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Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention, Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Political Skill
ISSN: 2380-5439

Journal of Health Education Research & Development
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Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention, Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Political Skill

Fahid Riaz1, Shahzad Naeem1*, Benish Khanzada2 and Kamran Butt1
1Riphah international university, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Quetta Institute of Medical Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Shahzad Naeem, Riphah international university, Islamabad, Pakistan, Tel: +00923335491914, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 10, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 20, 2018 / Published Date: Apr 02, 2018

Abstract

The purpose behind this article is to investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI), turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior with mediator effects of political skill. Data was collected through a quantitative survey methodology from sample of 263 employees; data was analyzed using hierarchical regression model. EI was found a significant positive relationship with political skill, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. However, the results of turnover intention were found to against the both hypothesis where EI was positively related to TI directly as well as through mediation. Furthermore political skill was found as a mediator between EI, TI, JP and OCB. EI training can be a powerful predictor for organizations and managers to enhance job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. This study extends the scope of EI and political skill through a significant positive relationship which can be viewed at work arena. This research also found political skill to be a mediator in the relationship between EI, turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence; Political skill; Turnover intention; Job performance; Organizational citizenship behavior

Introduction

According to the research of past two decades emotional intelligence has become a great area of interest. Emotional intelligence is considered most important competency of an employee for organization. Firstly the concept of emotional intelligence was introduced by Salovey et al. [1]. Emotional intelligence is an ability of monitoring and discriminating the emotions of one’s own and others for the purpose of use information to guide thinking and action. Researchers from different fields had tested emotional intelligence with number of variables (i.e., academic achievement, leadership styles, social support, physical and mental health etc.). EI is also tested as leadership quality, Zhou et al. [2] explained the emotional intelligence as a leadership quality which promotes and enables follower’s creativity, and leaders with higher level of EI have ability to encourage, support and awaken creativity between the employees of an organization. Similarly employees with higher level of emotional intelligence abilities have greater chance to gain success than the people with lower level of emotional intelligence competencies [3,4]. Few studies tested the EI and political skills simultaneously and result showed that these are fundamental antecedents for the success in organizational politics [5,6]. Politics plays a very important role in the success of organization as well as employee performance at work arena. EI and political skill are interlinked with each other because people with high level of emotional intelligence have better understanding and abilities regarding political skill. But mostly studies on these two variables try to find out the distinguished between EI and political skills and did not clarify the relationship between these two variables. It is a crucial need to determine the relationship between EI and political skill which can broaden the body of knowledge about EI and political skill. It also can provide better understanding about the nature of both EI and political skill. Ferries et al. [7] tested and found positive relationship between these two variables. But he studied these variables on undergraduate students. Thus, there is needed to check how EI relates to political skills at work place. Meisler [8] explored the relationship between EI, political skills and job satisfaction. And he found that EI is positively related to political skill and job satisfaction. He also found that political skill mediates the relationship between EI and job satisfaction. Meisler [8] tested EI and political skill with only one employee’s outcome which is not enough to examine the consequences of EI and political skill which can significantly affect employee’s performance and action at work arena. To the extent of my knowledge and review of literature emphasis that EI and political skill are still needed to check with others outcomes of employees at work arena which can meaningfully enhance the body of literature. Furthermore, this study tests the relationship of EI with the turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior with the mediating role of political skill (Figure 1). The goal of this study is to extend the knowledge about emotional intelligence and the responses of employees who has high level of emotional intelligence at work arena. This study seeks the answer of following research questions:

health-education-research-development-framework

Figure 1: Theoretical framework.

aIs there any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior?

bIs there any significant relationship between political skill and turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior?

This study is contrast with previous research. Mostly researcher explored direct effect of political skill [9], or its moderating effects [10,11] this study will broaden the body of knowledge through which the effects of political skill can be examined easily at work arena.

Literature Review

Emotional intelligence

EI has gain intensive attention of researchers from different fields. Concept of EI is derived from the concept of social intelligence which was described by Thorndike [12], who defined social intelligence “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls to act wisely in human relation.” Number of scholars has proposed many definitions of this concept, Wong and Law described four components of EI: self-emotion appraisal, others emotion appraisal, regulation of emotion and use of emotion [13,14]. Other scholars, including Goleman [15], have derived alternative models of EI; these models define in the sense of personality factors and traits (assertiveness and motivation). Mayer and Salovey criticized to the trait model and argued that talent and trait must be separate from EI. Trait is a characteristic of personality or way of behaving whereas talent can be defined as a nonintellectual ability. Mayer et al. [16] suggested a mix model. These all model have a lot of critics, For example overlapping in measures of EI personality trait’s measures. In the view of these responses of criticism validity is established of Mayer and Salovey’s model [17] two scholars invented the concept and defined as “the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotions; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” [18]. Mayer et al. [18] EI concept includes two components, intelligence and emotions psychologist made a three part division of mind (i.e., cognition, affect and motivation) intelligent belong to cognition and emotion belong to affect sphere. Motivation is third part which encourages towards learning goal achieving behavior. In this way ability model focuses on cognitive abilities and emotions. Gadot et al. [19] argued there is a consensus about emotional intelligence that it is an ability to establish accurate reasoning of emotions, ability to enhance thought through proper utilization of emotions, feelings and emotional knowledge. Gadot et al. [19] emotional intelligence include two concepts (i.e., intelligence and emotion) intelligence is relates to the ability to understand information and emotion involves to a coordinated behavior towards environment. Importance of EI in human lives has succeeded to get attention of researcher from different fields. EI plays a very vital role at work arena which forced researcher to explore EI at workplace. For Example, researchers tested the relationship between EI and other employee’s work attitudes or behaviors including emotional commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions [19-21]. The emotional intelligence helps employees to get optimistic results when they encounter with a situation of stress [22].

Integration of EI and political skill

A common statement is found amongst the number of academicians that organizations are political arena by inherently. Pfeffer [6] made one of the first attempts to use political skill inventory, he discussed political skill and suggested that it is required to be successful, moreover he referred that political skill needed to explore further for the better understanding of concept. Mintzberg [5] described political skill as an important set of abilities which helps to build interpersonal relationship in organization. After two decades, Ferris et al. [7] conceptualized the term and defined as “the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one’s personal and/or organizational objectives”. Political skill involves four dimensions: apparent sincerity, social astuteness, networking ability and interpersonal influence [7,23]. Politically skilled persons are found very talented in perceiving and reading others thoughts emotions and accessing their needs [24]. Political skill is a set of competency which helps to understand others attitude and behavior at workplace which provide information regarding the potential level of coworkers after getting the proper knowledge about others an politically skilled individual can lead others towards the desired goal by using the political knowledge such a way which enhances objectives. Ferris et al. [7] politically intelligent individual have an ability to attract others easily through calm self-confidence and a tactic of personal security. Employees with strong skills of politics know how to use the influential tactics in any situation for the purpose of successfully influence others [7]. Political skilled persons understand social situation and have capacity to adjust themselves to gain demands and changing needs such a way that inspires confidence and trust, in this way they can effectively influence and control others [7]. Gadot et al. [19] a rife race of continuous clashes, power struggles and influence tactics between the stakeholders of the organization. Organizational politics is a struggle for significant interests for the purpose of influencing decision making process due to different reasons and interests. Higher level of EI is positively correlated with organizational politics [15]. Emotionally intelligent employees can easily understand others through the proper and accurate appraisal of emotions, EI also have ability to regulate emotions such a way that can positively attract others at workplace. Ferris et al. [7] suggested that EI is a different concept from political skill; he found a positive correlation between these two constructs but he studied the variables over the undergraduate students, there was still need exist to explore these to variable on workplace. To fulfill this research gap Meisler [8] conducted study over the financial organization’s employees with the sample of 368 of total population and he found a positive relationship between EI and political skill. But he tested these variables with only one employee’s outcome (i.e., job satisfaction). Our study will explore some others employee’s outcome at workplace. H1. EI has significant positive correlation with political skill.

Integration of EI and turnover intention

Turnover intention has become a one of common problem for almost every organization. It is matter of great concern because with the intention of quit no one can perform one’s best for the organization. Employees who have intention to quit are less likely to commit to perform their best for the organization [25]. Turnover intention is a state when an employee has a plan to leave the organization or organization has a plan to remove the employee, turnover intension leads to actual turnover. In this way, there are two types of turnover (i.e., voluntary turnover or involuntary turnover). Voluntary turnover is a negative indicator for the success of an organization [26,27]. Often key persons who play a role of back bone in the progress of an organization also have an intention to quit which can be more danger for the betterment of the organization because with an intention to leave, they will definitely leave when they look a little bit charm from anywhere else. It is possible that they will not think about their present organization or lose of organization which it has to face in the response of quitting. Numbers of researchers have conducted study to understand the nature of turnover intention for the purpose to retain the key persons and increase the affectivity of organization [28]. Rapid change in technology and environment can be cause of turnover intention. Previous research shows that due to rapid changes, employees have to face uncertainty which turns into the turnover intention [29]. There can be many others factor behind the turnover intention or actual turnover. As literature reveals, Precursor s of turnover can be stress, culture, interpersonal relationship, time consideration and individual differences etc. [28]. Mobley [30] intention to leave in the next logical step after experiencing dissatisfaction, it can be the precursor of actual quitting. Mobley [30] proposed a model of turnover intention, he proposed ten steps of withdrawal decision process (i.e., evaluation of existing job, experienced job satisfaction of dissatisfaction, thinking of quitting, evaluation of expected utility of search and cost of quitting, intention to search of alternatives, searching for alternatives, comparison of alternatives with present job, intension to quit/stay, quit/stay. Emotionally intelligent employees not only have less intention to quit but also help others to decrease frustration and stress at workplace. A positive emotional attitude will get a positive affection for job as well as organization. Wong et al. [14] a noble and optimistic experience of job and positive emotions will make employees more committed towards organization and create less intention to turnover. Satisfaction level of emotional intelligent employees will be high who have continues experience of positive feelings and mood as compared to those employees who have experience of depression, anger and disappointment [20]. Emotion is the key predictor of turnover intension which leads towards actual turnover. Emotionally intelligent employees have better understanding of negative emotions; they know very well how to avoid from them and how to make necessary adaptation to minimize the feeling of frustration [20]. In the light of previous study and argumentation, it easy to hypothesize: H2. EI has a significant negative correlation with turnover intention.

Integration of EI and job performance

Job performance is a set of work related activities which is expected to perform an employee. Performance provides knowledge whether an employee perform his/her duty well or not. Academically job performance is studied as a part of organizational and industrial psychology. Thorndike [31] job performance measures an individual performance through the comparison between actual outcome and defined goal. It is a measurement which describes that how an employee performs his/her assigned task using techniques, time and relations with others [32]. There are two dimensions of job performance (i.e., task performance and interpersonal facilitation). Task performance is concern about the job of an employee and abilities to meet the assigned task, and interpersonal facilitation discusses the interpersonal behavior of an individual [33]. Employees with low level of interpersonal facilitation damage the relationship and moral of employees [34]. EI intelligence is a better predictor of best performance. Mayer et al. [18] intelligence is an achievement which you have done and competence is a comparison of achievement with a defined standard. Numbers of studies showed that EI has positively correlated with job performance. For example Ali et al. [35] tested the relationship between EI and job performance over the population of 310 police officers within Abu Dhabi police department, he found EI is positively correlated with job performance. Carmeli et al. [36] found that EI is positively related with job performance. Cohen et al. [37] also found a positive relationship between EI and job performance. An employee must be capable to understand and manage self as well as others emotions to facilitate the interaction among the employees, which is quiet essential for batter job performance [37]. According to cascade model, Joseph and Newman [38] suggested that EI is significantly positively correlated with job performance also argued that EI is significantly and positively related to job performance. This is another meta-analysis which provides strong evidence of positive relationship between EI and job performance. Literature and logical argumentation clear the relationship between EI and job performance. H3. EI has a significant positive correlation with job performance.

Integration of EI and OCB

OCB is a set of such kind activities which is performed by an employees within the organization but not can be found in written form as an employment agreement, employees perform these activities voluntarily which are considered very important for the effectiveness of the organization [39-43]. Bateman et al. [4] proposed organizational citizenship behavior at first time. Organ defined the term as “Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”. Smith et al. [42] described two dimensions of OCB; altruism and general compliance. Organ [41] repurposed OCB model, he deconstructed the general compliance concept and made an addition in the shape of dimensions and this resulted a five dimensional model (i.e., civic virtue, courtesy, altruism, sportsmanship and conscientiousness). OCB has numerous positive outcomes which contribute positively in the betterment of an organization. OCB comes from supportive organizational environment and positive job attitude which leverages the positive environmental consequences which helps the organization to restrain and attract competent employees [41,44,45]. Emotionally well-equipped employees have a better understanding of others emotion and feelings, if they feel that their coworker is frustrated they hopefully offer help or encouragement. Emotionally intelligent individuals can easily handle the critical emotional situation such a way that is not specified in their job description, contract agreement or organization’s roles [37]. Employees with high level on EI also have empathy towards the organization which encourages them to act in a way which can be beneficial for the organization [37]. EI is a predictor to enhance the altruistic behavior which helps an individual to transform easily from negative emotions to positive emotions and people with positive emotions are more likely to help others [36]. People in good and positive mood can more active to build social network and social activities at work arena which are quiet helpful for others. Previous research and logical argumentation show a clear relationship between EI and OCB. H4. EI has a significant positive relationship with OCB.

Mediation role of political skill

As discussed earlier, EI and political skill are interlinked with each other because people with high level of emotional intelligence have better understanding and abilities regarding political skill. Previous research suggests the political skills not only directly related with work outcome but also mediates the correlation between precursors and outcomes of work. Testing the direct relationship of EI with workplace outcomes will be a simplification of study, such a relationship must have a mediator or moderator which can meaningfully enhance the body of knowledge. Some recent studies suggested several mediator between the relationship of EI and work outcomes [19,21,46]. Few studies tested and argued that an intervening variable can mediate the correlation amongst EI and workplace outcomes [47]. In this study I considered political skill as a mediator between the relationship of EI and workplace outcomes (i.e., turnover intention, job performance and OCB). Evidence and previous study show that EI in positively related with political skill, higher level of EI predicts higher level of political skill. According to the ability model, a significant relationship among two variables shows that these two will tend rise and fall simultaneously [18]. Keeping in mind H1 EI has significant positive correlation with political skill and H2. EI has a significant negative correlation with turnover intention. We can assume the mediation role of political skill between EI and turnover intension. H5. Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and turnover intension Ferris et al. [7] found that political skill inventory significantly related with emotional intelligence and self-monitoring. “One of the biggest mistakes people make is thinking that good job performance or accomplishment is sufficient to acquire power” [48]. Politically skilled individuals have ability to control and secure information as well as resources, in this way they can obtain powerful position in an organization [48,49]. Political skilled individuals found high in job performance amongst the managers of financial service organizations [7]. Social astuteness, networking ability and interpersonal influence mediate the relationship among the proactive personality and both in role performance and altruism [50]. Political skill described as a strongest positive predictor for the managerial job amongst the managers of motor manufacturing companies [51]. It is necessary for better performance to have access and critical information regarding rare resources of the company. Political skilled persons have a plus point to collect this kind of information because they spend time in social activities as well as building a strong social network which provide easy access to critical information [23]. Political skilled employees have ability to secure and gather things which are needed to perform a job through networking activities and to attract others than the other employees [23]. Political skill and its impact on job performance has gain great deal of attention from researchers [23,51,52], but mostly researcher assumed that to perform high is an ultimate objective of the employees. They ignored that there can be many objectives behind the elevated job performance. Some employees perform high to acquire resources; some intends to get reputation amongst the employees, power and promotion. Above mentioned research discusses the role of political skill for job performance [53]. Keep in the mind H3 and in the light of literature review we can assume mediation role of political skill between EI and job performance. H6. Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and job performance Documented evidences show that PS has favorable myriad effect on work outcomes. Employee’s political skills not only help in developing better relationship at the workplace but also integer OCB Li et al. [54]. Political skilled persons have a good interaction with others which is cause of their good behavior. Political skill plays a facilitating role for effectiveness of behavior [52]. Positive emotions and behavior leads an employee towards the OCB. Political skilled persons can easily make friendship and build strong relationship with their peers [53]. This statement argues that political skilled person can make a good social network which promotes his/her positive emotions towards organization and employees. Ferris et al. [55] tested the moderation role of PS between chronic pain at workplace and both OCB and job satisfaction and argued that PS moderate the relationship between chronic pain and both job satisfaction and OCB. People with lower level of PS reports less participation in OCB than an employee with a higher level of PS. Political skilled persons understand social situation and have capacity to adjust themselves to gain demands and changing needs such a way that inspires confidence and trust, in this way they can effectively influence and control others [23]. Li et al. [54] suggested that political skill has significant importance not only building relationship with leaders but also prove quite helpful for enhancing OCB. According to the ability model, a significant relationship among two variables shows that these two will tend rise and fall simultaneously [18]. With the help of this statement and keeping in mind H4. We can assume mediation role of political skill between EI and OCB. H7. Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and OC.

Methodology

The sample was consisted on a population of telecom sector of Pakistan. The research gained access to sample through the professional as well as personal contacts of author with respondents. Data of all variables was collected through self-report questionnaire except job performance which was measured through supervisory rating. A cover letter was also attached with the questionnaire to explain the scope and purpose of the research. Respondents were assured a strict anonymity and their participation was fully voluntarily. Total three hundred questionnaires were distributed amongst the employees of telecom sector. Out of three hundreds two hundred and sixty three useable questionnaires were collected back with a return rate of 87.6 percent. The respondents were from variety of departments (human resources, technical, marketing, finance, etc). Combination of job title of respondents was executive, technician, manager and general manager. Major part of the respondents (58.9%) was occupied on executive/ technician position, (38%) was on the position of assistant manager/ manager, (1.9%) was occupied on general manager’s designation and (0.38%) was HOD/Director. Total of respondents, 69.21% were males and 30.79% females. Age range of respondents was 20 to 60 years (s.d.=0.628).

Measures

Emotional intelligence: The 16 items measure developed by Wong et al. [14] was used to measure the nature of emotional intelligence. Responses were on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The obtained Items for emotional intelligence include. “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time”. and “I have good understanding of my own emotions”.

Political skill: The 8 items measure developed by [7] was used to evaluate the nature of Political Skill. Responses were on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The obtained Items for political skill include. “I spend a lot of time and effort at work networking with others” and “At work, I know a lot of important people and I am well connected”.

Turnover intention: The 3 items scale developed by Michigan Organizational Assessment (1979) was used to measure turnover intention. Responses were on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The obtained Items for turnover intention include. “How likely is it that you will actively look for a new job in the next year?” and “I often think about quitting”.

Job performance: The 12 items measure constructed by Motowidlo et al. [56] was used to measure the nature of performance. Responses were on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The obtained Items for job performance include. “Perform at a level much higher than coworkers” and “Produce a large amount of work”.

Organizational citizenship behavior: The 16 items scale developed by Podsakoff et al. [57] was used to measure the nature of organizational citizenship behavior. Responses were on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The obtained Items for organizational citizenship behavior include. “I willingly give of my time to help others out whom have work-related Problems” and “I am willing to take time out of my busy schedule to help with recruiting or training new employees”.

Results

Table 1 shows the mean of variables, standard deviation, reliability and correlation among the studied variables. All correlations are significant at p<0.01. The mean of EI is 3.62 and the mean of PS is 3.22, the correlation between these two variables is 0.496, the mean of TI is 3.50 and the correlation between EI and TI is 0.537, the mean of JP is 2.83 and the correlation between EI and JP is 0.456, the mean of OCB is 3.89 and the correlation between EI and OCB is 0.629. The correlation between PS and TI is 0.531, the correlation between PS and JP is 0.507, the correlation between PS and OCB is 0.617.

Variables Mean Std. Deviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Gender 1.29 0.454 1                  
Age 1.41 0.628 -0.119 1                
Experience 1.17 0.484 0.017 0.712** 1              
Job Title 1.44 0.555 0.617** 0.101 0.232** 1            
Education 1.69 0.547 -0.297** 0.115 0.101 -0.090 1          
Emotional Intelligence 3.62 0.542 0.249** 0.077 0.108 0.101 -0.137* 1(.744)        
Political Skills 3.22 0.744 0.160** -0.064 -0.017 0.084 -0.200** 0.496** 1(.719)      
Turnover Intention 3.50 1.11 0.190** 0.000 0.067 0.111 0-.122* 0.537** 0.531** 1(.711)    
Job Performance 2.83 0.952 0.130* 0.070 0.076 0.098 -0.069 0.465** 0.507** 0.480** 1(.848)  
Organizational Citizenship Behavior 3.89 0.568 0.118 -0.001 0.040 0.026 -0.219** 0.629** 0.617** 0.623** 0.573** 1(.709)
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Alpha Reliability of each variable is shown in parenthesis (); Total sample size, n=263

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics and Correlation.

Regression analysis

In Table 2, hierarchal regression analyses performed to test all hypotheses. Some demographic variables showed a significant impact on studied variables. Gender showed significant impact on PS, TI and JP whereas education showed a significant impact on PS, TI and OCB. To accomplish accurate results both demographic variables entered as control variables accordingly. H1 predicted that EI has significant positive correlation with political skill is supported by results (B=0.659, p<0.001). H2 predicted that EI has a significant negative correlation with turnover intention which is not supported by results (B=1.050, p<0.001). H3 predicted that EI has a significant positive correlation with job performance is supported by results (B=0.812, p<0.001). H4 predicted that EI has a significant positive relationship with OCB which is supported by results (B=0.633, p<0.001). H5 predicted that Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and turnover intension which is not supported by results (B=0.767, p<0.001). H6 predicted that Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and job performance (B=0.637, p<0.001). H7 predicted that Political skill mediates the relationship between EI and OCB is supported by results (B=0.454, p<0.001).

Predictors (Mediator) PS (DV1) TI (DV2) JP (DV3) OCB
  β R2 ∆R2 β R2 ∆R2 β R2 ∆R2 β R2 ∆R2
Main Effect: (EI)
Step I:
Control Variables   0.051     0.041     0.017     0.048  
Step II:
EI 0.659*** 0.256 0.213*** 1.050*** (ns) 0.286 0.245*** 0.812*** 0.216 0.199*** 0.633*** 0.407 0.359***
Mediation : PS                        
Step 1:
Control Variables         0.041     0.017     0.048  
Step II:
PS (Mediation 1)       0.767*** 0.294 ,293*** 0.637*** 0.259 0.242*** 0.454*** 0.392 0.344***
Step III:
EI       0.703*** 0.379 0.085*** 0.498*** 0.316 0.058*** 0.435*** 0.522 0.130***

*p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.000; EI=Emotional Intelligence; PS=Political Skill; TI=Turnover Intention; JP=Job Performance; OCB=Organizational Citizenship Behavior; Control Variables for PS are gender and education; Control Variables for TI are gender and education; Control Variable for JP is gender; Control Variable for OCB is education

Table 2: Hierarchical/Mediation Regression Analysis.

Discussion

According to the research of past two decades emotional intelligence has become a great area of interest. Emotional intelligence is considered most important competency of an employee for organization. Researchers from different fields had tested emotional intelligence with number of variables (i.e., academic achievement, leadership styles, social support, physical and mental health etc.) EI and political skill are interlinked with each other because people with high level of emotional intelligence have better understanding and abilities regarding political skill. Ferries et al. [7] tested and found positive relationship between these two variables. Meisler [8] explored the relationship between EI, political skills and job satisfaction. And he found that EI is positively related to political skill and job satisfaction. He also found that political skill mediates the relationship between EI and job satisfaction. Meisler [8] tested EI and political skill with only one employee’s outcome which is not enough to examine the consequences of EI and political skill which can significantly affect employee’s performance and action at work arena. To enhance the understanding regarding these two construct I conduct this study to test the relationship of EI with the turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior with the mediator role of political skill.

This study hypothesized that EI has significant positive correlation with political skill which was clearly supported by results. These findings provide significant support to the idea of relationship between EI and PS. Literature also shows a significant positive relationship between these two variables. Higher level of EI is positively related with organizational politics [15]. Meisler [8] also found a positive relationship between EI and political skill. Emotionally intelligent employees can easily understand others through the proper and accurate appraisal of emotions, EI also have ability to regulate emotions such a way that can positively attract others at workplace.

Integration of EI and turnover intention hypothesized that EI has a significant negative correlation with turnover intention but interestingly contrary to this assumptions results did not support the hypothesis and showed that EI has a significant positive correlation with turnover intention. Abbas et al. [58] explored relationship between psychological capital and turnover intention; unexpectedly results countered with the hypothesis and showed that psychological capital positively affect turnover intention. This is a common phenomenon that employees want a competent position, authority, handsome salary package and other incentives. Therefore when an employee has an opportunity to get a better job than existing he switches. On the other hand, this is also reality and has proven through literature that people with high level of EI can create more chances of advancement as compare to lower level of EI.

Results of correlation of EI and job performance are according to expectations as I hypothesis that EI has a significant positive correlation with job performance, results also supported the hypothesis significantly. Literature also supports this relation. Carmeli et al. [36] found that EI is positively related with job performance. Cohen et al. [37] also found a positive relationship between EI and job performance. An employee must be capable to understand and manage self as well as others emotions to facilitate the interaction among the employees, which is quiet essential for batter job performance.

Study hypothesized that EI has a significant positive relationship with OCB which is supported by results also. Employees with high level on EI also have empathy towards the organization which encourages them to act in a way which can be beneficial for the organization [37]. EI is a predictor to enhance the altruistic behavior which helps an individual to transform easily from negative emotions to positive emotions and people with positive emotions are more likely to help others [36]. People in good and positive mood can more active to build social network and social activities at work arena which are quiet helpful for others.

Political skill performed a role of mediator and hypothesized that political skill mediates the relationship between EI and all three employee’s outcome at work arena which is also supported by results of analysis. Partial mediation was found in all three relations. Positive emotions and behavior leads an employee towards the positive outcomes at work arena. Political skilled persons can easily make friendship and build strong relationship with their peers [53]. Political skilled persons understand social situation and have capacity to adjust themselves to gain demands and changing needs such a way that inspires confidence and trust, in this way they can effectively influence and control others [23].

Implications for Practice

This research has meaningful practical implications for organizations and managers. Empirical evidence also showed that training on EI can enhance EI levels [59-61]. As proved that EI is positively related with political skill, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior, managers can easily maximize the performance and positive behavior of the employees through the proper training on EI [62-65]. Political skill also identified a positive predictor for better performance whereas emotionally intelligent employees have a higher level of political skill. In this way training on EI can enhance the level of political skill also with the purpose of maximum performance because politically equipped persons is found not only skillful to perform their duties but also viewed helpful for their peers. Roots of EI is found in psychology, keeping in mind the ability model of Mayer et al. [18]. EI training can meaningfully enhance the level of performance in both working and social lives of employees. Organizational citizenship behavior plays a role of backbone to develop a healthy working environment; emotionally intelligent employees know how to behave in particular situations which can be highly beneficial for the organization.

Strengths and Limitations

This research has numbers of strengths; in a response to a call of Meisler [8] this article explored the combine relationship of EI and PS with variety of variables (i.e., turnover intention, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior). In this way this study is not only meaningfully enhance the body of knowledge but also provide a better understanding of EI and PS. The role of political skill can be viewed at work arena which has a meaningful role in the progress of an organization. There are also some limitations of this article which must be noted. The sample for this study was adopted from telecom sector of Pakistan only which is limiting the generalizability of results. Self-report scales were used to measure the nature of all variables whereas results of single self-report scale raises ambiguity regarding bias, desirability and common method variance. Although data of job performance scales was collected through supervisory rating but there was not confirmatory factory analysis performed to control common method variance for other variables. Another limitation is that in this article I studied all construct overall, there was not any explanation provided about dimensions of constructs 1010.

Future Research Direction

Future research is still required to generalize the construct of EI. Present study raised a number of ideas also for further investigation of concepts. EI with mediation role of PS is further required with other employees outcomes (i.e., organizational commitment, employee cynicism and counterproductive behavior). This study was conducted only in telecom sector of Pakistan; next attempt should be on other industries as well as public sector for a broader scope of concepts. This research model can also be enhanced through testing with moderating role of psychological capital or mood congruent judgment. Future research can broaden the scope of model through exploring the mediating role of political skill with elements of career success and others work place consequences.

References

Citation: Riaz F, Naeem S, Khanzada B, Butt K (2018) Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention, Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Political Skill. J Health Educ Res Dev 6: 250. DOI: 10.4172/2380-5439.1000250

Copyright: © 2018 Riaz F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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