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Impact of Mobile Phones TV Commercials on Consumers’ Behavior

Iqbal Ammara*

Department of Social Science, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Iqbal Ammara
Department of Social Science
University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: +92-342-7093113
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 25, 2017; Accepted Date: June 20, 2017; Published Date: June 26, 2017

Citation: Ammara I (2017) Impact of Mobile Phones TV Commercials on Consumers’ Behavior. Arts Social Sci J 8: 279. doi: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000279

Copyright: © 2017 Ammara I. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact that mobile phones’ network commercials broadcasted from TV incur on consumer’s behavior. The proposed research work examines consumer behavior on three levels, i.e. knowledge, attitude and practice. The researcher has found out that how these networks commercials compel consumers to react at different levels. The major hypothesis of study is” the more exposure to TV commercials of mobile phone networks, the greater impact/persuasion there would be in consumer behavior”. The study was conducted in Lahore and it investigated the “impact of TV commercials on consumer behavior” through survey using questionnaire as a tool of data collection. It will target 200 consumers (100 male, 100 female) along with demographic characteristics like gender, age and income of the respondents. For this research, researcher will select three demography of the sample, like gender, income and education. For gender, the researcher will select male and female, for income, both low and high income sample will be selected and lastly for education, both low and high educated sample will be selected. For this research, the researcher will select various demographic features as well. The statistical test Chi-Square will be used for testing the hypothesis. The results and findings will be discussed in the light of societal justifications and empirical evidences available. The findings of the study revealed.

Keywords

Consumer behavior; TV commercial; Mobile phone impact; Consumer behavior

Introduction

Today we are living in an advertising age, we see advertisements all around us. There is bombardment of advertisement on viewers. Criteria of popularity of any TV program are the quantity of ads sponsored that content. Normally a popular 60 minutes program hold 20 minutes of advertisements, which is quite big ratio from past. On the other hand, in print media there is bundle of advertisements publish on daily bases even some time lower half of the front page.

Advertising is a form of communication that is used to persuade the audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. According to Ashraf [1] in a comparative study of the influence of the different advertisements media on consumer behavior (TV, newspaper, signboard), concluded that each kind of advertisements influence consumer behavior. Advertisers and marketers make such strategies that influence attitude, behavior and purchase decision of consumers. The researcher said that TV advertisements have more influence rather than other advertising medium. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to commercial products.

Plair [2] in a study regarding the role of advertising in bringing social change in society concluded that advertising influences behavior of people and brings positive change in society. It provides information about new products and innovations but also affects our values and persuades people to buy things which they do not need.

Now a day’s advertisements engage the consumers into commercials or influence their social behavior, buying behavior and their psyche. Exposure to so many advertisements ultimately converts consumer wants into needs. Consumers make decision to buy such things that should not be their priority over basic needs. Aslam [3] in a research work has analyzed the messages of TV advertisements, the purpose of the ad. is to influence the consumers living in the society. That’s why these ads are creating a social and economic effect on the society, which can be termed as positive or negative. In present study researcher also tries to find out the impact of TV commercials on consumer behavior.

Ismail [4] in his research reception analysis of the values presented in the advertisements of latest cellular companies concluded that advertising plays a vital role in shaping our behavior patterns. John [5] in a research article titled, “the effects of advertising on brand switching and repeat purchasing”, examined that advertising effects consumer’s choice in switching the brand and changing their loyalty with brand. Their results suggest that advertising induces brand switching, it persuades the people to buy the commodity. In the present study the researcher also focuses on how the mobile phone advertisements compel the consumers to switch their brand affiliation. According to Belch while exposure to advertising any consumer goes through an internal psychological process that starts with motivation, then perception is developed, then consumers formulates the opinion and lastly the consumer learn and practice the changed behavior. Solomom narrated that apart from exposure and inner psychological process, demographics of the consumers also influence their purchase behavior. Demographics of the consumers motivate them to buy things and convert their wants into needs. He further explained that environment of consumer also influence him/her and buying behavior. In the present study the researcher has also checked different demographic variables like education, gender etc. to evaluate the impact of mobile phone TV commercials on consumers behavior having different demography [6-10].

Tasung discussing the results of a study on consumer attitude towards mobile advertising narrated that the rapid proliferation of mobile phones and other mobile devices has created a new channel for marketing. The present research investigates consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising and the relationship between attitude and behavior. He also indicated that (1) consumers generally are likely to have negative attitudes toward mobile advertising unless they have specifically consented to it, and (2) there is likely to be a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer behavior. In proposed research work the researcher has selected TV commercials of mobile phone networks. The research is basically on pattern of KAP Model. The researcher realized that how commercials of these networks work on three levels, how these commercials give knowledge to consumers, and how these commercials are doing attitude formation of consumers and finally how these commercials compel consumers to practice or adopt that specific network. The researcher also investigated that how these commercials affect different demographical variable like education, income or gender.

The main objective of this study was to put light on the effects of commercials of mobile phone networks on the consumers. The researcher wanted to study if there are effects of commercials of mobile phone networks on consumers, and if the answer is ‘yes’, to what extent it effected the consumers in terms of the following factors:

• Knowledge level;

• Attitude level;

• Behavior level.

Researcher had chosen the above mentioned factors, built on the conclusion, after examining the related literature i.e., most of the researchers were of the view that exposure of TV commercials of mobile phone network companies really persuade consumers to adopt some specific network and this exposure work different on different demographic variables.

Now a day’s telecommunication industry of Pakistan is very progressive. In past, only PTCL was major company to provide cellular services to the people. Then private telecommunication companies started in Pakistan. The mobile communication sector is seeing very large year to year progress in Pakistan. Approximately 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of Pakistanis have access to a cell phone. With 118 million mobile subscribers in March 2012, Pakistan has the highest mobile penetration rate in the South Asian region. According to Pakistan telecommunication Authority (PTA), Mobilink continuous to lead the market with 35.7 million subscribers, followed by Telenor with 29.3 million, Ufone with 23.1 million, Zong with 15.6 million and Warid telecom with 14.3 million [11-15].

Above data shows that to which extent the consumers are using mobile networks. So in this research, the researcher was interested know that while exposure to commercials, either consumers respond differently. In this research, researcher has selected commercials of telecommunication companies. Like commercials of other products, commercials of mobile phone networks also are of importance for the audiences because when they see commercials of different cellular services companies, they get information about different packages of related company. People mostly watch commercials of telecommunication (cellular companies) to know about different packages, call rates.

The purpose of the research is to investigate that how TV commercials especially (mobile phone networks) affect consumer’s behavior. In proposed research work the researcher will measure consumer behavior on three levels, knowledge, attitude and practice. The researcher will find out that how these networks commercials compel consumers to react at different levels. The study was conducted in Lahore, using Survey method. The major objectives of conducting this research are:

• To explore the effectiveness of TV commercials in changing behavior of consumers.

• To find out to which extent TV commercials influence consumer behavior.

• To locate the influence of TV commercials on the demographic characteristics of the consumers.

Hypotheses

The designed hypotheses for the present research by the researcher are:

H1: The more exposure of TV commercials, the greater would be the changes in consumer behavior.

H2: Well educated consumers are likely to have less behavioral changes than less educated consumers while exposure to TV commercials.

H3: Female consumers are likely to have more effects than male consumer while exposure to TV commercials.

H4: The more exposure of TV commercials of mobile networks, the more adoption of mobile networks in real life among consumers.

H5: Consumers belong to lower income are more effected than high income consumers while exposure to TV commercials of cellular services.

This is the age of media, and advertising is considered as the backbone of media industry. Television is the most popular medium among viewers. TV commercials have impact on consumer behavior that exposed to them. The advertisers use different advertising techniques and persuasive abilities to manipulate the consumer’s psychology. Today’s advertising and advertising industry gain a lot of importance so there is need to find out the relationship between exposure of TV commercials and changing behavior of consumers. So the focus of this research is to find out that how and to which extent TV commercials of mobile phone network companies influence or change consumer behavior and how these TV commercials giving awareness, changing attitudes and compelling consumers to adopt specific network [16-20].

This study is designed to find out impact of TV commercials of cellular services companies with a focus on determining these effects on Pakistani consumers living in selected area of Lahore, Defense and Walton having access to TV sets. The research was important as there was a common apprehension in our society that TV commercials mould consumer behavior. The intensity of these cellular services commercials impacts becomes higher where the audiences are the heavy viewers. Unfortunately, very little or no attention had been given in the past to this very sensitive issue [21-28].

Theoretical frame work

The present study comes under the effect approach of mass media. In this research study the researcher applies ELM model of persuasion and social learning theory of Albert Bandura. The researcher has selected this theory to analyze and measure the effects of TV commercials of mobile phone networks on consumer behavior. At the same time, it has also measured that how high and low educated consumers respond to TV commercials. So, the researcher tried to investigate all these factors for which the Social Learning Theory was most appropriate.

The present research is based on Social Learning theory. The central idea of the hypothesis of this study is based on the point that the commercials of different mobile phone network are serving as a model for imitations among viewers. There is a possibility that the viewers may adapt networks of different mobile phone companies which can influence their beliefs and attitudes [29-34].

Methodology

Keeping in view the nature and requirement of the present study, survey research method has been adopted to explore and examine that to which extent consumers are influenced by TV commercials regarding mobile phone networks. In the present study, the researcher has applied the survey method to obtain the data that is quantitative in nature from large representative but diverse population. The survey method has aided researcher in collecting information directly from the consumers of TV commercials of mobile phone network so a proper analysis could be made to analyze the effects of commercials of mobile phone network on consumers. The effects on their behavior have hence figured out through the information provided on a quantitative scale. This research was conducted during October 2013 to August 2014. The data was collected in December 2014 and January 2015.

The researcher has selected Lahore city as field of study. It consists of heterogeneous population comprising Punjabis, Pathan, Baluchis, Sindhis and Kashmiris who speak different languages. The researcher was interested in collecting data from large population but due to time and financial constraints, it was not feasible for the researcher to approach the total population, therefore, the researcher has applied convenient sampling technique for data collection. The sample size consists of 400 male and female consumers of two areas of Lahore, Walton and Defence.

In this research, close ended questionnaire was employed as a tool for data collection. In order to analyze the data, researcher has used the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS Version 13.0). In addition, MS Word and Excel were used for designing tables, graphs, charts and writing the script of thesis. In this study the relationship between exposure of TV commercials and its impact on consumer behavior was evaluated by chi square test. The chi square test is used in those research studies where the obtained data shows attributes and characteristics of individuals.

Data Analysis and Findings

Procedure for testing hypothesis

Some important steps for testing Hypothesis.

Null hypothesis, H0 there is no association between variables.

Alternative hypothesis H1 there is association between variables.

Level of Significance α=0.05.

Test statistics:

Degrees of freedom v=(r-1) (c-1).

Critical value

Critical region X2>X2, Calculated value>Table value.

Decision Rule, Reject H0 if X2 (calculated value)>X2 (table value).

Sample data has been analyzed into different demography to examine each hypothesis. As this study evaluated the association between the exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks and changing behavior of consumers, therefore statistical tool Chi-Square was used by the researcher. Answers were obtained on Likert 3-point scale as mentioned in Table 1.

Opinion  Value
Agree 1
Undecided 2
Disagree 3

Table 1: Likert 3-point scale.

H1: The more exposure of TV commercials of mobile phone networks, the greater changes in consumer behavior.

Chi square value 17.600 shows that the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance (probability of rejection of null hypothesis). Therefore, an alternative hypothesis of significant association between gender’s exposure of TV commercials and changing behavior of consumer is accepted (proved). Similarly chi square value 39.333 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at level of significance (5%) and the alternative hypothesis of significant association between Exposure of TV commercials and levels of Education of consumers is accepted. Moreover the value of chi-square 63.242 rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that there is relationship between Exposures of TV commercials on levels of Income of consumers. The percentage values as shown in the Table 2 indicates that between the gender demography there is high percentage of female consumers who agreed greater changes in behavior after exposure to TV commercials of mobile phone networks. Then in education demography, there is high percentage of less educated consumers who agreed that there is relationship between exposure of TV commercials of mobile phone networks and changing behavior. The percentage of agreed decreases as the graph of education of consumers rose.

  Male Female Total
  Frequency % frequency % f (%)
Agree 143 71.5 180 90 323 (80.75)
Undecided 17 8.5 5 2.5 22 (5.5)
Disagree 40 20 15 7.5 55 (13.75)
Total 200 100 200 100 400 (100)

Table 2: Gender’s Exposure of TV commercial and changing behavior of consumers.

In last demography of income, the percentage of categories showed that consumers belonging to 10,000-20,000 are mostly agreed on this whereas graph of agreed decreases as the income rose which means that consumers having low income are mostly practice these TV commercials of mobile networks in real life than consumers having high income.

H2: Well educated consumers get less behavioral changes than less educated consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks.

Chi square value 13.333 shows that the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance (probability of rejection of null hypothesis). Therefore, an alternative hypothesis of significant association between gender’s exposure of TV commercials and changing behavior of consumer is accepted (proved). Similarly chi square value 47.000 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at level of significance (5%) and the alternative hypothesis of significant association between Exposure of TV commercials and effects on levels of Education of consumers is accepted. Moreover the value of chi-square 90.667 rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that well educated consumers get less behavioral changes than less educated consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks. The percentage values as shown in the Table 3 indicates that between the gender demography there is high percentage of female consumers who agreed greater changes in behavior after exposure to TV commercials of mobile phone networks. Then in education demography, there is high percentage of less educated consumers who got more influence of commercials of mobile phone networks. The percentage of agreed decreases as the graph of education of consumers rose. In last demography of income, in Table 4, the percentage of categories showed that consumers belonging to 10,000-20,000 are mostly agreed on this whereas graph of agreed decreases as the income rose which means that consumers having low income are mostly practice these TV commercials of mobile networks in real life than consumers having high income.

  Male Female Total
  Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 130 85 180 95 310 (90)
Undecided 20 10 0 0 30 (5)
Disagree 50 5 20 5 70 (5)
Total 200 100 200 100 400 (100)

Table 3: Gender’s Exposure of TV commercial and changing behavior of consumers.

  10,000-20,000 21,000-30,000 31,000-40,000 40,000-Above   Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 89 61.53846 88 58.06452 35 46.15385 24 40 236 (51.44)
Undecided 10 15.38462 20 12.90323  5 0 3 20 38 (12.07)
Disagree 31 23.07692 47 29.03226 25 53.84615 23 40 126 (36.49)
Total 130   155   65   50   400 (100)

Table 4: Exposure of TV commercials on levels of Income of consumers.

H3: Female consumers having more effects than the male consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks.

Chi square value 16.000 shows that the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance (probability of rejection of null hypothesis). Therefore, an alternative hypothesis that female consumers having more effects than the male consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks (proved). Similarly chi square value 48.000 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at level of significance (5%) and the alternative hypothesis of significant association between Exposure of TV commercials and effects on levels of Education of consumers is accepted. Moreover the value of chi-square 67.867 rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that Female consumers having more effects than the male consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks. The percentage values indicates that between the gender demography there is high percentage of female consumers who agreed greater changes in behavior after exposure to TV commercials of mobile phone networks than male.

Then in education demography, there is high percentage of less educated consumers who got more influence of commercials of mobile phone networks. The percentage of agreed decreases as the graph of education of consumers rose. In last demography of income, the percentage of categories showed that consumers belonging to 10,000-20,000 are mostly agreed on this whereas graph of agreed decreases as the income rose which means that consumers having low income are mostly practice these TV commercials of mobile networks in real life than consumers having high income (Table 5).

  10,000-20,000 21,000-30,000 31,000-40,000 40,000-Above   Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 94 61.53846 80 58.06452 42 46.15385 21 40 237 (51.44)
Undecided 12 15.38462 14 12.90323  5 0 12 20 43 (12.07)
Disagree 24 23.07692 61 29.03226 18 53.84615 17 40 120 (36.49)
Total 130   155   65   50   400 (100)

Table 5: Exposure of TV commercials on levels of Income of consumers.

H4: Consumers belong to lower income are more effected than high income consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks.

Chi square value 16.000 shows that the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance (probability of rejection of null hypothesis). Therefore, alternative hypotheses consumers belong to lower income are more effected than high income consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile network (proved). Similarly chi square value 45.000 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at level of significance (5%) and the alternative hypothesis of significant association between Exposure of TV commercials and effects on levels of Education of consumers is accepted. Moreover the value of chi-square 86.667 rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that consumers belong to lower income are more effected than high income consumers while exposure to TV commercials of mobile networks. The percentage values as shown in the Table 6, indicates that between the genders demography there is high percentage of female consumers than male. Then in education demography, there is high percentage of less educated consumers than high educated consumers. The percentage of agreed decreases as the graph of education of consumers rose. In last demography of income, the percentage of categories showed that consumers belonging to 10,000-20,000 are mostly get influence from TV commercials of mobile phone network whereas graph of influence decreases as the income rose which means that consumers having low income are mostly effected than consumers having high income (Tables 7 and 8)

  Male Female Total
  Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 170 85 190 95 360 (90)
Undecided 20 10 0 0 20 (5)
Disagree 10 5 10 5 20 (5)
Total 200 100 200 100 400 (100)

Table 6: Gender’s Exposure of TV commercial and changing behavior of consumers.

  Matric B.A Above Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 70 63.63636 50 29.41176 70 58.33333 190 (50.46)
Undecided 20 18.18182 50 29.41176 10 8.333333 80 (18.64)
Disagree 20 18.18182 70 41.17647 40 33.33333 130 (30.89)
Total 110   170   120   400 (100)

Table 7: Exposure of TV commercials on levels of Education of consumers.

  10,000-20,000 21,000-30,000 31,000-40,000 40,000-Above   Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 80 61.53846 90 58.06452 30 46.15385 20 40 220 (51.43)
Undecided 20 15.38462 20 12.90323   0 10 20 50 (12.07)
Disagree 30 23.07692 45 29.03226 35 53.84615 20 40 130 (36.49)
Total 130   155   65   50   400 (100)

Table 8: Exposure of TV commercials on levels of Income of consumers.

H5: The more exposure of TV commercials of mobile networks, the more adoption of mobile networks in real life among consumers.

Chi square value 21.333 shows that the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance (probability of rejection of null hypothesis). Therefore, an alternative hypothesis that the more exposure of TV commercials of mobile networks, the more adoption of mobile networks in real life among consumers (proved). Similarly chi square value 59.000 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at level of significance (5%) and the alternative hypothesis of significant association between Exposure of TV commercials and effects on levels of Education of consumers is accepted. Moreover the value 112.478 of chi-square rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that the more exposure of TV commercials of mobile networks, the more adoption of mobile networks in real life among consumers.

The percentage values as shown in the Table 8 indicates that between the gender demography there is high percentage of female consumers who adopt some mobile network after watching its commercial than male. Then in education demography, there is high percentage of less educated consumers who adopt some mobile network after watching its commercial than high educated consumers.

The percentage of agreed decreases as the graph of education of consumers rose. In last demography of income, in Table 9, the percentage of categories showed that consumers belonging to 10,000-20,000 are mostly agreed on this whereas graph of agreed decreases as the income rose which means that consumers having low income are mostly practice these TV commercials of mobile networks in real life than consumers having high income (Tables 8-10).

  Male Female Total
  Frequency % Frequency % f (%)
Agree 102 85 153 95 255 (90)
Undecided 13 10 20 0 33 (5)
Disagree 85 5 27 5 112 (5)
Total 200 100 200 100 400 (100)

Table 9: Gender’s Exposure of TV commercial and changing behavior of consumers.

  10,000-20,000 21,000-30,000 31,000-40,000 40,000-Above   Total
  frequency % Frequency % Frequency % frequency % f (%)
Agree 93 61.53846 75 58.06452 35 46.15385 29 40 232 (51.44)
Undecided 15 15.38462 23 12.90323  13 0 8 20 59 (12.07)
Disagree 22 23.07692 57 29.03226 17 53.84615 13 40 109 (36.49)
Total 130   155   65   50   400 (100)

Table 10: Exposure of TV commercials on levels of Income of consumers.

Discussion and Recommendations

The general findings concluded that majority of the consumers imitate behavior which they see on TV commercials. This study proves that consumers prefer commercials of mobile networks on other commercials because these commercials give them information which changes their attitude towards any mobile network. The study also proves that consumers Subscribe calls and SMS packages after watching its commercials on TV which means that those commercials attract consumers to do this.

The findings of the study also concluded that 80% of the consumers switch their connection to other network after exposure to TV commercials of that mobile network. Then Analysis about guide in daily life, 80% consumers said that TV commercials of mobile networks guide them in real life in terms of how they can easily interact with their friends. So this shows the power of the message of advertising.

Analysis about commercials of mobile phone networks are the only way to know about their packages revealed that 78% consumers agreed on this. 65% male and 90% female consumers agreed on this. This ratio shows that female consumers more agreed on this that commercials are only way to know about their packages. That’s why consumers give preference to these commercials on other commercials.

Then findings about acquaintances change network after watching mobile network commercial concluded that 84% consumers said that their Acquaintances had changed network after watching its commercial. This shows that commercials of networks have so much potential that they persuaded and change consumer behavior.

The research has also probed that 86% consumers said that they ask their family and friends to adopt same network which they are using whereas 10% were disagree on this. The data shows that female consumers more ask their family and friends to adopt same network which they are using than male consumers. Then percentage also shows that consumers belonging to low education more ask their family and friends to adopt same network which they are using than consumers belonging to BA and above category. On the other hand, percentage of consumers having low income, who ask their family and friends to adopt same network which they are using is high than high income group.

This study has provided a baseline study on the effects of TV commercials of mobile phone networks on consumer behavior. It has explored only effects of TV commercials of mobile networks in general, however the researcher has planned to work in future on more specific aspects and evaluate effects on more demographic characteristics. There is need to gauge the effects on different age group etc. The present research did not study the effects of specific mobile network commercials so in future combination of survey method and content analysis can be applied.

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