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Impaired Pattern of Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Heart Failure Patients with Preserved and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction | OMICS International
ISSN-2155-9929
Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

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Impaired Pattern of Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Heart Failure Patients with Preserved and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

Huamei Yang, Min Qiu, Yu Zhou, Lu Jiang, Hongxia Dan* and Qianming Chen

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, P.R. China

*Corresponding Author:
Hongxia Dan
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases
West China Hospital of Stomatology No.14 Renminnan Road, Chengdu
610041, P.R. China
Tel: +86-28-85503480
Fax: +86-28-85405251
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 15, 2016; Accepted date: June 26, 2016; Published date: June 28, 2016

Citation: Yang H, Qiu M, Zhou Y, Jiang L, Dan H, Chen Q (2016) NK/T-Cell Lymphoma on the Upper Lip. J Mol Biomark Diagn 7: 288. doi: 10.4172/2155-9929.1000288

Copyright: © 2016 Yang H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

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Abstract

The prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) rises consequently within past decades. Both phenotypes of HF, i.e. HFpEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), have exhibited similar cardiovascular mortality rates and admission rates, while development and progression of HFpEF and HFrEF associate with different co-morbidities. Understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the two phenotypes of HF is essential for discovery of future new treatments. Biomarkers reflecting several stages of failing heart evolution and different pathophysiological faces of HF (N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T, and galectin-3) have been implemented into routine clinical practice to increase diagnostic and predictive capabilities of clinical-based stratification models. Recent clinical studies have shown that development of endothelial dysfunction in HF could relate to activation and/or apoptosis of endothelial cells. Worsening endothelium integrity and function relate to release of newly detectable circulating biomarkers called endothelial cell derived microparticles (EMPs). The commentary is discussed the role of impaired immune pattern of circulating EMPs associated with elevated number of apoptotic endothelial cell-derived microparticles in prediction of HFpEF development.

Keywords

Lip; NK/T-cell lymphoma

Introduction

Extra-nodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) is an uncommon type of lymphoma with involvement of extra-nasal sites, such as visceral organs and soft tissues, as the primary manifestations [1]. Reports of localized NK/T cell lymphoma on the upper lip were extremely rare.

Case Report

A 42-year-old man was referred to our clinic by his physician in November 2014. He had been suffering from progressive ulceration of the upper lip with pain and itching for four months. The patient had a history of second- to third-degree fire burn ten years ago, involving 80% total body surface area. He had also been taking benazepril pills to control high blood pressure for ten years.

Physical examination revealed an ill-defined, 3.5 cm x 2.5 cm ulcerative lump with irregular and raised border on the upper lip (Figure 1).

molecular-biomarkers-diagnosis-Clinical-manifestation

Figure 1: Clinical manifestation.

No other oral or extra-oral lesion was observed. Routine laboratory tests, including whole blood cell count, coagulation test, urine test, as well as liver and kidney function panels were normal. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis were negative.

An incisional biopsy was taken from the lump. Routine histopathological examination revealed dense infiltration of mediumsized lymphocyte-like cells (Figure 2).

molecular-biomarkers-diagnosis-HE

Figure 2: HE 400.

Immunohistochemistry was performed and the findings were as follows: CD56 (±)CD20 (-), Granzyme B (+), MPO (-), CD4 (-), TdT (-), CD34 (-), CD123 (-), and CD3ε (+) (Figure 3).

molecular-biomarkers-diagnosis-CD3-epsilon

Figure 3: CD3 epsilon 200.

The positive rate of Ki67 was 40%. In situ hybridization(ISH) revealed positive nuclear staining of EBER 1/2 in the lymphocyte-like cells (Figure 4).

molecular-biomarkers-diagnosis-EBER

Figure 4: EBER 400.

Following bone marrow aspiration examination and contrastenhanced CT scans of the nasopharynx, neck, chest and abdomen didn’t reveal any pathological change.

The lesion enlarged quickly after the biopsy. The size of the lump was around 5 cm X 3 cm at the second review after two weeks.

Based on the histopathological findings, a diagnosis of ENKTL (invasive, WHO) was made, although ulceration of the upper lip as the primary clinical manifestation of this disease was rarely reported.

The patient received the THP-COP regimen containing pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone in another hospital. After two cycles of THP-COP chemotherapy, the size of the lesion didn’t change. Furthermore, lung metastasis and mediastinal lymph node involvement was confirmed by CT scans. The treatment plan was then switched to a regimen with gemcitabine, pegaspargase and oxaliplatin. Partial remission was achieved after two cycles of chemotherapy. However, the patient died of infection and multiple organ failure in May 2015, six months after the diagnosis was confirmed.

Discussion

ENKTL is a distinct entity of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is extremely rare in Europe and North America but more prevalent in Asia and Latin America. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been proved to be involved in the pathogenesis of ENKTL. Clinically, NK/T-cell lymphoma is divided into nasal and extra-nasal (non-nasal) subgroups according to the sites of the primary lesion. Clinical manifestations of nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas include nasal obstruction, epistaxis and palatal perforation. In the current case, none of the above symptoms was observed at the first or any of the following visits. The involvement of nasal cavity was further ruled out by additional examination of contrast-enhanced CT. The patient chose not to do PET/CT due to lack of funds.

For non-nasal lymphomas of any stage, systemic chemotherapy with involved-field radiotherapy is preferred [2]. NK/T-cell lymphomas of the non-nasal type are more aggressive than their nasal counterparts and usually have poor prognosis.

We presented a rare case of ulcerative lump on the lip as the primary manifestation of ENKTL. This case indicates that Oral Medicine specialists should be aware of this disease, and multiple diagnostic techniques should be applied in order to make a correct diagnosis.

Funding Sources

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81200791 and 81270040)

References

 

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