Received date: March 20, 2015; Accepted date: April 09, 2015; Published date: April 16, 2015
Citation: Nadeem M, Ahmad R, Ahmad N, Abdullah M (2015) Impact of Human Resource Practices on Female Employees Performance in Karachi Pakistan. Bus Eco J 6:147. doi:10.4172/2151-6219.1000147
Copyright: © 2015 Nadeem M et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Employees are the major source of the organizations to generate revenues. Human resource practices affect all the employees working in the organization. All employees need special attention including female employees. Female workers are not encouraged to work equally in the developing countries like Pakistan. This research paper is an effort to study the impact of human resource practices on female employees in the biggest city of Pakistan Karachi. HR policies, practices are very important for all the employees working in the organization. Female workers should be encouraged because they are participating equally. Culture of developing countries like Pakistan discourages female workers to work and contribute in the economic progress of the country. Questionnaire was developed to gather the data from different female employees working in different companies.
Female employees; Human resource practices; Performance; Working condition; Result oriented Appraisal; Job description; Internal career growth
Employees of all ages, color, types are important for the organizations all over the world. Human resource practices include different policies regarding employees which affect them. Human resources are the most important sources to attain the goals of the organizations efficiently and effectively. In this global world organizations need to encourage all type of workers to achieve their mission. Female workers need different kind of attention of human resource practices because they are different from male employees, their problems are different. In this age of globalization female workers are still discouraged to work with male employees especially in the third world countries. Female employees are working and contributing in the developed countries. According to Kuvaas  working conditions, working hours, organizational policies for female, working environment, job satisfaction level, job evaluation criteria, compensation etc., all affect the female workers and should be considered for their participation.
Employee performance is closely related to human resource policies and practices. Employee’s satisfaction, interest in job, interest in achieving organizational goals etc., all depends upon human resource practices of the organizations Guest . Employee’s performance depends upon the job satisfaction of the employees. Job satisfaction of the workers does not mean that the workers are happy only but it means that employees feel that they are the part of the organization. They are important for the organizations. They are considered important in decision making, developing policies, rules and regulations, strategies etc. satisfied workers are always found motivated, self-devoted and their performance is always better than the dis-satisfied workers of the organizations.
Human resource practices also contribute in shaping the perceptions, attitude of the workers regarding organization and its policies and practices Boxall and Macky . If the workers are satisfied with the human resource practices their perception about the organization will be positive which will develop their positive attitude. Employees with the positive attitude perform better; they are more productive than others, take self-interest, participate actively in organizational activities etc.
Employees of the organizations are interested in the human resource policies and practices because they are directly influenced with them. Performance evaluation practices play an important role in shaping the attitude, behavior of the employees in the organization because there perception regarding justice with employees in the organization depending on their performance evaluation criteria Conway .
Female workers are sensitive and need special care from the management to work freely and effectively because working conditions and working environment affect a lot to the workers especially female workers in the organizations Anakwe . Females are more concerned with the human resource practices which affect them more than the other employees working in the organizations Chadwick . Female workers need special attention in making human resource policies of the organizations because maternity leaves, harassment, friendly working environment, respect of females etc., are issues concerned with the female workers.
Organizations are providing different facilities within the organizational boundaries to the female workers so that they can reduce their stress regarding their little problems. If organizations provide stress free environment, comfortable working conditions, flexible working hours etc., the productivity of the female employees can be increased as seen the in the developed countries. Female are working, contributing actively and equally in the biggest city of Pakistan Karachi. Most of the studies have been conducted in the developed countries in the past. Few studies have been conducted in the developing countries but no study is conducted on the impact of human resource practices on female employee performance in Karachi Pakistan.
It is the responsibility of the organizations to work for the welfare of the employees. Female workers are the part of the organization and contribute in achieving the goals of the organizations so they are equally important for the organizations Poole . Working conditions should be suitable for the female employees to increase their performance. Welfare activities are ignored in the developing countries because organizations do not feel accountable as they feel in the developed countries Truss et al. . In the developing or third world countries most of the companies do not pay much attention towards employees related policies for their personal growth, internal development, personal goals etc., that is why employees remain dissatisfied, feel stress in achieving their goals, difficulty in attaining job task etc. All employees including female workers must be considered important and treated fairly in the organization to increase the productivity and to achieve the targets. Female employees of Karachi need care, attention, participation because they are sensitive, hardworking and contribute in achieving organizations purposes. In Karachi females of different cities from Pakistan are working but they are ignored in preparing human resource policies that is we have tried to see the impact of human resource practices on the female employees in Karachi Pakistan.
Job descriptions affect employees' performance in a different ways and the detailed, written descriptions guide both managers and their subordinates in their day-to-day work. Benefit of job descriptions is that they enhance employee productivity Chadwick . In some cases, lack of a job description causes employees to emphasize the wrong aspects of their jobs. Job description of the female employees affects their attitude, behavior which affects their performance in the organizations. Responsibilities of the female employees should be designed carefully because they are different from the male employees. According to Boxall and Macky,  all those employees who are working without clear direction can become puzzled, upset and discouraged. They can also feel managers are shifting work to them unfairly, further contributing to decreased morale and high turnover.
According to Lee  the working environment can affect positively and negatively employee morale, productivity and engagement. The working environment in most of the organizations in the developing countries is not safe and healthy. These includes poorly designed workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, inappropriate lighting, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack of personal protective equipment. Working conditions are given more importance in the developed countries because they are much more conscious about the mental and physical health of the employees. Most of the organizations in the developing countries like Pakistan do not pay much attention on improving their working condition. Female employees are more conscious and have reservation regarding working environment and working conditions in the developing countries. Working condition of the organizations is important not only in the developed countries but also in the developing countries to increase their productivity.
Many researchers have observed that the result oriented appraisals encourage employees and increase the productivity of the employees. According to Latham  an employee performance appraisal can increase his productivity because it increases the motivation level of the employees. When goals of the employee are clear, proper guidance is given, direction has been set, than it’s easy for the employees to achieve the targets which improves his productivity. Employees perform their job duties to the best of their abilities throughout the year based on guidance from management.
Employees in the organizations are concerned not only with the organizational growth but also with the internal career growth. Individual attitudes and behaviors are affected by generalized perception of care and support from organizations. Employees feel appreciative to repay organization with extra effort and devotion when such encouraging kind treatments are given. Organizational support theory maintains that joint dedication between employees and an employer starts with the organization providing a supportive and caring feeling for employees, and employees work hard to attain organizational goals Baruch and Rosenstein .
Job description, working conditions, result oriented appraisal and internal career growth have been taken as human resource practices to gather the data from the employees and female employees performance is measured. The following model has been developed to measure the human resource practices on female employee performance shown in Figure 1.
FEP = β0 + β1 ROA + β2 JD + β3 WC + β4 ICG
Questionnaires were floated among the employees of 25 organizations in the biggest city of Pakistan Karachi. All the organizations were private organizations. Employees of different age groups, fields, departments, skills were selected to gather the data for investigation of our proposed study. 150 female employees have been selected from the age of 18 years to 65 years. Employees from all types of backgrounds, cultures, religions etc., were included in our data gathering activity. Participation of female employees was made sure so that the influence of human resource practices could be measured in actual. Employees of all levels were considered to get the better results.
In our research study we have taken four human resource practices to measure the impact of human resource practices on the performance of female employees. Previous studies focused on motivation, career development and other human resource practices and also no study has been conducted in the biggest city of Pakistan Karachi. Different researchers have studied and investigated the impact of different human resource practices on the female employee performance in the developed countries but not much attention is given on this topic in developing countries like Pakistan and especially in the city of Sindh. We have calculated correlation and regression to check the results of our proposed study. SPSS software is used to measure the results of the gathered data. Correlation their coefficients, Standard Deviation and Mean are calculated to measure the effect of human resource practices on the job performance of female employees shown in Table 1.
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
Predictors: (Constant), ROA, JD, WC, ICG
Table 1: Model Summary.
In the above Table 1, the regression equation R=.673 which is significant, R square = .45 and adjusted R square =.439. These results show that the multiple correlation coefficients between the independent and the dependent variable are .673; the independent variable accounted for 45% of the variance in the employee job performance. Our positive results show that there is positive relationship between human resource practices and female employee performance which means human resource practices increases the productivity of the female employees. Human resource practices should be flexible for female employees because they are different in nature and affect them differently.
Regression results by using ANOVA is 1.634 and df is 6, mean square shows 0.311, significance level is .000 which means our results are positive and significant. So there is positive impact of human resource practices on the job performance of female employees in Karachi Pakistan shown in Table 2.
|Model||Sum of Square||Df||Mean Square||F.||Sig.|
Dependent Variable: JP, Predictors: (Constant), ROA, WC, JD, ICG
Table 2: ANOVA.
It is clear from Table 3 that value of β for constant is 1.172, standard error value is 0.152 and significance level is 0.000, results of working condition shows that value of B is 0.528, standard error is 0.275, β is 0.381 and significant level is 0.023. JD shows that B is 0.394, standard error is 0.192, and β is 0.419 and significant level is 0.037. Results of ROA show that B is 0.461, standard error is 0.251, value of β is 0.336 and significant level is 0.013. ICG shows that value of B is 0.582, standard error is 0.237, and β is 0.441 and significant level is 0.027. Results show that all the human resource practices which are discussed above are positively correlated with job performance. So confidence level of research is significant and our Null hypothesis has been true.
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficient||Standardized Coefficient||t.||Sig.|
Dependent Variable: JP
Table 3: Unstandardized and Standardized Coefficient.
Human resource practices affect not only male employees of the organization but also female employees of the organizations. Female employees are contributing equally for the prosperity and development of the organization. Female employees should be considered in making human resource policies and strategies. This research study has also proved that human resource practices are positively correlated with the productivity and performance of employees which means human resource practices affect the employees of the organization.
This research is limited to the biggest city of Pakistan Karachi whereas this topic can be explored to other cities of Pakistan and in other developing and developed countries as well. Sample size for this study can be increased in future. Human resource practices such as compensation, training, job security, involvement and reward etc., can be considered to investigate the impact on the job performance of female employees.