communicate to employees in order to improves the intention of employees to stay in the organization

The question comes in the mind of employees when a leader formulates the vision, till how much distance we can look our future with the help of vision? Deliberately most of the employees have their own benchmarks to create the timeframes, some employees perceives the immediate future and some of them have long oriented view of future, this problem generates whenever a vision have not the future look [38].

The essential argument about the formulation of vision that it must has present opinion and the same opinion will lead the organization towards future, in short a vision must be future oriented. In fact another concept of vision is to gather all elements from current ongoing scenarios and antecedents of business and then integrate them for the assumption and guidance for the future actions and guidelines. Another far-reaching difference created by the organization during formulation of vision is to form the constructive change in the statement or verbal communication of vision from the present position to the future position of an organization, this long term stability and sustainability of organization improves the trust of employees over organization, eventually it increases the employee satisfaction and reduce the turnover rate of talented employees. To retain the talented employees a future oriented vision provides several attractive images of future state of the organization, not only the desire state of the organization but also the desired attractive designations of employees

These points of view endorse the notion that a vision should also be inspire with future orientation which fascinates the employees towards their work. So, an effective vision must be inspire or desirable with the attributes of clarity with brevity, stability with abstractness, and future orientation with desirability and challenge. The formulation of vision by transformational leadership describes the attribute of inspiring subordinates that how such effective visions inspire the subordinates without bringing any change in objectives, strategies and the organizational structure. A transformational leadership can formulate the inspirational vision to fascinate the employees in the large organization, where the work force is wider as compare to the small organizations as well as to satisfy the employees [39,40]. The leaders with providing effective vision with inspiration to key constitutes of the organization by saying what is what is good or bad now and how it would be improve in the near or far future. In order to keep the organization on tremendous growth, leaders need to engage key constitutes particularly customers, employees and partners of the business and more specifically the satisfied employees through an inspiring and desirable vision. Similarly the dissemination of inspirational vision motivates and satisfies the subordinates towards work; meanwhile it does not encourage subordinates to contribute and take decision against the development of the vision or to suggest the better one.

The charismatic leadership always built the trust of followers by communication them an inspiring vision which build impersonation of expertise and give power to employees with the essence of trustworthiness to achieve the realistic and achievable dreams, it eventually improves the commitment of employees with organization and its vision. For the generation of enthusiasm and attractive messages to the big work force a vision must be inspiring or desirable, in order to communicate the inspiring messages a leader must be in frequent touch with subordinates. Several scholars of management sciences argued that leaders must present the vision before subordinates with inspiration whereas the fifty percent of attraction of employees towards vision fulfill by the essence of inspiration which drives human being desires.

The inspiring vision keep moving and motivating the employees in the accurate direction regardless of key hindrances of change in technology, business and political environments and meanwhile an inspiring and desirable vision is the appealing for employee needs, norms, values and emotions, primarily the ideology and core values of the organization formulated in the light of an effective vision. Inspirational essence of vision also bound employees to identify the new opportunities in the dynamic environment, and it also exhibits the better future for the unsatisfied employees as well as it connects the employee commitment with the core values, mission, philosophy and objectives of the organization.

Structures are modified to bring people together so that, following the leader's example, they are themselves inspired to pursue a vision of excellence and achievement. Whenever a leader share the inspiring vision with his/her employees a series of question comes in the mind of employees that what should be the road map to future desirable state? Why are we going there? Where to go? And who will show the way? How to achieve the desirable future state? Such questions increase the interest and curiosity of the employee for desirable future state of the organization and simultaneously it would become challenge for him and aspiration rose, so with the increasing in inspiration and confidence of key constitutes they put their efforts to take business at tremendous growth level.

When an effective vision aware an employee towards the desirable vision then it became the challenge for him to get that state of future. An inspire vision challenges the employee to do at their best level. Primarily a leader must try to understand the importance of vision which depicts differentiation in present and future, it also exhibits the totally changed magnitude in growth of organization in the future whereas the momentum of growth in future would also increase significantly. Hence an effective vision works significantly because it motivates the employees and meanwhile it introduces the new possibilities for the growth of business, whereas the ineffective vision would never recognized the new challenges and possibilities of new businesses for the growth and best performance of an organization. So a challenging vision challenges the creative and innovative skills of the employees and it intentionally force them to do something unique [40]. Conclusively it significantly impacts on the satisfaction of employee, whereas a satisfied employee brings satisfied customers and it eventually the main root cause of organizational growth.

Vision stability and abstractness

The great and long lasting companies’ success is hidden behind the consistent and sound vision. An effective vision not affected by the dynamic and tremendous changes in the technology as well as market. The unstable vision shows the lesser amount of commitment and integrity with management as well as organizational vision. The effective vision demonstrates the general idea of the future state of an organization and it is not change overtime significantly. And a vision which changes overtime negatively impacts on the performance of the organization and the continuing vision, so the again and again changes in vision is the wasting of resources and employee efforts own by organization which brings the misunderstanding among employees. The future plans and strategies that are expected to be executed in the near future disturb. Sooner or later it reduces the employee commitment with organizational vision and disturbs badly the performance of the organization [41].

With brevity, clarity and future orientation a vision must be abstracted, it means it is not for one goal and for one time as the goal achieved and then the purpose of vision should not be finished. Secondly, a vision should have the dynamic and trajectory characteristic towards the change. When leadership allows the follower to take decision independently and for this purpose they shared vision with them for their guidance, if the vision is not dynamic in nature or not absorbing the changes in the requirements of business then it would be the reason of lack in performance which in turn would be the reason of unsatisfied employees. Predominantly in the big organizations where the leadership share vision for long span of time in order to perform their daily operations efficiently where it is comprehended for leaders to formulate abstracted vision with the essence of clarity and brevity. Once handed over the vision with abstractness to employees then they would know better how to perform the daily activities which lead them towards satisfaction and self-esteem, and they would communicate to the world about the purpose of existence of the company. Again in order to build the successful, long lasting and sustainable direction a leader must has consistent, stable and abstracted vision and he must know what should change and what should not be change with the change in environment and technology and frequent change in the objectives may cause of frustration of employees and it leads the organization towards collapse. So far the success and failure of the company depends upon these three pillars. In order to realize the importance of the vision it needs to be communicated frequently with employees. Eventually the frequent shared vision improves the association with head of the departments and embraces them towards the idealistic state of future [42,43].

Gap analysis

Top level managers of the organization inspire their followers towards work by sharing the vision. The effective vision attributes significantly impact on the venture growth by sharing the vision with key constitutes. A positive relationship was found between the venture growth in term of high sales, profits, opportunities of employment generated by the organization and net worth as per available annual financials of the company, it shows that vision is critical for the venture growth and performance of the organization. It has examined extensively that vision significantly impacts on the process of strategy formulation, evaluation and implementation as well as on the performance of the organization. Cultural shift in understanding and acceptability of vision and eventually the impacts of vision characteristics on follower satisfaction is still in infancy. The phenomenon in which leader articulate the vision is as per the cultural boundaries of employee feelings, expression and emotions; it suggested that an individual sensations, thoughts, feelings and behavioral aspects are varying culture to culture. In order to increase the performance of the organization manger needs to communicate the vision to subordinates; eventually it motivates and empowers employees to take decision independently on daily tasks and operations. In fact the customer is the basic reason for whom the business is in operations and front line employees are the responsible to satisfy them, primarily the alignment of front line employees with organizational vision is very important that would be possible only by communicating the effective vision and eventually it satisfy them to serve the customer with good services but still it is needed to check this relation empirically. Effective vision of an organization is the source and an imperative medium to distinguish the organizational and employee’s identity, in today’s advance and dynamic environment this is the competitive advantage for the organizations. Effective organizational vision is the way which provides the direction to the organization by taking onboard all the employees as a driving force with long term orientation, inspiration and desired future state. Mostly the employee satisfaction depends upon the organizational growth, which intent an employee to stay with the organization and other factors triggered accordingly. Effective shared vision improves the commitment of employees and upper management commitment with the organization. The achievement of common vision increase the pleasure of employees which indicated the initiative of team building antecedents and primarily it increase the commitment of employee on team or group level with organizational vision. Yet the attributes of an effective vision needs to be check empirically across the different cultural oriented organizations on the employee satisfaction directly or indirectly.

Theoretical framework

Top level managers of the organization inspire their followers towards work by sharing the vision. The effective vision attributes significantly impact on the venture growth by sharing the vision with key constitutes. A positive relationship was found between the venture growth in term of high sales, profits, opportunities of employment generated by the organization and net worth as per available annual financials of the company, it shows that vision is critical for the venture growth and performance of the organization. It has examined extensively that vision significantly impacts on the process of strategy formulation, evaluation and implementation as well as on the performance of the organization. Cultural shift in understanding and acceptability of vision and eventually the impacts of vision characteristics on follower satisfaction is still in infancy. The phenomenon in which leader articulate the vision is as per the cultural boundaries of employee feelings, expression and emotions; it suggested that an individual sensations, thoughts, feelings and behavioral aspects are varying culture to culture. In order to increase the performance of the organization manger needs to communicate the vision to subordinates; eventually it motivates and empowers employees to take decision independently on daily tasks and operations. In fact the customer is the basic reason for whom the business is in operations and front line employees are the responsible to satisfy them, primarily the alignment of front line employees with organizational vision is very important that would be possible only by communicating the effective vision and eventually it satisfy them to serve the customer with good services but still it is needed to check this relation empirically. Effective vision of an organization is the source and an imperative medium to distinguish the organizational and employee’s identity, in today’s advance and dynamic environment this is the competitive advantage for the organizations. Effective organizational vision is the way which provides the direction to the organization by taking onboard all the employees as a driving force with long term orientation, inspiration and desired future state. Mostly the employee satisfaction depends upon the organizational growth, which intent an employee to stay with the organization and other factors triggered accordingly. Effective shared vision improves the commitment of employees and upper management commitment with the organization.

In the light of above discussions, it appears that clarity, brevity, future orientation, desirability, challenge, abstractness, and stability are expected to have positive effect on the employee satisfaction and vision sharing mediates these relationships as shown in Figure 1 [43-45].

economics-and-management-sciences-Theoretical-framework

Figure 1: Theoretical framework-I.

Similarly, the combine impact of effective vision attributes on joint venture growth, organizational performance in term of maximum return on investment, building the unique corporate identity and on customer satisfaction has tested empirically directly and indirectly as shown in Figure 2.

economics-and-management-sciences-Theoretical-framework-II

Figure 2: Theoretical framework-II.

Hypotheses

Following hypotheses are formulated with the reference to above mention theoretical frame work and extensive review of the literature:

H1: Vision clarity positively affects employee satisfaction.

H2: Vision brevity positively affects employee satisfaction.

H3: Vision future orientation positively affects employee satisfaction.

H4: Vision desirability positively affects employee satisfaction.

H5: Vision challenge positively affects employee satisfaction.

H6: Vision stability positively affects employee satisfaction.

H7: Vision abstractness positively affects employee satisfaction.

H8: Vision sharing has positive mediating affect between the relationship of vision attributes and employee satisfaction.

H9: Vision clarity with brevity positively affects the employee satisfaction.

H9a: Vision sharing has a mediation effect between clarity and brevity on employee satisfaction.

H10: Vision future orientation with desirability and challenge positively affects the employee satisfaction.

H10a: Vision sharing has a mediation effect between future orientation with desirability and challenge on employee satisfaction.

H11: Vision abstractness with stability positively affects the employee satisfaction.

H11a: Vision sharing has a mediation effect between abstractness with stability and employee satisfaction.

Research Methodology

Research design

The present research is empirical and cross sectional, with vision attributes as independent variables, employee satisfaction as dependent variable and vision sharing as a mediating variable.

Instrument development

First we developed homological network diagrams of vision, vision communication, vision attributes and employee satisfaction to understand linkages among the constructs and develop theoretical propositions based on the literature. The diagrams also guided in the identification of dimensions for each construct, which were used in the construction of questionnaire having five point likert scales. The draft of questionnaire comprised 125 questions.

The draft of questionnaire was shared with three senior level practitioners (one from each of the three sectors i.e. public, private and development) and five senior PhD scholars of Business Administration / HRM for critical review suggesting any addition, deletion or rewording. This exercise led to addition of one question and deletion of 63 questions. In order to get it further validated, the draft was shared with a PhD faculty member. In the event, 18 more questions were deleted, two new questions added and several questions reworded to improve face validity, resulting into a questionnaire containing only 47 questions.

Pilot testing was done to test the reliability of questionnaire. All constructs were found reliable as Cronbach’s Alpha values ranged between 0.739 and 0.837. Sekaran considered acceptable range of Alpha values from 0.70-0.90 as shown in Table 1.

  Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
Clarity 0.798 5
Brevity 0.767 5
Future Orientation 0.775 5
Desirability 0.765 5
Challenge 0.803 5
Stability 0.739 5
Abstractness 0.785 5
Vision Sharing 0.756 6
Employee Satisfaction 0.837 6

Table 1: Reliability statistics (N=314).

Population and sample

Total count of samples were 314, and responses were collected from the private, development and public sector organization’s employees specifically on middle and lower level of management. Similarly, online questionnaire was also circulated via Google docs, LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter by using personal and official e-mail addresses of employees.

Sampling technique

In order to collect the data, convenience sampling technique was used in three sectors (private, public and development). Private sector included sub-sectors telecommunication, banking, service providing and manufacturing, public sector organizations included different ministries and regulatory bodies of federal and province government of Pakistan and development sector included the different nongovernment organizations (NGOs).

Unit of analysis

For this study the unit of analysis was the employees of private, public and development sector organizations at different level of management.

Data Analysis and Results

In order to analyze the collected data regression analysis used as statistical tool, before running the regression analysis the basic assumptions were tested. Furthermore before checking the fundamental assumptions of regression analysis demographic analysis were conducted as mention below.

Demographic analysis

The demographics characteristics against the responses as per genders, position, management level and organizational sector are as shown in Table 2 and Appendix.

  Frequency Percent
Gender
Female 41 13.1
Male 273 86.9
Total 314 100
Age
20-29 187 59.6
30-39 124 39.5
40-49 3 1
50-59 0 0
Total 314 100
Sector
Private Sector 108 34.4
Public Sector 36 11.5
Development Sector 170 54.1
Total 314 100
Level of Management
First Line 82 26.2
Middle 224 71.4
Top 8 2.4
Total 314 100
Education    
Bachelors 66 21
Masters 151 48.3
MS/M.Phil 82 26.2
Phd 5 1.6
Others 10 2.9
Total 314 100

Table 2: Demographics.

Assumptions of regression analysis

Fundamental assumptions of regression were tested before conducting the regression analysis, with the confirmation of that available data was fulfilling all the assumptions of the regression. The assumptions include normality of data, non-existence of multicollinearity and homoscedasticity. Here two approaches were adopted to check the impact of vision attributes on employee satisfaction, in the first approach separate impact of each attribute was examined one by one and then mediating impact of vision sharing was examined between the relationship of vision attributes and employee satisfaction. In the second approach the combine impact of vision attributes having mutual essence was examined on employee satisfaction. As per Kantabutra, the presence of brevity is mandatory with clarity, similarly the presence of abstractness with stability as well as the future orientation with desirability and challenge.

Normality of the data: Following table exhibits that the standard deviation of all variables is less than mean values. The skewness and kurtosis values are also lying within the standard intervals. For normality the value of skewness must lie in the interval + 1 to - 1 as well as for kurtosis + 3 to - 3. Eventually all the values of kurtosis and skewness of each variable is lying in the acceptable range as shown in Table 3.

Items Mean S D Skewness Kurtosis
CLR 4.16 0.528 -0.06 -0.502
BRV 4.05 0.538 -0.173 -0.578
FUO 4.09 0.538 -0.053 -0.789
DSB 4.14 0.481 -0.115 -0.541
CHL 4.18 0.547 -0.279 -0.431
STB 3.99 0.546 -0.062 -0.309
ABS 4.05 0.57 -0.482 -0.31
VS 4.24 0.4143 0.03 -0.11
FDC 4.13 0.4548 -0.12 -0.981
CB 4.1 0.4624 0.061 -0.675
SA 4.02 0.4951 -0.01 -0.981
ES 4.14 0.4782 -0.133 -0.418

Table 3:Descriptive statistics to check the normality (N=314).

Morgan, et al. has suggested that Kolmogorov Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk test of normality should also be used to test normality of data. Table 4 shows that the all the values are significantly normal, hence, data is fit for the regression analysis.

  Kolmogorov-Smirnov Shapiro-Wilk
  Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
CLR 0.115 314 0 0.954 314 0
BRV 0.128 314 0 0.969 314 0
FUO 0.136 314 0 0.957 314 0
DSB 0.125 314 0 0.967 314 0
CHL 0.137 314 0 0.95 314 0
STB 0.087 314 0 0.972 314 0
ABS 0.14 314 0 0.961 314 0
VS 0.189 314 0 0.936 314 0
FDC 0.092 314 0 0.964 314 0
CB 0.085 314 0 0.978 314 0
SA 0.099 314 0 0.968 314 0
ES 0.148 314 0 0.961 314 0

Table 4: Test of normality (N=314).

Reliability of data against each element of variables: After the confirmation of normality test Cronbach’s Alpha was used to ensure that collected data with the help or questionnaire is consistent for study findings with the help of independent and dependent variables. The findings of reliability statistics of independent and dependent variables are as shown in Table 5.

  Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
CLR 0.798 5
BRV 0.767 5
FUO 0.775 5
DSB 0.765 5
CHL 0.803 5
STB 0.739 5
ABS 0.785 5
VS 0.756 6
ES 0.837 6

Table 5: Reliability statistics (N=314).

Multicollinearity of data: Occurrence of Multicollinearity is due to the higher correlation between the independent variables. According to Sekaran the correlation between the independent variables between 0.40 and 0.70 is acceptable to run the regression as shown in Tables 6 and 7.

Variables M SD 1 2 3 4 5
1. FDC 4.1352 0.45483 1        
2. CB 4.1064 0.46248 0.651** 1      
3. SA 4.0213 0.49517 0.700** 0.765** 1    
4. SV 4.242 0.4143 0.583** 0.550** 0.655** 1  
5. ES 4.1408 0.47821 0.622** 0.658** 0.700** 0.568** 1

Table 6: Means, standard deviation and correlations (N=314).

Variables M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CLR 4.16 0.528 1                
BRV 4.05 0.538 0.503** 1              
FUO 4.09 0.538 0.520** 0.537** 1            
DSB 4.14 0.481 0.497** 0.422** 0.613** 1          
CHL 4.18 0.547 0.509** 0.460** 0.677** .617** 1        
STB 3.99 0.546 0.599** 0.619** 0.526** .519** 0.566** 1      
ABS 4.05 0.57 0.534** 0.602** 0.609** .505** 0.567** 0.574** 1    
VS 4.24 0.414 0.503** 0.452** 0.482** .512** 0.530** 0.562** 0.599** 1  
ES 4.14 0.478 0.572** 0.568** 0.562** .482** 0.574** 0.587** 0.663** 0.568** 1

Table 7: Means, standard deviation and correlations (N=314).

Positive significant linear relationship exists between employee satisfaction and vision attributes separately as well as in combine form. Table 6 shows that moderating linear relationship exists between the independent variable when we are taking vision attributes in combined form. Similarly moderate linear relationship exist between the independent variables when vision attributes taken individually. On the basis of both tables it can be said that no multicollinearity problem occurs.

Multiple regression analysis: With reference to the results, all the assumptions of regression are satisfied to use multiple linear regressions for further analysis in order to test the hypothesis.

At first stage the individual impact of each vision attribute was examined on employee satisfaction, and then mediating impact was examined between the relationship of vision attributes (combine form) and employee satisfaction. At second stage the combine impact of vision attributes was examined on employee satisfaction. And at the third stage the mediating impact of vision sharing was examined between the relationship of vision attributes and employee satisfaction one by one, as mention below.

1. Mediating impact of vision sharing between clarity with brevity and employee satisfaction

2. Mediating impact of vision sharing between future orientation with desirability and challenge and employee satisfaction.

3. Mediating impact of vision sharing between stability with abstractness and employee satisfaction.

Direct impact of vision attributes (individually) on employee satisfaction (Using multiple linear regression analysis)

Hypotheses 1 to 8 were tested in this section using multiple linear regression analysis.

From Table 8, we found that CLR significantly predicted employee satisfaction, b = 0.151, t(314) = 3.262, p <0.05. Similarly BRV, CHL, STB and ABS are significantly predicted employee satisfaction, whereas for BRV, b = 0.112, t(314) = 2.353, p < 0.05, for CHL, b = 0.132, t(314) = 2.618, p < 0.05, for STB, b = 0.101, t(314) = 2.025, p < 0.05 and for ABS, b = 0.262, t(314) = 5.659, p < 0.05. Whereas FUO b = 0.047, t(314) = 0.903, p > 0.05 and DSB, b = 0.003, t(314) = 0.058 are not significantly predicted employee satisfaction. Hence hypotheses 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 would not be rejected because the results are supporting them but hypotheses 3 and 4 would be rejected. In the view of above interpretation against the result mention in Table 8 following regression equation were formulated.

  Unstandardized Coefficients T Standardized Coefficients
Variables B Std. Error ß
CLR 0.151 0.046 3.262 0.167*
BRV 0.112 0.047 2.353 0.126*
FUO 0.047 0.052 0.903 0.053
DSB 0.003 0.052 0.058 0.003
CHL 0.132 0.05 2.618 0.151*
STB 0.101 0.05 2.025 0.115*
ABS 0.262 0.046 5.659 0.313*
(Constant) 0.838 0.184 4.559  

Table 8: Multiple regression analysis summary for vision attributes and employee satisfaction.

Y = α+β1X1+β2X2+β3X3 + β4X4 + β5X5 + β6X6 + β7X7 + ε

X1 = CLR

X2 = BRV

X3 = FUO

X4 = DSB

X5 = CHL

X6 = STB

X7 = ABS

Y = α+β1CLR+β2BRV+β3FUO+ β4DSB+ β5CHL+ β6STB+ β7ABS+ ε

Now, Y = 0.838+0.151CLR+0.112BRV+0.47FUO+0.003DSB+0.132 CHL+0.101STB+ 0.262ABS → (i)

In order to test hypothesis 8, four steps of Barron and Kenny were followed using multiple regression analysis. Table 9 shows the results.

Steps    R2  Adjusted R2  SEB  ß 
Step 1:     ES (DV)  0.536 0.535 360.891 0.833 0.044 18.997 0.732*
VA(IV)           
Step 2:  VS (MV)  0.44 0.438 245.395 0.653 0.042 15.665 0.664*
VA(IV)              
Step 3:   ES(DV)  0.323 0.321 148.746 0.656 0.054 12.196 0.568* 
VS(MV)             
Step 4:                                ES(DV)  0.548 0.546 188.846 0.722 0.58 12.464 0.635*
VA(IV) 
VS (MV) 

Table 9: Mediation analysis using Barron and Kenny’s work.

At first step, we found that vision attributes (VA) significantly predicted employee satisfaction (ES), b = 0.833, t(314) = 18.997, p < 0.000. VA also explained a significant part of variance in employee satisfaction, R2 = 0.536, F(1, 312) = 360.891, p < 0.000. At second step, we found that VA significantly predicted vision sharing, b = 0.653, t(314) = 15.665, p < 0.000. VA also explained a significant part of variance in vision sharing, R2 = 0.44, F(1, 312) = 245.395, p <0.000. At third step, we found that VS significantly predicted ES, b = 0.656, t(314) = 12.196, p < 0.000. VS also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.323, F(1, 312) = 148.746,p < 0.000. Finally, at fourth step, we found that VA and VS significantly predicted ES, b (for VA) = 0.722, t(314) = 12.464, p < .000. The model also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.546, F(2, 311) = 188.846, p < 0.000. The fourth step was exhibiting improvement in adjusted R2 from 0.535 to 0.546; it shows that partial mediation exists. Hence the hypothesis would not be rejected that VS positively mediates between VA on ES.

Direct impact of vision attributes (combine) on employee satisfaction (using multiple linear regression analysis)

In this section the combine impact was examine using multiple linear regression analysis, individual vision attributes was combined into one vision attribute. The essence of the both vision attributes was mutually exclusive. Clarity and brevity was taken in one attribute, similarly future orientation, desirability and challenge was taken as second vision attribute and stability and abstractness was taken as third vision attribute.

Y = α+β1x1+β2x2+β3x3+ε

Whereas,

Y = Employee Satisfaction

X1 = Clarity with brevity

X2 = Future Orientation with desirability and Challenge

X3 = Stability with abstractness

Whereas the regression equation would be:

Employee Satisfaction = α+β1 Clarity with brevity +β2Future Orientation with desirability and challenge+ β3Stability with abstractness +ε (Table 10).

  Unstandardized Coefficients T Standardized Coefficients
Variables B Std. Error ß 
SA 0.375 0.064 5.897 0.389*
FDC 0.202 0.059 3.431 0.192*
CB 0.243 0.063 3.863 0.235*
(Constant) 0.797 0.181 4.391  

Table 10: Multiple regression analysis summary for vision attributes and employee satisfaction.

The coefficient of correlation value between the independent and dependent variables is 0.741, whereas the value of adjusted regression coefficient R² is 0.544. It means that in over all models due to one unit change in independent variable 54.4% variation was examine in the employee satisfaction. Moreover it explains that the maximum presence of the effective vision attributes in any vision would significantly improves the employee satisfaction

In statistical expression the regression model would be:

ES = 0.797+0.375SA+0.243CB+0.202FDC → (ii)

Before discussing about the equation it is imperative to analyze about the hypothesis whether to reject or not reject. In the light of significant values t-statistics it was decided to reject or not reject the hypotheses. The t-statistics of stability with abstractness is 5.897 and it is significant (p = 0.000, t = 5.897, β1 = 0.375) which approved that the hypothesis would not be rejected. It means that the stability with abstractness has positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Similarly the regression equation shows that one unit change in abstractness with stability will reason the 0.375 units’ positive as well as significant change and impact on the employee satisfaction respectively. Hence proved, as per H1 hypothesis that stability with abstractness would positively impact on the employee satisfaction, and H1 would not be rejected.

Similarly, the t-statistics of future orientation with desirability and challenge is 3.431and depicting that it is significant (p = 0.000, t = 3.431, β2 = 0.202) which permitted that hypothesis will not be rejected, as the future orientation with desirability and challenge has positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Moreover the equation shows that one unit change in the future orientation with desirability and challenge will cause the 0.202 units positive as well as significant change and impact on the employee satisfaction respectively. So, H2 would not be rejected.

Likewise the t-statistics of clarity with brevity of vision is 3.863 and it demonstrates the positive significant (p = 0.000, t = 3.863, β3 = 0.243) on the employee satisfaction. The hypothesis would not be rejected, which approves that clarity with brevity of vision have significant positive impact and relationship on employee satisfaction. Therefore, H3 would not be rejected.

Multiple linear regressions with mediations

In order to check the mediation impact on the relationship of independent variables on dependent variable four steps of Baron, et al. method. The fundamental purpose of these three steps is to identify the significant relationship, if the relationship does not exist then it means mediating impact is not more possible.

At first step, we found that SA significantly predicted employee satisfaction, b = 0.681, t(314) = 17.59, p <0.000. SA also explained a significant part of variance in employee satisfaction, R2 = 0.50, F(1, 312) = 309.43,p < 0.000. At second step, we found that SA significantly predicted vision sharing, b = 0.548, t(314) = 15.31, p < 0.000. SA also explained a significant part of variance in vision sharing, R2 = 0.429, F(1, 312) = 234.371,p < 0.000. At third step, we found that VS significantly predicted ES, b = 0.656, t(314) = 12.196, p <0.000. VS also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.323, F(1, 312) = 148.746,p < 0.000. Finally, at fourth step, we found that SA and VS significantly predicted ES, b(for SA) = 0.564, t(314) = 11.204, p <0.000. The model also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.518, F(2, 311) = 166.820, p < 0.000. The fourth step was exhibiting improvement in adjusted R2 from 0.496 to 0.514; it shows that partial mediation exists. Hence the hypothesis would not be rejected that VS positively mediates between SA on ES as shown in Table 11.

Steps    R2  Adjusted R2 SEB  ß 
Step 1:     ES (DV)  0.5 0.496 309.343 0.681 0.04 17.59 0.706* 
SA(IV)
Step 2:  VS (MV)  0.43 0.427 234.371 0.548 0.04 15.309 0.655* 
SA(IV)
Step 3:   ES(DV)  0.32 0.321 148.746 0.656 0.05 12.196 0.568* 
VS(MV)
Step 4:  ES(DV)  0.52 0.514 166.82 0.564 0.05 11.204 0.584* 
SA (IV) 
VS (MV) 

Table 11: Multiple regression analysis summary for stability with abstractness, vision sharing and employee satisfaction.

Similarly, at first step, we found that CB significantly predicted employee satisfaction, b = 0.680, t(314) = 15.428, p<0.000. CB also explained a significant part of variance in employee satisfaction, R2 = 0.433, F(1, 312) = 238.028, p<0.000. At second step, we found that CB significantly predicted vision sharing, b = 0.493, t(314) = 11.636, p<0.000. CB also explained a significant part of variance in vision sharing, R2 = 0.303, F(1, 312) = 135.405, p<0.000. At third step, we found that VS significantly predicted ES, b = 0.656, t(314) = 12.196, p<0.000. VS also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.323, F(1, 312) = 148.746,p<0.000. Finally, at fourth step, we found that CB and VS significantly predicted ES, b(for CB) = 0.512, t(314) = 10.248, p<0.000. The model also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.494, F(2, 311) = 151.678, p<0.000. The fourth step was exhibiting improvement in adjusted R2 from 0.431 to 0.491, it shows that partial mediation exist. Hence the hypothesis would not be rejected that VS positively mediates between CB on ES (Table 12).

Steps    R2  Adjusted R2  SEB  ß 
Step 1:     ES (DV)  0.43 0.431 238.028 0.681 0.04 15.428 0.658*
CB(IV)
Step 2:  VS (MV)  0.3 0.3 135.405 0.493 0.04 11.636 0.550*
CB(IV)
Step 3:   ES(DV)  0.32 0.321 148.746 0.656 0.05 12.196 0.568* 
VS(MV)             
Step 4:   ES(DV) 0.49 0.491 151.678 0.512 0.05 10.248 0.495*
CB (IV)
VS (MV)

Table 12: Multiple regression analysis summary for clarity with brevity, vision sharing and employee satisfaction.

Again for FDC, at first step, we found that FDC significantly predicted employee satisfaction, b = 0.654, t(314) = 14.037, p<0.000. FDC also explained a significant part of variance in employee satisfaction, R2 = 0.433, F(1, 312) = 238.028, p<0.000. At second step, we found that FDC significantly predicted vision sharing, b = 0.531, t(314) = 12.688, p<0.000. FDC also explained a significant part of variance in vision sharing, R2 = 0.340, F(1, 312) = 160.992, p<0.000. At third step, we found that VS significantly predicted ES, b = 0.656, t(314) = 12.196, p<0.000. VS also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.323, F(1, 312) = 148.746,p<0.000. Finally, at fourth step, we found that FDC and VS significantly predicted ES, b(for FDC) = 0.463, t(314) = 8.518, p<0.000. The model also explained a significant part of variance in ES, R2 = 0.451, F(2, 311) = 127.702, p<0.000. The fourth step was exhibiting improvement in adjusted R2 from 0.385 to 0.451; it shows that partial mediation exists. Hence the hypothesis would not be rejected that VS positively mediates between FDC on ES (Table 13).

Steps    R2  Adjusted R2  SEB  ß 
Step 1:     ES (DV)  0.39 0.385 197.038 0.654 0.05 14.037 0.622*
FDC(IV)           
Step 2:  VS (MV)  0.34 0.338 160.992 0.531 0.04 12.688 0.583*
FDC(IV)              
Step 3:   ES(DV)  0.32 0.321 148.746 0.656 0.05 12.196 0.568* 
VS(MV)             
Step 4:    ES(DV)  0.45 0.447 127.702 0.463 0.05 8.518 0.441*
FDC(IV) 
VS (MV) 

Table 13: Multiple regression analysis summary for future orientation with desirability and challenge, vision sharing and employee satisfaction.

Discussion

Findings are supporting the proposed model which explains that the clear vision sharing improve employee satisfaction similarly brevity of the vision has positive and significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Similarly the combine impact of clarity and brevity is also significant. Leaders easily and frequently share a brief and clear vision to the employees. Similarly a clear and brief vision takes less time for the understanding and acceptability of employees.

The future orientation has not positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction. That’s why the desirability has also insignificant impact on employee satisfaction. Future orientation of the vision would be imperative for the employee when it is inspiring or worth working for follower. Presence of both attributes of future orientation and desirability are essential at the time of vision sharing. Challenge attribute of vision has positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction, because an effective vision challenges employees towards the desirable future state of the organization. It challenged them to induct more efforts in order to attain the desired future state for an organization because it aligned them with their individual state. Sometimes they perceive that their success is related with the organization success. Hence, proposed research model also explaining that at the time of vision sharing a vision must contain the challenging content with future orientation and desirability. Because in the second model where the attributes were taken in the combine formed, was proved that future orientation with challenge and desirability has positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Similarly, the mediation impact of vision sharing between future orientation with desirability and challenge and employee satisfaction is also given the significant results.

Individually stability and abstractness has positive significant impact directly and indirectly on the employee satisfaction. Meanwhile the combine impact of stability with abstractness has also positive significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Stability is about the consistent state of the organization, it ensures to employees that organization would not change its vision with the changes in environment like change in market, technology and economy. It gives confidence to employees to stay with the organization for the long period of time. Similarly the abstractness of the vision also gives confidence to an employee that organization is not setting its vision with respect to the organizational goals for one time. Once the goal achieves and vision would be unused. Frequent changes in vision with the changes in goals and objective unsatisfied the employees. Likewise the combine impact of stability with abstractness shows that the presence of both attributes is essential at the time of vision sharing.

Current study provides guidelines to organizational leadership in the light of employee’s perception about the expected vision formulated by their leaders. This study also identified the major alliances of different vision attributes first identified by Baum et al. This study suggests to the leadership of public, private and development sector organizations that the formulation of vision must be clear with brief language as per Kantabutra, and provide instructions that if shared vision is clear as well as brief thane it would increase the employee satisfaction and satisfied human capital would be the reason of good organizational performance, but still it need to be discussed in the future studies with the essence of effective vision attributes.

Similarly the presence of stability with abstractness in the vision also improves employee satisfaction, stability ensures employees the organizational vision would not change with the change in market and technology but it also ensures them they have formulated the vision as per future forecasting in the changes in events and the linkage of stability and abstractness ensure them that our organizational vision is not for one time goal or objective.

In past Baum et al. [26] proved that vision attribute significantly related to venture growth, similarly he also proved that venture growth has indirect relationship with the vision and the effective vision communication significantly impacts on the venture growth. The current study proved that vision attributes directly or indirectly significantly improves employee satisfaction, whereas satisfied employees are the main reason of satisfied customer and customer is only the reason of the existence of business. Similarly the current study also proved the significant impact of vision attributes individually on employee satisfaction. But the indirect insignificant impact of vision attributes on staff satisfaction in an Australian store was examined by Kantabutra, and proved that powerful vision significantly improves staff as well as customer satisfaction in retail stores of Sydney.

Ingenhoff et al. have examined that the vision and mission statements contents are compatible with the organizational position in the market place; they found that the very short vision statement which accurately defined the organizational vision and mission in one minute having good position in the market. Ingenhoff found significant results that vision and mission statement contents are compatible with the concept of organization position in any specific market place. The current study also supports this concept that the good position of organization is due to effective vision attributes and good position of the organization inspire employees to stay with the organization for long period of time. Similarly Slack et al. examined the relationship between employee understanding of organizational vision and their organizational satisfaction; secondly Slack et al. also examined the relationship between employee futuristic perceptions and their organizational satisfaction as well as the co-worker commitment with the vision and their organizational satisfaction. Similarly Slack et al. examined the relationship between department perceived commitment with vision and employee organizational satisfaction. Results of Slack et al. study explained that the greater the employee understanding of organizational vision greater would be the organizational employee satisfaction, and with the increase in co-workers commitment with vision the organizational employee satisfaction would get increase, similarly the management commitment with the organizational vision would increase the organizational employee satisfaction. But it’s all depending upon the attributes of the vision which has been explained and proved in the current study.

Similarly Darbi has studied the association between staff category and level of awareness about the vision and mission statement contents, and he found the significant association between them. Level of satisfaction of employees enhanced due to vision, if it is understandable as well as acceptable for them. The significant results of current study endorse that the presence of seven visions attributes whether individually or combine would improve employee satisfaction.

This study is the major contribution in the context of Pakistani organizational culture. The data was collected from the multinational private and NGO’s working in the culture of Pakistan as well as the national and public sector organizations. Conclusively this study provide the future directions to the students of managements sciences specially the students of human resource management and strategic management to conduct the research in order to identify more factors for the effective vision and how an effective vision will further impact on the different traits of employee behavior. Meanwhile the future direction against this research would be presented in the upcoming part of future research directions. So far this is the first study which is going to contribute in the academia of management sciences in order to explore more dimensions in the light of strategic and human resource management.

Limitations of research

Due to constraint of time it was not possible to collect more data from other regions of Pakistan, so the study was limited to the twin cities of Pakistan and identified the public, private and development sectors of these twin cities. Again due to constraint of time some major attributes of the vision were kept aside in order to get efficient response from respondents. The missing attributes and its impact on different employee behavioral aspects would be kept for future studies and contributions.

Future research directions

This study has examined the major attributes with mutual combined essence first identified by the Baum et al. [26], the impact of same effective vision attributes on the employee loyalty and talented employee intention to stay in the organization can be studied in the future. Primarily the organizational core values formulated in the light of vision, as the change and variations in the values impact positively and negatively on the human attitude and attitude leads the change in behavior positively or negatively. Future research can be conducted in the light of this triggering effect from the side of effective vision on such behavioral aspect. Future research may be conducted to check the positive significant impact on the employee wellbeing in the context of human resource and strategic management, it can be tested empirically in the future that how much improvement would occurred with the essence of employee wellbeing the organizational vision.

Conclusion

The research findings and results clearly show that effective vision (in the presence of its essential attributes) significantly impacts the employee satisfaction. Again clarity with brief message from the leadership improves the understanding caliber of the employees on the other hand a lengthy vision always unclear to the employees which increase the frustration of employees. Primarily if the vision is stable as well as abstracted then it gives confidence to employees about the long term existence and sustainable development of the organization. This ultimately satisfies the employees. The future oriented vision also satisfies the employees, desirability or inspiration of the future challenges employees to work hard to attain the future desires.

So the belief of attractive future state of the organization fascinates employees to stay in the organization for the long period of time and it is also support human resource managers to retain the talented employees. Conclusively, the presence of all the effective vision attributes is must, as clear vision with brief language improves the understanding and acceptability of the employees, meanwhile the presence of future orientation with desirability and challenge also increase the attitude of employees to work hard to enjoy the desirable future state of the organization, and it would be possible due to stability with abstractness in the vision articulated by the charismatic leadership.

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