Foundation University Islamabad
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Emotional labor involves the expressing of various emotions and it is term which is usually applied to employees that work for service related industries where solving of queries is very important. This term genuinely presents authentic concerns for customers' needs, and the joyfully greeting to the customers by the employees, and making sanguine eye contact with the customers to improve the satisfaction level and association of the client with the organization. All these factors are important to gain the customer's insight of service quality. These are the types of behavior with are directly essential elements to worker performance, and productivity of the company.
Various different researchers have come up with this analysis that employees in a service organization perform emotional labor more or less using the same technique of acting. As discussed by Hochschild (1983) and Ashforth & Humphrey (1993) One of them is “surface acting.” In which the Service supplier take up surface acting when they have to alter their outward form to create the required emotions—emotions that are not unavoidable and in personal felt.
Another instrument is “deep acting.” This occurs when workers change not only their physical expressions, but also their inner feelings. It can be done during imagining or relating alike emotional familiarity. The last acting mechanism is “genuine acting.” This Genuine acting occurs when employees’ felt emotions are similar with articulated emotion and exhibited rules. Whenever a person engages in emotional labor, they control their feelings to fulfill the goals and expectations of the organization. From a realistic angle, this means Firstly, that either you present only of your positive feelings, or Secondly, you may conceal or administer your pessimistic outlook. Inorder to deal with negativity of emotions, people are tending to demonstrate or conceal those emotions of which they don't really feel and at times generate an appropriate emotion for the situation.
1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM
Basically is to classify the emotional labor and deal with the worker requirements, and the ability to classify the emotional conflict that leads to exhaustion and stress. Also by assessing the role of emotional labor in your work, to examine the job satisfaction of the employee as well as help reduce the potential negative effects - and continue to provide high-quality service to customers.
Thus the fundamental objective of this study is to find out the organization’s values of positive emotional communication with its workers making it better for them to communicate and express emotions that take specific measures to overcome any uncertainty and negative emotions that are generated.
People that have a more unconstructiveness towards traits and lower height of social awareness are inclined to be the hardest time dealing with emotional disagreement.
2.1 Job autonomy –
Hackman and Oldham (1975) have explained that autonomy portrays that there is a certain degree of liberation and maturity accessible to any employee when it has to complete certain job or tasks that he has been provided. Thus Job autonomy is there to figure out the degree as to how any service sector employee can be accustomed to the changes and the exhibiting of system that may cater their particular traits, deeds, personality or interpersonal relationship styles, but the deficiency of power and authority as to how these emotions should be presented are the basis of anxiety for the service sector employees. In accordance to that , Wharton (1993) in his research have clearly emphasized clearly the degree of emotional labor involved and the power and autonomy and self governance aims to decrease the negativity effect. Whereas on the other hand a greater degree of job autonomy should be the resultant to the reduction of emotional burnout. Which means whenever the employee is given the ease to do work according to his approach and feasibility the emotional exhaustion tends to be lesser and thus results in a better job performance.
2.2 Supervisor and coworker support –
Supervisory and coworker support is an essential element for any worker’s performance as if you are supported to a greater extent by your peers and superiors the performance of work tends to raise. In the research conducted by Schneider and Bowen (1985), he had recommended that the supervisory and coworker support creates a very positive environment which lessens the desire to connect in displaying of positive emotions which actually means that if an employee has a good mood to work since better environmental factors are involved then there will be a less emotional push required to depict the optimistic emotions of an employee. The supervisory and co-worker support acts as pillar for job performance which means is the employee gets a full support from its peers and superiors a healthier environment is created which directly effects the employees performance which in turn is beneficial for any organizations development.
Thus in another research work conducted by Beehr (1995) clearly states the reverse buffering effect in which the researcher has enlightened the fact that the greater level of social support from the peers and other in the environment contributes to the betterment of employee to perform resulting in a positive relation between any job stressors and the individual damage a person may bare alone. The effects of job stress on individuals can’t be buffered through a social support criteria.
2.3 Emotional Exhaustion -
Emotional exhaustion according to the research has been distincted as “the sensation of being emotionally overextended by colleagues at work” (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). According to conservation resources theory (COR), emotional exhaustion tends to arise when a person recognizea a threat to the possessions they may value (Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004; Hobfoll, 1988). The intimidation can be due to the reduction of emotional effects or when the speculation of time and knowledge or any other personal effort does not acquire the expected results as depicted by (Wright & Cropanzano 1998). It occurs whenever the stress levels are high and that employees are tired of their work either due to a lot of monotonous work been given to them or because of the work environment but majorly it is due to the raising stress levels and it is considered as a major component of Burnout. according to the research work being conducted by (Maslach, 1982) emotional exhaustion is what she referred to the state of exhausted energy when you are not willing to put in any more efforts in the work, this is usually caused by extreme emotional demands created by a lot of interaction with different kinds of employees. It is a genuine feeling of been emotionally drained and that work has resulted in a higher level of de-motivation As (Saxton, Phillips & Blakeney, 1991) have said that it involves the sensation of being expressively over-extended and exhausted by someone’s work.
2.4 Job satisfaction –
job satisfaction is the dimension of individuals approach towards its work also the attainment of organizational objectives (Graham, 1982). In other terms the measurement of performance between actual and perceived. In the research conducted by Wharton (1993) assessed that those employees who are more towards emotional labor jobs and find them satisfying are probably because they possess those qualities specifically suited to the community.
The degree of job satisfaction and job performance are correlated with each other. Whenever the job satisfaction level is higher it can be due to various other sub reasons genuinely if the job satisfaction is higher than the job performance also raises which increase the turnover and reduces the absenteeism.
Job satisfaction as explained by the researchers in their study is an association of attitudes held by an organization’s members. McCormick and Ilgen (1985), A criteria how each employee should particularly react to their work it also depicts how committed an employee is towards a specific task he is provided with. Thus we see various employees who are in the opinion of the fact that downsizing and reengineering mechanism aims to give employers the prospect to discard off workers who are not working the right way or are a burden to the association.
To comprehend the phenomenon of job satisfaction and its importance one must recognize the actual motivation for people at work or the assessment of their working environment. As Campbell, Dinette, Lawler and Weik in 1970 followed by smucker & Kent in 2004 in this they assessed that the job satisfaction theories are either related to Content or Process theories. Where the contented theories are the ones based on factors that influence the job and the level of satisfaction as well as security of the employee and the working conditions and environment. On the other hand the process theories are based upon certain elements like needs, goals expectations as well as the comparison of how the job is producing the job satisfaction by assessing expected and actual.
Based on all the above discussion following hypothetical interaction and hypotheses may be inferred:
Hypothesis 1 : Emotional labor will positively mediate the relationship of job autonomy and emotional exhaustion (burnout)
Hypothesis 2 : Emotional labor will negatively mediate the relationship of job autonomy and job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 3. Emotional labor will positively mediate the relationship between co-worker and supervisor support and emotional exhaustion (burnout).
Hypothesis 4. Emotional labor will negatively mediate the relationship between co-worker and supervisor support with Job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 5. Job autonomy will be positively influence emotional exhaustion (burnout).
Hypothesis 6: Job autonomy will be positively influence job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 7: Supervisor and coworker support will be positively influence emotional exhaustion (burnout).
Hypothesis 8: Emotional exhaustion will mediate the relationship between emotional labor and Job satisfaction.
The data was collected through questionnaire from 240 employees from service sector. In this the respondent’s job ranged from sales executives, customer sales representatives and customer attendants and a large part of customer service positions. The respondents had to communicate with a lot of customers as a part of their job. Therefore the individuals from various service sector employees were presented. Questionnaire was based on two parts: 1. A demographic part and 2. 5 point lickert scale to measure the different variables. Reliability of all questionnaires measuring variables were determined and found the value of all Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.7.
4.1 Descriptive Statistics
The majority of the respondents of this study were between 25-29 years of age which is 51.6%, where as between 30-34 years were 34.4% and the remaining were greater then 40. According to the resulting values shown in the table it has been observed that there was a male majority of 77.9% whereas the lesser minority female were 22.1% only. The results also showed 61.5% of respondents had less than 5 years of experience.
4.2 Hypothesis Testing
Simple and multiple regression analysis were conducted for the measure of influence whereas Sobel Test was conducted to measure the mediation.
|Job Autonomy||Supervisor & Co-worker support||Emotional Exhaustion (Burnout)||Job satisfaction|
|Beta||t-value||P- value||Beta||t-value||P- value||Beta||t- value||P- value||Beta||t- value||P- value|
Table 4.1: Simple Regression Analysis
|Emotional Labor||Job Satisfaction||Emotional Exhaustion|
|Supervisor & Co-Worker Support||-0.127||-1.406||0.162||-0.14||-0.149||0.882||-0.052||-0.572||0.568|
Table 4.2: Multiple Regression Analysis
|Sobel Statistics||P - Value|
|Job Autonomy and Emotional Exhaustion||3.99916097||0.00006357|
|Supervisor & Co-worker and emotional exhaustion||1.33928495||0.18047793|
|Job satisfaction and Burnout||3.95642967||0.00007608|
|Job Autonomy and job satisfaction||3.23474757||0.0012175|
|Supervisor & Co-worker and Job satisfaction||1.3893042||0.16474027|
|Burnout and Job satisfaction||3.95642967||0.00007608|
Table 4.3: Sobel Test For Mediation Analysis
The Hypothesis (1) of our study stated that Emotional labor will positively mediate the relationship of job autonomy and emotional exhaustion (burnout) which is observed to be true as the regression analysis depicted that these variables have a positive relationship and job autonomy has a positive influence on emotional exhaustion with the strength of 37.4% as shown in table 4.2, a sobel test was also applied to find the mediating effect between job autonomy and emotional exhaustion and the results stated the p-value was less than 0.05 and the Sobel Statistics showed 3.999 hence the hypothesis (1) is accepted.
Our hypothesis (2) was also analyzed through the regression analysis which also stated to be true and showed a positive relationship between the two variables. It was found that emotional labor will negatively mediate the relationship of job autonomy and job satisfaction as stated have a positive influence having the strength of 24% which can be observed in table 4.2, the sobel test was also applied to this hypothesis to identify the mediating effect between job autonomy and job satisfaction and results stated that the p-value was less than 0.05 and the statistics of the sobel test showed 3.234 hence from this we can assess that hypothesis (2) is accepted.
Hypothesis (3), was also applied using the same above tests of multiple-regression and sobel to find the mediating effects of the two, therefore hypothesis (3) stated that emotional labor will positively mediate the relationship between co-worker and supervisor support and emotional exhaustion (burnout). From the results of multiple regression it can be seen that the strength is -5.2% and the p-value is greater than 0.05 and the sobel statistics are 1.339, hence we say that hypothesis (3) is rejected.
Hypothesis (4), stated emotional labor will negatively mediate the relationship between co-worker and supervisor support with Job satisfaction, the strength of hypothesis 4 is -1.4% and from the findings of mediating effect between the two variables using sobel statistics we can observe that p-value is greater than 0.05 and the statistics show that the values are 1.389 hence from the table 4.2 we can see that hypothesis (4) is rejected.
Hypothesis (5), stated job autonomy will be positively correlated emotional exhaustion (burnout) is observed to be true as the regression analysis depicted that these variables have a positive relationship and job autonomy has a positive influence on emotional exhaustion with the strength of 37.4%. hence we say hypothesis (5) is accepted.
Hypothesis (6), stated Job autonomy will be positively correlated with job satisfaction. And this is observed to be true as the regression analysis shows there is a positive relationship with the strength of 24%. Hence hypothesis (6) is accepted.
Hypothesis (7), stated that supervisor and coworker support will be positively correlated with emotional exhaustion (burnout), this is seen to be false and the table.2 shows that supervisor and co-worker support have no impact on emotional exhaustion with the strength of -5.2%. hence hypothesis (7) is rejected.
Hypothesis (8), Affirmed emotional exhaustion will mediate the relationship between emotional labor and Job satisfaction, this is seen to be true and table.2 shows that emotional exhaustion and Job Satisfaction has a positive impact on each other with the strength of 63.7% according to sobel’s test the p-value was less than 0.05 and statistics show 6.57. Hence Hypothesis (8) is accepted.
These findings in this study present a very important contribution to the writings of emotions of individuals in the place of work, generally it aims to classify that how progression of emotional labor would affect the service sector association. Amongst the various inconsistent variables that have been assessed and examined we see that emotional burnout or exhaustion and job autonomy seem to hold most importance and pledged for prospective areas of research. This study further gives a support and practical nourishment to the uses of emotional labor in terms of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. A foretelling tool in the view of the service sector the base or the foundation of power is lessened when there is a high level of negativity and the contribution to the positivity is relatively less.
The findings also enabled us to know how the burnout tends to make the employees suffer which in turn lessens the level of productivity leaving so many dissatisfied employees.