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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review
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Impact of Human Resources Development and Employees Performance in Central Bank of Nigeria (2007-2014)

Chukwunonye Abovu Akujuru1 and Newman Chintuwa Enyioko2*

1Department of Public Administration, Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Medonice Consulting and Research Institute, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Corresponding Author:
Newman Chintuwa Enyioko
Research and Development Director - Medonice
Consulting and Research Institute, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Tel: 0803-6703647
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: October 12, 2015; Accepted date: November 24, 2015; Published date: December 08, 2015

Citation: Akujuru CA, Chintuwa N (2015) Impact of Human Resources Development and Employees Performance in Central Bank of Nigeria (2007-2014). Arabian J Bus Manag Review 6:186. 

Copyright: © 2015 Akujuru CA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This study examines and or investigates the impact of human resources development and employees performance in central bank of Nigeria. The research instruments used in collection of data for this study included the questionnaire containing structured questions personal interviews personal observation. Equally secondary information or data were collected through textbooks journals magazines and newspapers etc. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data for this study. A sample of 373 staff selected from Central Bank of Nigeria branch in Port Harcourt was drawn for the study for which the sample elements consisted of 5 cadres of staff (management Secretarial supervisory lower cadre and general staff). Accordingly 373 copies of questionnaire were administered on the staff of central bank of Nigeria. Out of the 373 copies of questionnaire administered 314 copies were retrieved and after going through them 298 (i.e., 79.89% response rate) copies were found useful for data analysis. The study found that central bank of Nigeria utilizes various human resources development programmes. The condition necessitating the use of a particular scheme include job content size of organization cost structure labour employed and market rate. Majority of respondents agreed that the incidence of using a particular human resources developmental scheme increases with the emergence of the conditions listed above. Some of the problems encountered include; conflicts grievances and disagreement amongst staff; time consuming professional bias problem of sentiments in teaching and difficulties in determining the rate of certain jobs as well as intensive capital needed to the human resources development programmes. Also revealed is the fact that human resources development has relationship with the bank’s productivity. The study therefore recommends that public organisations should encourage employers /employees to participate in the decision making relating to their development. Employees should be involved in the human resources development programmes of the organization.

Keywords

Human resources; Development; Employees’ performance; Central bank of Nigeria

Introduction

The public and private sectors of our economy must be efficient in order to survive in the turbulent environment. The efficiency of our economy depends on the calibre of the nations Human capital resources engaged in both central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014 and other sectors. Luckily the days of Management that works by trial and error have gone. Today an increasing attention is being focused on the role of employee development through effective training thereby actualizing social and economic advancement of the nation more especially in Central Bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014 of the economy.

With the drive towards technological advancement in Nigeria development of employee is inevitable in order to optimize performance in banking firms. For example the conversions to the use of electronics computers and telecommunications have virtually made every industry to change their operations which necessitate employee’s training and development- enabling them cope with the environmental changes. This is supported by Amadi [1] who emphasizes that our society as a whole is also virtually interested in training and development programmes in order to promote employment and utilize the talents of its citizens.

The most important concern of the employers is to make the employees to contribute their very best toward the organizational objectives attainment. Training though accepted as a vital part of any administrative functions is still carried our in an ad-hoc way which wastes a considerable proportion of money without identifying the need for such exercise.

Many companies do not regard Human resources development as a professional activity and in many cases training officers are employees sent to colleges without any serious thought being given to the real training needs of a company. Central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014 is so strategic and vital for the development of the Nigerian economy because it products and service are required by the citizenry and creation jobs for the general public.

In companies and organizations the need to have qualified and well trained employees has become more demanding in present competitive business environment than could be imagined. In fact the impact of human resources development on employees’ productivity has become so positively significant that excellent and progressive organizations have decided to be allocating huge chunk of their financial resources to Human resources development [2]. One of the most result-oriented ways to achieve his target is through the development of human capital; therefore it becomes imperative that a careful and well-articulated study be conducted on the Impact of Human Resources Development on Employees Performance: A Case Study of Central Bank of Nigeria (2007-2014).

Objectives of the Study

This study seeks to examine and or investigate the impact of human resources development and employees performance in central bank of Nigeria. The pursuit and achievement of this target shall be guided by the following objectives:

• To determine the extent to which effective human resources development leads to improvement on employees’ performance

• To identify the strategies that could be used to develop human capital for total commitment in an organization

• To identify the factors that can enhance employee’s commitment in Nigerian banking sector

• To find out the problems that can hinder effective Human resources development in Central Bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014 and

• To make suggestions for effective human resources development and employees performance/productivity in Central Bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014

Research Questions

The purpose of this study as earlier indicated is to examine human resources development and employees performance in Nigeria with particular reference to central bank of Nigeria (2007-2014).

In addressing this problem the following questions have been raised:

• What are the human resources development strategies/policies used by central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014 to enhance employees’ performance?

• To what extent does banking sector utilized effective human resources development strategies/policies in their operations?

• What are the problems militating against the effective use of human resources development strategies/policies in central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014?

• What are the variables that enhance effective human resources development policies/strategies towards improved employees’ performance in central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014?

Historical Background of Central Bank of Nigeria

The central bank of Nigeria was established by the CBN Act of 1958 and commenced operations on July 1 1958 [3]. The major regulatory objectives of the bank as stated in the CBN act of 1958 is to: maintain the external reserves of the country promote monetary stability and a sound financial environment and to act as a banker of last resort and financial adviser to the federal government. The central bank’s role as lender of last resort and adviser to the federal government has sometimes pushed it into murky regulatory waters. After the end of imperial rule the desire of the government to become pro-active in the development of the economy became visible especially after the end of the Nigerian civil war the bank followed the government’s desire and took a determined effort to supplement any short falls in credit allocations to the real sector. The bank soon became involved in lending directly to consumers contravening its original intention to work through commercial banks in activities involving consumer lending. However the policy was an offspring of the indigenization policy at the time. Nevertheless the government through the central bank has been actively involved in building the nation’s money and equity centers forming securities regulatory board and introducing treasury instruments into the capital market [3].

In 1948 an inquiry under the leadership of G.D Paton was established by the colonial administration to investigate banking practices in Nigeria. Prior to the inquiry the banking industry was largely uncontrolled. The G.D Paton report an offshoot of the inquiry became the cornerstone of the first banking legislation in the country: the banking ordinance of 1952. The ordinance was designed to prevent nonviable banks from mushrooming and to ensure orderly commercial banking. The banking ordinance triggered a rapid growth in the industry with growth also came disappointment. By 1958 a few numbers of banks had failed. To curtail further failures and to prepare for indigenous control in 1958 a bill for the establishment of Central Bank of Nigeria was presented to the House of representatives of Nigeria. The Act was fully implemented on July 1 1959 when the Central Bank of Nigeria came into full operation. In April 1960 the Bank issued its first treasury bills. In May 1961 the bank launched the Lagos bankers clearing house which provided licensed banks a framework in which to exchange and clear checks rapidly. By July 1 1961 the Bank had completed issuing all denominations of new Nigerian notes and coins and redeemed all of the west african currency Board’s previous money [4]. Table 1 shows the list of governors of Central bank since Independence [5].

Governor Previous position Term start Term end
Roy Pentelow Fenton   24 July 1958 24 July 2011
Aliyu Mai-Bornu Deputy Governor, CBN 25 July 2011 22 June 2007
Clement NyongIsong Advisor International Monetary Fund 15 August 2007 22 September 2005
AdamuCiroma   24 September 2005 28 June 2007
Ola Vincent Deputy Governor, CBN 28 June 2007 28 June 1982
Abdulkadir Ahmed Deputy Governor, CBN 28 June 1982 30 September 2009
Paul AgbaiOgwuma CEO, Union Bank of Nigeria 1 October 2009 29 May 2009
Joseph OladeleSanusi CEO First Bank of Nigeria 29 May 2009 29 May 2004
Charles ChukwumaSoludo Chief Executive, National Planning Commission 29 May 2004 29 May 2009
SanusiLamido A. Sanusi CEO, First Bank of Nigeria 3 June 2009 20 February 2014
Sarah Alade Deputy Governor, Central Bank of Nigeria 20 February 2014 3 June 2014
Godwin Emefiele Chief Executive Officer, Zenith Bank 3 June 2014 to date

Table 1: Governors of the central bank since independence.

Literature Review

Conceptual definitions

Training: This is the process of learning new skills and developing old ones in order to be effective in achieving the corporate objectives.

Job performance: This is process of achieving a given standard at a given period of time. It is also an ability to carry out a given effectively and efficiently.

Job satisfaction: In this context satisfaction means contentment. It is a feeling of content and happiness derives from achieving a particular desire. Therefore job satisfaction is the contentment comfort and happiness derived from performing a given task or job.

Employee commitment: Tendency if a worker giving total loyalty to his work with zeal and desire required in performing such work in order to achieve a giving target.

Human resources development: Programmes and activities undertaken by the organization that aimed at preparing and training individuals to develop their skills and capacities that they can contribute their best in work place.

Performance: An outcome that occurs as a result or function of individual working behaviour.

Human Resources or Personnel Management

Human resource is the most valuable and complex element in any organization. Its importance is rooted on the fact that it is the resource elements that utilizes and turns other resources in the organization into items of value. The achievement of the organizational objectives had to be harnessed and executed by the human asset. As a result of its importance and complexity in the organization Ogbeide [6] has observed that - “Human asset possess the intimidating credentials and characteristics to shape organization to be”.

The British Institute of personnel management defines personnel management as:

A responsibility of all those who manage people as well as being a description of the work of those who are employed as specialists. It is that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationships within an enterprise. It applies not only to industry and commence but to all fields of employment.

Personnel management aims to achieve both efficiency and justice neither of which can be pursued successfully without the other. It seeks to bring together and develop into an effective organization the men and women who make up an enterprise enabling each to make his own best contribution to its success both as an individual and as a member of a working group. It seeks to provide fair terms and conditions of employment and satisfying work for those employed.

In particular personnel management is concerned with the development and application of policies governing: Manpower planning recruitment selection placement and termination; Education and training career development terms of employment methods and standards of remuneration Working conditions and employee services formal and informal; Communication and consultation both through the representatives of employers and employees and at all levels throughout the enterprise; Negotiation and application of agreement on wages and working conditions procedures for the avoidance and settlement of dispute. Other major objectives of Personnel Management are:

To advice and counsel line managers in the personnel approach in other word to be an effective exponent of the personnel point of view in formulating and administering polices and in helping with the problems handled by all managers.

To diagnose occupational health by means of various indices of teamwork for example absenteeism labour turnover accidents and grievances and to keep managers informed of actual of potential difficulties that need their attention.

To provide personnel procedures and services as aids to management in getting more effective results with the people in their work groups; that is recruitment and introduction of new staff training arrangements wages and services.

To secure coordination of these activities and uniform administration of personnel policies (the “control” function) through discussions with managers and inspection reports to the chief executive who has the final responsibility for ensuring their consistent administrative.

Amstrong has defined Personnel Management thus:

Personnel management is concerned with obtaining organizing and motivating the human resourced organization by the enterprise; with developing an organization climate and management style which will promote effective effort and co-operation and trust between all the people working in it; and with helping the enterprise to meet its legal obligations and its social responsibilities towards its employees with regard to the conditions of work and quality of the provides for them.

Cuming has offered a definition which is perhaps more practical and descriptive.

Personnel management is concern with obtaining the best staff for an organization and having get them looking after them so that they will want to say and give of their best to their jobs.

In all this it possible to identify two district aspects of the personnel functions.

There are routine administrative duties involved in the execution of established policies the solution of minor day-to-day problems as they occur the maintenance of healthy relationships and the provision of personnel services example record that are very necessary but nevertheless routine. It is important for a personnel manager to create development and maintenance of alter trust and intelligent in the organization. The much more dynamic and creative managerial aspect involved in the processes of analyzing existing conditions and staff resources in the light of the future requirements of the organizations of diagnosing and defining its problems and of prescribing and executing the appropriate action to bring about change. In this regard the general corporate role of the Personnel function therefore is to advice management on personnel polices strategies procedures and systems.

The importance of personnel management lies in the basic purpose of all management - the task of creating a whole that is larger than the sum of its parts. The only ‘resource’ of production that is capable of enlargement is human resource. The other inanimate factors may be used in a good or bad way but can never of themselves have an output greater than the sum of their inputs. Indeed one problem in bringing inanimate resources together is to avoid output shrinking through inefficient methods of human error. Man alone of all the resources available to himself can grow and develop. Human brings also represent the costliest resource of many enterprise-to utilize this heavy investment particularly in managerial staff is therefore of paramount importance. While espousing their concept of ‘Human Capitalism’ Mukorich et al. [7] drew attention to the fact that human resources are the most important factor of production and the ultimate origin of the market value of all goods produced people unlike non-human resources are intellectual (intelligence carrying) beings in that they are capable of thinking analyzing inventing innovating and developing information vita for the creation of wealth people are psychological (emotional) beings whose productivity may rise or fall depending on whether they are motivated or demoralized by their work environment.

The cultural influence on personnel management activities in African organizations derive from the nature of the African personality and the circumstances of the African communities as they affect the work behaviour of the African worker. The issue which Ahiauzu [8] pointed out to be considered in this regard include the following:

Collectivism in social life emphasis on social intelligence influence of kingship system and interpersonal relations influence of religious belief system influence of African life cycle cosmogony influence of the African though-system the stranger notion regard for personal respect and self-dignity.

The greater percent of management problems come from the way and manner the human asset should be controlled. Human asset possesses the greater chunk of the constraints being suffered by most organization. In fact management of human resources is a major task permeating all the elements of the organization. Human asset is seen as the people personnel no workers who perform the day-to-day functions in the organization by doing one activity or the other to make sure that organizational objectives are achieved. The importance of quality human asset in an organization has been sufficiently highlighted by Likert [9] who is one of the greater proponents of Human asset accounting. He postulates that:

Human asset should be quantified and placed on the balance of the organization. This is because the value of the organization would improve as qualified employees are attracted trained and developed in the organization. The organization or become irrelevant.

Likert [9] further pointed out that human asset in the organization should be determined by using the following factors: intelligence training level of performance motivation quality of leadership degree of team work communication system and coordination of efforts. The proper utilization and evaluation of these factors sustain a concept that emphasizes the importance of quality human asset. Effective management of the human resource motivates employees and helps to improve on performance/ productivity. Human resource management or human asset management entails effective and efficient planning organizing controlling co-ordination directing and staff of the personnel who take active in the work related function of the firm in order to ensure that organizational objective are achieved. Heller [10] sees human asset management as:

The set of activities and functions to be used in the management of human resources in a non discriminatory affirmative and effective manner for the benefit of the organization the individual and society in a given organizational and environment context.

This definition of human resources according to Nnedu [11] underscores a number of ethical issues and they are as follows: the activities must be non discriminatory the activities must be affirmative or used positively to improve the disadvantaged; the activities must be designed to benefit the individual (any individual employee not just relatives of top management or friends). Generally human asset management includes such managerial functions as planning organizing controlling coordination staffing appraising/ evaluating analyzing implementing training and developing rewarding maintaining improving and directing.

Manpower Development (Human Capital Development)

Manpower development or human resource is the principal responsibility of the organization under the supervision of the Personnel manager. Every organization should develop strategies and policies for human resource development. In this case firms should evolve strategies and policies that are effective in planning recruiting selecting motivating and retaining of qualified workers.

Manpower development programme is aimed at preparing individuals to meet the future needs of the organization. The ability to recruit maintain and hold on to skillful and quailed workers create opportunity for the sustainable growth and development of the organization and its work force [12].

Manpower planning is the ability of the organization to recruit train motivate evaluate and analyse workers in line with their requirements in the firm and then make necessary arrangement for the continuous use of qualified personnel.

According to Nnedu [11]:

Human resources development is not just training in the mechanics or getting work done but also the development of present manpower for the present and future needs of the organization.

Manpower development helps an employee to be prepared skillfully as well as acquire tremendous knowledge through the process. Promotion attained through effective work gives a sense of self-fulfillment and its denial especially when one thinks one merits it deflects one’s ego. Nwachukwu [13] has maintained that:

Every organization should identify and encourage employees who have the potential to contribute their quota in the organization and the society as a whole.

The success of any organization depends virtually on the management of people. This is why human resource occupies a very sensitive position among all other resources being used by the organization. According to Ubeku [14] human resources department is charged with employment planning job analysis job description job specifications recruitment selection employees training and development motivation of employees discipline and performance appraisal.

For manpower development programme to succeed in an organization various methods suitable to the organizational environment have to be adopted. Nnedu [11] outlined the methods that can be used in

Nigeria for human asset development programmes as:

• Videotape recording: This method can be used to ethical and philosophical campaign geared towards behavioural changes in organizations and even in society

• Role playing: This technique can be used to train organizational members on the areas of public relations and general understanding or human behaviour

• On-the job training: This is a method that allows the workers to train on the job as he/she performs his/her functions in the establishment

Theories of Personnel Management

In the management of human resources the issue of how people in positions can direct and control the activities of subordinate is very important. It is an issue that determines the climate of that area of administration for which such managers are responsible. Heller [10] indicated that in the past people in managerial positions tended to believe that employees required close supervision because they - the workers did not really want to work. It became necessary that they had to be controlled so that they can work harder.

However of recent the traditional view of strict direction and control has been replaced with modern theories that allow individuals considerable opportunities to satisfy both their needs and the goals of the organization. Some of these theories (Human Resources Management Theories) are represented below:

Theories X and theory Y

In 1960 McGregor came up with the assumption that the behaviour of people strongly influenced by their beliefs. This led him to the conclusion that most business managers are Theory X type who believe that the average employees has an inherent dislike for work prefers to be directed whishes to avoid responsibility has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. This view (Theory X) maintains that in order to achieve organizational and individual goals managers and supervisors will be required to use force and maintain close surveillance on the subordinates [15].

Theory Y (Modem view)

The theory x assumptions as stipulated by McGregor are:

The expenditure of physical effort an mental effort in work is as natural as a play or rest. External control and the threat of punishment are the only means for bringing about effort towards organizational objectives. People will exercise self-direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. Average human beings learn under proper conditions not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination ingenuity and creativity in the solution or organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in the population.

Under the conditions of modern industrial life the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized [15].

These two sets of assumptions (Theories X and Y) are fundamentally different. Theory X is pessimistic static and rigid. Control is primarily external that is imposed on the subordinate by the supervisor. In contrast theory Y is optimistic dynamic and flexible with an emphasis on selfdirection and the integration of individual needs with organizational demands. There is little doubt that each set of assumptions will affect the way manager’s carry out their managerial functions and activities.

Theory Z

Theory Z is a new theory which is in agreement with the assumptions of theory Y. however theory Z goes further by stating the responsibilities which employees seek or desire and which they are capable of carrying out and still maintain self-control that are “culture related”. This cultural dimension is affected by changing societal needs and goals. Consequently yesterday’s motivators are not likely to be effective today. It is therefore important that today’s manager should establish and adopt new strategic that can effectively motivate subordinates. Productivity and rewards should no longer be the only goals to be considered in an effort to motivate workers.

Management system theory

Likert [9] is another behavioural scientist who developed this system at the institute for social research of the university of Michigan the system aims at building a productive and desirable organizational climate.

According to Likert [9] there are four different systems or approaches that may be used by the manager or supervisor as depicted in Table 2.

  RESULT
System I: Authority approach that is exploitative involves high pressure on subordinates through tight work standards. Obtain compliance through fear techniques High productivity over the short run
System II: Authoritative approach that is benevolent in nature Low productivity and earning over the long run.
System III: Consultative approach High absenteeism and turnover
System IV: Participative group approach in which the manager is supportive and uses group methods of supervision, including group decision-making. High productivity and high earning low cost and low scrap low absenteeism and turnover.

Table 2: Likert management systems.

The four systems proposed by Likert are shown in the above Table 2. To determine which of the four systems best describes a particular organization the firm is evaluated using a profile that contains statements concerning its leadership motivation communication decision-making goal setting and control processes.

The table shows that system 4 approaches produces better results in terms of productivity costs absenteeism and turnover. The system 4 approach also produces a better organizational climate characterized by excellent communication high peer group loyalty high confidence and trust and favourable attitude towards superior [9,10].

Factors that Enhance Productivity/Employee Commitment in Nigeria

Certain factors which bear on individual’s performance and the management of organization or government is able to recognize them and harness such knowledge in the overall running of the establishment. Ubeku [14] recognizes the following as being the key factors in the Nigerian situation that can enhance productivity or services. Good infrastructures; availability of adequate materials; intelligent/prudent use of capital; provision of adequate machinery/equipment; good organization structure providing for clear lines of communication authority and accountability; trained/knowledgeable management; committed and motivated work force.

To a Nigerian worker according to Enyioko [12] the level of his commitment depends top a large extent on the level of his commitment depends to a larger extent on the level of motivation; in this case the monetary reward attached to his job. On the importance of wage increase to motivate the Nigeria work Ubeku [14] insisted that in Nigerian good salary and wages play leading role in the search for productivity. A great majority of Nigerians originate from the villages and Nigerians are not known for their affluence. Therefore the workman has to be able to support himself wife and children. Unless a man’s job is such that it can assist him to fulfill these social obligations there will be no commitment from him to the job he is doing. His productive capability will be adversely affected.

However if the aim is to encourage productivity as positioned by Ubeku [14] which in turn will ensure steady economic growth and continued employment then it is necessary to summit that the use of money as a motivating factor must not be brushed aside. Further research as indicated by Adesanya [16] has shown that pay (in the form of wages and salaries) is a reward that can satisfy not only lower order of needs but also higher order of needs because pay represents a major of an employee’s worth both to himself and others worker naturally are sensitive about the amount of pay they received.

Most Nigerian workers prior to 1980 especially in the oil industry believe that they were paid inequitably and this used to dampen their moral to work [1]. Behavioural scientists such as Skinner [17] calls feelings of inequity of disharmony “cognitive dissonance” that is blocked expectation or relative deprivation. When then happens when a discrepancy between the individuals effort and reward and those of others. According to Eze [18] there is the natural tendency to reduce it by experiencing cognitive dissonance is to attempt to reduce it by taking any of several actions. One alternative is to leave the organization other less drastic action include asking for more money or decrease the effort exerted in other to equalized the situation. Because of the high economic climate high unemployment rate in the country Nigerian workers go for the less riskier option of asking for more pay or decreasing their effort in line with what they consider as fair input to fair output.

Factors Hindering Productivity/Employee Commitment

The national workshop on productivity as indicated by Nwachukwu [13] in his book divides the major causes of low productivity or service in Nigeria into four major factors namely; Economic factors; sociological factors; managerial factors; technological factor.

Economic factors

According to Nwachukwu [13] the economic factors deal with the reward system employed in Nigeria. There is no significant correlation between effort expanded and by an employee and the reward that he receives in an organization when an employer believes that equity does not prevail in the work place he tends to withhold a measure of his productivity in order to maintain equity in his system. Closely allied to this is the inability of the employers to give adequate compensation to employees who as result put in the barest minimum effort in the attainment of organizational roles. Programme of reward must be designed to equate hard work with recompense.

Sociological factors

Employees treasure a sense of belonging in an organization and resent any effort on the part of management to perceive and treat them as cost of production. Many Nigerian workers according to Nwachukwu [13] “Lack a sense of belonging in the organization and act as strangers they do the least possible to avoid losing their employment” in many organization there are some vocal but lazy employees who have very poor attitude to work these groups of employees demoralize the dedicated ones consequently productivity falls.

Managerial factors

The success of failure of an organization depends on the nature of management available in the organization. The productive and undisciplined supervisor can hardly motivate employees. Many Nigerian managers according to Nwachukwu [13] are lacking in the elementary principles of organizational behaviour promoted from the ranks and others are the technicians lawyers engineers etc. from other fields who do not know the levels of administration behaviour and human relations.

Research Methodology

Baridam describes research as “a frame work or plan that is used as a guideline in collecting and analyzing data for a study”. In administrative sciences the research design that is commonly used is the quasiexperimental design. This is used because variables involved are not under the control of the researchers. Quasi-experimental is descriptive in nature because it is channeled towards solving a particular problem through an indepth examination of the following topical issues inherent in the subject matters; the importance of employee training; needs for employee training; objectives of the employee training; steps in the employee training programme; training methods of the employees. For this study a cross sectional survey design is adopted. This is a system of measuring and collecting data at a single point in time.

Sampling procedure and sample size

The sample selection of the employees recognized by our population definition shall be done randomly through probabilistic sampling techniques involving stratification.

Sample Size = 373 employees

Methods of data collection

The research instruments used in collection of data for this study include the questionnaire containing structured questions personal interviews personal observation. The questionnaire constitutes the main instrument for obtaining primary data. It is used to elicit data from the respondents they are administered on: Equally secondary information or data were collected through textbooks journal magazine and newspapers etc.

Techniques of data analysis

Descriptive and inferential statistics would be used to analyze the data for this study. The descriptive statistics are normally used for the analyzing and understanding of any treatment of numerical data which does not involve generalization.

Results of the Data Analysis

A sample of 373 staff selected from 5 Central Bank of Nigeria branches in Port Harcourt was drawn for the study for which the sample elements consisted of 5 cadres of staff (management Secretarial supervisory lower cadre and general staff). Accordingly 373 copies of questionnaire were administered on the staff of the respondent bank (Central Bank of Nigeria). Out of the 373 copies of questionnaire administered 314 copies were retrieved and after going through them 298 (i.e., 79.89% response rate) copies were found useful for data analysis. The analyses of data generated in this study have been done as follows:

Table 3 reveals how the copies of questionnaire were distributed to the bank (Central Bank of Nigeria)’s staff at various cadres the number generated there from and the number found useful/relevant/ valid for the data analysis. The revelations indicated that 71 copies of questionnaire were administered on the management staff of the studied bank (Central Bank of Nigeria) and 60 copies of them were actually retrieved while 56 copies of questionnaire were found relevant and this represents 78.87% response rate of this segment. Equally 71 copies of questionnaire were administered on the Accounting staff of the studied bank (Central Bank of Nigeria) and 59 copies were collected from them but after going through them only 58 copies (i.e., 81.69% response rate) were found useful for the study. For the supervisory staff 71 copies of questionnaire were administered on them an 58 copies retrieved while only 54 copies (representing 7606% response rate) were found useful for the study. Also 76 copies were administered on the secretarial staff of the studied bank (Central Bank of Nigeria) and 68 copies were retrieved from the respondents and after going through them 65 copies of questionnaire (i.e., 85.53% response rate) were found useful in this segment For the general staff 84 copies of questionnaire were administered on them and 69 copies returned while only 65 copies (representing 77.38% response rate) were found useful for the study.

Options Number of questionnaire administered Number of questionnaire retrieved from respondents Number of questionnaire found useful Response
rate
 Management staff 71 60 56 78.87%
Accounting staff 71 59 58 81.69%
Supervisory staff 71 58 54 76.06%
Secretarial staff 76 68 65 85.53%
General staff 84 69 65 77.38%
Total 373 314 298 79.89%

Table 3: Administration and retrieval of questionnaire.

In all the study administered 373 copies of questionnaire on the respondents while 314 copies of questionnaire were actually retrieved from the respondents. However after editing the copies of questionnaire only 298 copies representing (79.89% response rate) were found useful for the data analysis.

Table 4 has revealed significantly that majority of the respondent Bank adopt human resources development programmes. The data show that 81% of the respondents indicated that their bank adopt human resources development programmes. Only 19% of the respondents indicated ‘No’ to the question as to whether respondent bank adopt human resources development programmes.

Options Number of respondents Percentage Outcome
Yes 241 81%
No 57 19%
Total 298 100%

Table 4: Whether the respondent bank adopt human resources development programmes.

Table 5 shows that the respondents indicated the extent to which the respondent bank adopt human resources development programmes as follows: 27% of the respondents indicated to a very large extent; 24% of the respondents indicated to a large extent; 20% of the respondents indicated to a moderate extent; 17% of the respondents indicated to a low extent while 12% of the respondents indicated to a very low extent.

Options Number of respondents Percentage Outcome
To a very large extent 80 27%

To a large extent

72 24%
To a moderate extent 60 20%
To a low extent 50 17%

To a very low extent

36 12%
Total 298 100%

Table 5: The extent to which the respondent bank adopt human resources development programmes.

Table 6 has revealed that 59% of the respondents agreed that their bank encounter problems while using some human resources development schemes while 41% of the respondents indicated that their Bank do not have problems using some human resources development programmes in the Bank.

Options Number of respondents Percentage Outcome
Yes 176 59%
No 122 41%
Total 298 100%

Table 6: The opinion of the respondents on whether their bank encounter problems while using particular human resources development programme.

Table 7 has revealed the opinions of the respondents on the extent of relationship between workers experience / development and organisational productivity in the respondent bank; the details are as follows: 29% of the respondents indicated to a very large extent 29% of the respondents indicated to a large extent; 22% of the respondents indicated to a moderate extent; 16% of the respondent indicated to a low extent; while 9% of the respondents indicated to a very low extent.

Options Number of respondents Percentage Outcome
To a very high extent 86 29%
To a high extent 71 24%
To a moderate extent 65 22%
To a low extent 47 16%
To a very low extent 26 9%
Total 298 100%

Table 7: The extent of the relationship between employees' experience / development and organisational productivity in the respondent bank.

Table 8 has revealed that the respondents indicated in connection with the employees’ development and organisational productivity in the Bank as follows: 29% of the respondents indicated to a very high degree; 25% of the respondents indicated to a high degree to the question; 21% of the respondents indicated to a moderate degree to the question; 17% of the respondents indicated to a low degree and 8% of the respondents indicated that to a very low degree that there is no relationship between employees’ development and organisational productivity in the Bank.

Options Number of respondents Percentage Outcome
To a very high degree 86 29%
To a high degree 74 25%
To a moderate degree 63 21%
To a low degree 51 17%
To a very low degree 24 8%
Total 24 100%

Table 8: The degree of relationship between employees' development and organisational productivity in the respondent bank.

Table 9 has revealed the opinion of the respondents on the extent of relationship between employees’ development /experience and job satisfaction in the respondent Bank. The details are given as follows: 33% of the respondents indicated to a very large extent; 26% of the respondents indicated to a large extent; 18% of the respondents indicated to a moderate extent; 10% of the respondents indicated to a low while 13% of the respondents indicated to a very low extent that there is relationship between employees’ development /experience and job satisfaction.

Options Number of respondents Percentage outcome
To a very large extent 98 33%
To a large extent 77 26%
To a moderate extent 54 18%
To a low extent 30 10%
To a very low extent 39 13%
Total 298 100%

Table 9: The extent to which there is relationship between employees’ development and job satisfaction in the respondent bank.

Table 10 shows the responses of the interviewed staff of the respondent bank with respect to the degree of relationship between employees’ experience and organisational productivity. The analysis shows as follows: 30% of the respondents indicated that to a very degree there is no relationship between employees’ development /experience and employees satisfaction; 23% of the respondents indicated to a high degree; 20% of the respondents indicated to a moderate degree; 17% of the respondents indicated a low degree while 10% of the respondents indicated to a very low degree that there is no relationship between employees’ development /experience and employees satisfaction.

Options Number of respondents Percentage outcome
To a very high degree 89 30%
To a high degree 68 23%
To a moderate degree 60 20%
To a low degree 51 17%
To a very low degree 30 10%
Total 298 100%

Table 10: The degree of relationship between employees' experience and organisational productivity in the respondent bank.

The data in Table 11 as revealed by the opinion of the respondents indicated that ‘serving as basis for human resources development is the main objective identified by the respondents for human resources development in the banks. The data show that 19% of the respondents indicated this placing the option 1st among others. Other objectives identified by the respondents as constituting the chief objectives for developing employees in their organization include:

Options Number of respondents
N = 298
Percentage outcome Rating
Maintaining of discipline 215 72% 5th
Servicing as basis for human resources development 271 91% 1st
Helping in career development and manpower planning 209 70% 6th
Helping staff to participate in decision making 182 61% 8th
Acquisition of skills 250 84% 2nd
Maintaining/enlarging knowledge 241 81% 3rd
Improving employees morale 200 67% 7th
Helping efficient and economic recruitment of staff 221 74% 4th

Table 11: Respondents opinions on the major objectives of human capital development programme in their bank.

• Acquiring skills - indicated by 84% of the respondents positioned 2nd in the rating

• Maintaining/enlargement of knowledge - indicated by 81% of the respondents and positioned 3rd in the rating

• Aids efficient and economic recruitment of staff - indicated by 74% and positioned 4th in the rating

• Maintaining of discipline in salary assessment indicated by 72% of the respondents placing the option 5th in the rating

• Helping in career development and ma npower planning indicated by 70% of the respondents placing the option 6th in the rating

• Improving employees morale indicated by 67% of the respondents placing the option 7th in the rating

• Helping staff to participate in decision making indicated by 61% respondent and positioned 8th in the rating

Table 12 shows that the respondents selected ‘Job not easily quantifiable for assessment’ and ‘interference of sentiments with judgement’ as the first problems or limitations in educating employees/ employees this has been indicated by 93% of the respondents. The next option selected by the respondents as a major problem of human resources development is ‘difficulties in determining the rate of certain jobs 87% of the respondents indicated this placing the option 2nd in the ranking. Other problems identified by the respondents include:

Options Number of respondents
N = 298
Percentage outcome Rating
Time consuming 238 80% 4th
Re-enforcement of statusquo 215 72% 5th
Creating of conflicts and grievance 247 83% 3rd
Job not easily quantifiable for assessment and knowledge transfer 277 93% 1st
Interference of sentiments with judgment/teachers bias 277 93% 1st
Difficulties in determining the rate of certain job/teaching aptitudes 259 87% 2nd
Capital intensive 259 87% 2nd

Table 12: Problems/Limitations to use of the human capital development programmes for employees / employees.

• Capital intensive indicated by 87% placing the option 2nd

• Creating of conflicts and grievances selected by 83% of the respondents rated 3rd

• Time consuming selected by 80% of the respondents placing the option 4th and

• Reinforcement of statusquo indicated by 72% placing the options 5th in the rating of the problems/limitations of human resources development of employees in the studied Bank

Table 13 in connection with major human resources developmental programmes or schemes used by the respondent bank reveals as follow: 94% of the respondents indicated that ‘on the job training’ seminars/ symposium constitute their major methods for educating employees in their bank; hence the options have been placed 1st in the rating. Also 85% of the respondents indicated schools/colleges and vestibules as the major human resources development programmes used by their bank and these options have been rated 2nd. The 3rd in the rating as indicated by the respondents is the use of instructional programmes as 75% selected this options. Position analysis/questionnaire has been selected by 71% of the respondents placing the option 4th in the rating. Finally lectures were selected by 59% of the respondent as a major human resources developmental programme in their bank and this places the option 5th.

Options Number of respondents
N = 298
Percentage outcome Rating
Schools/colleges 253 85% 2nd
Lectures 176 59% 5th
Position analysis questionnaire 212 71% 4th
On the job training 280 94% 1st
Vestibule 253 85% 2nd
Seminars/symposium 280 94% 1st
Instructional programmes 224 75% 3rd

Table 13: Major human resources development programmes used by the respondent bank.

Table 14 shows that the company and its management are major beneficiaries of human resources development programmes in Bank as 30% of the respondents indicated that the company is the main beneficiary of employees’ development of the respondent indicated that the management benefits from employees’ development 34% of the respondents indicated that workers equally benefited from their human resources development programmes in the respondent firm while; 6% of the respondents indicated that outsiders benefit from human resources development of workers in bank.

Options Number of respondents Percentage outcome
The company  89 30%
Management 89 30%
Workers 101 34%
Outsiders 18 6%
Total 298 100%

Table 14: The response of the respondents on who benefits from human resources development programmes in the respondent bank.

Discussion of Findings

In our study we have sought to know:

• The human resources development programmes available in Central Bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014

• The extent to which employees’ development encourages organisational productivity

• The major problem encountered by the organization in educating employees

• The major objectives or variables enhancing human resources development programmes

Relying on the above subheadings our discussions are presented as follows:

The human resources dvelopment programmes available in central bank of Nigeria from 2007 to 2014

The banking sector from our study is a very important sector whose services could be described as strategic to the development of the economy. The workers in this sector are graded by the Nigerian society as better rated employees compared to other sectors [10]. In line with this the banking sector sets standard for others to emulate. From our study we have seen that the sector uses various methods to educate the workers in the industry. Of important note here according to Enyioko [12] is the fact that the greater number of jobs in the oil sector are of technical and engineering stuffs. Based on this the managerial positioned jobs are heavily rated and paid for human resources development. From our study we have seen that the human resources development programmes available to banking sector include:

Seminars / symposia

Vestibules

Lectures

Teachings

Position analysis questionnaire

On the job training

Case Analysis methods

Assignment and jobbing

Secondment / projects

Schools and colleges

Policy capturing method etc.

Except a few cases most of the human resources development programmes adopted by banking sector are the conventional ones already outlined by authorities like Nwanchukwu [13].

The extent to which human resources development encourages organizational performance/productivity

Human resources development makes significant impact towards encouraging objectivity fairness and impartially in job performance of the studied bank. From our findings we have seen that 65% of the respondents are of the opinion that to a large extent human resources development of employees encourages job performance. The reason for holding this opinion is not farfetched as human resources development programmes done in bank without consideration to any person in mind. Amadi [1] has earlier indicated that fairness of human resources development programme is designed to achieve the objective of skill acquisition and conceptual agenda. It makes decision making to be objective and encourages rational outcome. Human resources development programmes helps in sustaining the equity theory in the organization. The equity theory holds that a person must see a relationship between the rewards he obtain and the amount of work required to get them and this is based on human resources development. Koontz et al. have on the objectivity of human resources development with respect to salary structure opined that bank attain the salary setting objective easily if they are made on the basis of impartiality rooted from efficient human resources development programmes bank may not easily evolve acceptable method to undertake human resources development programmes fairly. This assertion has been collaborated by Ahiauzu [2].

The major problems/limitations to human resources development of employees

Human resources development has it attendant problems. From the study the respondents have indicated that human resources development has it attendant conflicts. They equally submitted that human resources development is time consuming and a lot of money is wasted in engaging consultants to give appropriate teaching and lectures to employees. Also there are elements of professional biases in teaching employees.

The findings of Heller [10] have outlined the problems of human resources development to include:

Reinforcement of statusquo i.e., sustaining existing standard in human resources development system

Difficulties in determining the rate of certain job and training

Appropriate to the job

These points are in agreement with our findings. However we have been able to ascertain that the respondents are strongly disposed toward identifying such other limitations/problems as: Creating of conflict and grievances among workers interference of sentiment with judgmental abilities and capital intensive problem.

The major objective employees’ development

Human resources development seeks to sharpen the skills and capabilities to do jobs effectively within the same organization. From our study we have seen that human resources development is used for different purposes.

Some of the major objectives of job human resources development highlighted by the respondents include:

• Serving as bases for grading of jobs

• Helping to minimize friction of wage negotiation

• Maintaining equitable placement of workers

• Improving employees morale

• Aiding and encouraging efficient/economic recruitment of staff

• Maintaining of discipline in salary assessment

• Helping in career development and manpower planning

• Helping staff to participate in decision making

• Helping to acquire knowledge and skills

Equally human resources development helps the management and the workers to know who to promote without prejudice as the bases have been laid down. It equally allows for easy settlement of disputes and ensures uniform standard in term of job placements.

Summary of Findings

The major findings of the study revealed in the report are summarized here are they provide answers to our research problems questions and objectives. The Central Bank of Nigeria utilizes various human resources development programmes. The condition necessitating the use of a particular scheme include job content size of organization cost structure labour employed and market rate.

Majority of respondents agreed that the incidence of using a particular human resources developmental scheme increases with the emergence of the conditions listed above. Most of the respondents interviewed have stayed in their organization for more than five years. Hence they are not neophytes in the Bank. The consensus opinion of the respondents is that their organization encounter problems in implementing human resources development programme. Some of the problems encountered include; conflicts grievances and disagreement amongst staff; time consuming professional bias problem of sentiments in teaching and difficulties in determining the rate of certain jobs as well as intensive capital needed to the human resources development programmes. The study has equally revealed that there is significant relationship between human resources development and employees’ performance. To a large extent the relationship is significant in the studied Bank. Also revealed is the fact that human resources development of employees has relationship with the bank’s productivity.

The major objectives identified by the study for employees’ development include:

• To serve as basis for grading jobs

• To help in career development and manpower planning

• To help in minimizing frictions of wage administration

• To boost employee morale

• To maintain equitable salary structure

• To help in efficient and economic recruitment of staff

• To help staff participate in decision making

• To acquire knowledge and skills

• To improve the standard performance of the workers

In undertaking the human resources development programmes there are problems and limitations that go with them. The study has equally identified such problems to include:

• Difficulties in determining the rates of certain jobs and learning programmes appropriate

• Creating of conflicts and grievances among workers

• Time consuming

• Reinforcement of statuesque and sentimental interference

• Money Consuming

The major method used by the respondents organization in developing employees/employees include; market testing approach vestibules seminars and symposia lectures position analysis questionnaire guide chart profile policy capturing method etc., The bank studied also compensates its staff based on experience and human resources development outcome. They use such methods as salary/wage increase bonuses/benefits positional promotion and oral encouragement.

Conclusion

In the light of the findings it is evident that human resources development helps bank to maintain equity in growth profile improves performance of workers without prejudice and allows employees / employees some opportunities to participate in decision making. organisations that run effective human resources development schemes have the privilege to sustain objectivity and impartiality in the ways they deal with workers in their establishment. Finally there is positive and significant relationship between employees’ development / experience and his or her job satisfaction. The essence of these are that; Human resources development that is impact oriented used by progressive organisation will lead to better performance and productivity effective human resources development programmes sustain objectivity impartiality and equity in the organization that embarks on it. This helps to raise the morale and confidence of both the workers and management and employees’ development al / experience establishes motivating apparatus that induces the her to perform optimally and satisfactorily.

Recommendations

Having made our findings known in this study and our conclusion stated the following recommendations are adduced

• Bank that want to sustain equity / objectivity and high growth profile should embrace the use of effective human resources development programmes and consistently be adaptive to same

• While using human resources development programmes in the organization the management should try as much as possible to be objective and impartial in order to avoid sentiments in their impartation of knowledge to workers

• Organization should be environmental conscious in designing their human resources development programmes this will allow the scheme to be strategically and dynamically oriented toward achieving objectives and benefit both workers and the company

• Banks and or organisations should encourage employees/ employees to participate in the decision making and processing of the scheme. Employees should be involved in the human resources development programmes of the organization

• Consultants should be immensely used for the development and human resources development programmes of employees. This stem from the fact that they possess skills/knowledge not available within the organization. In addition their neutral status may make them acceptable lecturers if problems arise during the implementation of human resources development programmes

• Experience is very vital for work mastery as it is seen as the best teacher; it should therefore be encouraged by organizations

References

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