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ISSN: 2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology
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Improvement of the Nutritional Value of a Cereal Fermented Milk: 2-Dried Kishk Like

Nassar KS1*, Shamsia SM1 and Attia IA2

1Department of Food and Dairy Science and Technology, Damanhour University, Egypt

2Department of Dairy Science and Technology, Alexandria University, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Khaled S Nassar
Department of Food and Dairy
Science and Technology, Damanhour University, Egypt
Tel: +20-453368069
E-mail: [email protected]

Received November 04, 2016; Accepted November 22, 2016; Published November 29, 2016

Citation: Nassar KS, Shamsia SM, Attia IA (2016) Improvement of the Nutritional Value of a Cereal Fermented Milk: 2-Dried Kishk Like. J Food Process Technol 7:638. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000638

Copyright: © 2016 Nassar KS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The present study has been conducted to produce fermented milk fortified with different cereals like whole wheat, barley and freek (green wheat) burghul have been selected for their known nutrition benefits. The fermentation was occurred by using three types of cultures, yogurt starter, yogurt starter + Bio-yogurt or yogurt starter + Lactobacillus plantarum. All samples were stored at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for three months and have been subjected to consumer sensory testing; dried kishk-like products were highly accepted by the tasting panel, furthermore fermented dairy products containing Freek gained the highest score of judging followed by wheat. Proximate composition, Colour, Organic acids and microbiologically analysis have been monitored in the fresh soft product and during storage. Nevertheless, the combined levels of organic acids, low pH, salt additive and low moisture content in the kishk samples were sufficient to ensure the microbial safety of the product. Thus, long shelf-life of all samples without changing in their chemical during the storage period has been noticed.


Burghul; Probiotic bacteria; Dried kishk; Organic acids; Colour; Skim milk


Fermentation is one of the oldest and most economical methods of producing and preserving food. Also, leads to a general improvement in the shelf life, texture, taste and aroma of the final product. Fermented foods are produced world-wide using various manufacturing techniques, raw materials and microorganisms [1]. Kishk is an extremely popular fermented food in many parts of the Middle East. In Egypt, Kishk is one of the traditional food products in Upper Egypt [2,3]. There are some other products similar to kishk such as tarhana (mixing yogurt, wheat flour, baker's yeast and variety of vegetables and spices in turkey), kushuk (milk- sour dough mixture with turnips in Iraq), atole (fermented cereal–milk porridge in Scotland and Greece) and tahonya/talkuna (fermented cereal mixture with vegetables in Finland and Hungary) [4]. Kishk is a natural, healthy, respect the environment and have great taste and cultural values that are increasingly attractive to the Egyptian consumers. Kishk made by mixing wheat with fermented milk (Laban zeer) and sun-drying the mixture to 8% to 12% moisture content [2,5] or made from different cereal products and fermented milk base by traditional methods of manufacture [6,7]. Kishk is usually reconstituted with water and served as a hot gruel, but with the incorporation of vegetables, spices, garlic or herbs, can form the base of savory and sweet dishes [8]. The aim of the present study was to focus some light on the chemical, biochemical, physical and sensory aspects of dried fermented milk made from various types of cereal and starter cultures.

Materials and Methods

In the previous paper, the preparation kishk-like from reconstituted skim milk and burghul from whole wheat, whole barley and fereek was described in Nassar et al. [9].

Dried Kishk-like manufacturing

Each type of burghul was mixed with reconstituted skim milk in a ratio of 1:4 (w/w) in addition to, 2% sodium chloride and then mixed thoroughly each 26%. Mixture was heated to 95°C for 10 seconds, and then rapidly cooled to 45°C, addition 3% of each Starter. The resultant paste was filled in polystyrene cups and covered then incubated at (43°C for W1, B1 and F1) and (37°C for W2, W3, B2, B3, F2 and F3) to 6 hours (Table 1). After that, the fermented paste was formed into nuggets (3-5 cm), placed into stainless steel trays and dried in air oven at 50°C for 15-18 h. the dried nuggets were milled by using a hammer mill. After that, the dried kishk were stored in airtight glass containers and kept at room temperature until tested (Figure 1).

  Treatments Cereals Dairy base Salt
Whole Wheat Burghul
Whole Barley Burghul
Freek Burghul
Re-constituted Skim milk (15%)

Table 1: Experimental treatments.


Figure 1: Dried kishk-like preparation by using different substrates and starters.

Chemical analysis

In the previous paper, the same methods were adopted for cereal and dairy base analysis as described in Nassar et al. [9].

Dried Kishk-like analysis

Proximate composition: Total solids, protein, ash and fiber content were determined according to procedures described by AOAC [10]. The fat content, salt percentage, acidity and pH value were determined according to Ling [11]. Finally, carbohydrate was calculated as follows [12]:

Carbohydrate = total solids - (protein + fat + ash)

Colour of kishk-like samples: Colour of dried kishk samples was evaluated by Lovibond Schofield Tintometer (the Tintometer Ltd. Salisbury, England). Colours of samples were assessed. Reading obtained was further converted into C.I.E. (Commission International de L'E Clairage) units using the visual density graphs and direction booklet supplied with apparatus as described in AOCS [13].

Organic acid determination: The concentrations of organic acids (Lactic, Propionic, acetic, and formic) in different dried Kishk samples were determined by HPLC (Spectra-Physics system, San Jose, CA, USA) method as described by Barrantes et al. [14]. Organic acids were extracted from dried Kishk (5 g) in a 50 mL beaker using 25 mL wateracetonitrile (1:4 v/v) (analytical grade, BDH Chemicals Ltd., Poole, UK). The extract after filtration through a Whatman No. 1 filter paper (Whatman Ltd., Maidstone, UK) was injected (20 μL) into the HPLC column. The flow rate of the solvent was 0.7 μL.min-1 at 65°C and the wave length of the detector was 220 nm [15].

Sensory evaluation

Organoleptic evaluation was carried out according to Abou- Donia et al. [16]. The samples were subjected to organoleptic analysis by 15 well-trained members of the Dairy Science and Technology Department (Fac. Agric. Alexandria Univ., Egypt). The sensory attributes evaluated were: The Flavor (1-45 points), Body and Texture (1-30 points), appearance and Colour (1-15 points) and acidity (1- 10 points). Soups were prepared by adding 20 g dried kishk to 170 mL of water and heating with gentle stirring to boiling, simmering for few min and cooling to 40°C. The samples (20 g) were placed in identical glass containers (8 cm diameter, 3.5 cm height) and served at 40°C [17].

Enumeration of microorganisms

The counts of lactic acid bacteria were enumerated as (CFU/g) using MRS agar according to De man et al. [18]. Proteolytic bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mould were enumerated respectively [19-21]. Whereas aerobic spore forming bacteria were enumerated according to the method described by Harrigan and McCance [22]. Lactobacillus acidophilus was enumerated according to the method described by Lapierra [23].

Statistical analysis\

Statistical analysis was performed by applying three-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means of each treatment (cereals, starter cultures and storage time) using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at the confidence level of 95% [24].

Results and Discussion

Proximate composition

Proximate analysis of kishk-like products is presented in Tables 2-4. The results revealed that the effect of cereal type on the proximate analysis of the resultant dried kishk-like products was more pronounced (P ≤ 0.05) than that of type of starter culture used.

Samples Storage period (Days) Acidity as lactic acid pH Total Solids% Fat content% Ash% Crude Fiber% Crude protein% Carbohydrates% Salt%
W1 Fresh soft pro. 0.300PQR 5.44A 27.42RS 0.280L 2.98J 0.36E 4.99K 18.80NOP 2.06B
Fresh dried pro. 1.803IJKL 5.23D 93.27A 0.95A 10.15A 1.21B 16.97ABCDEFG 63.98CDE 7.00A
30 1.880HIJK 5.17EF 92.65AB 0.95A 10.08A 1.206B 16.86ABCDEFGH 63.56DEF 6.96A
60 2.080CDEFG 5.05J 92.25BCDEFG 0.94B 10.04A 1.20B 16.79ABCDEFGH 63.28EFG 6.93A
90 2.136BCDE 5.02K 91.46HIJKLM 0.933BC 9.95AB 1.19B 16.64BCDEFGHI 62.74FGH 6.87A
W2 Fresh soft pro. 0.223R 5.23D 28.92P 0.290K 2.88J 0.36E 5.03K 20.36M 2.14B
Fresh dried pro. 1.963FGH 5.14GH 92.35BCDE 0.94B 9.206GHI 1.15B 16.06IJ 64.99ABC 6.85A
30 1.976FGH 5.12H 92.29BCDEF 0.94B 9.20GHI 1.15B 16.05IJ 64.95ABC 6.85A
60 2.220ABC 5.01K 91.86CDEFGHIJ 0.933BC 9.16GHI 1.14B 15.97J 64.64ABCD 6.82A
90 2.336A 4.93M 91.70FGHIJKL 0.930C 9.14GHI 1.14B 15.94J 64.53ABCD 6.80A
W3 Fresh soft pro. 0.226QR 5.32C 28.11Q 0.290K 2.85J 0.36E 5.02K 19.58MN 2.10B
Fresh dried pro. 1.896HIJ 5.19E 92.28BCDEF 0.94B 9.36EDFG 1.18B 16.48FGHIJ 64.31ABCDE 6.91A
30 1.926GHI 5.16FG 91.93CDEFGHI 0.94B 9.33FGH 1.17B 16.42GHIJ 64.07CDE 6.88A
60 2.146BCD 5.08I 91.78EFGHIJK 0.94B 9.31GH 1.17B 16.39GHIJ 63.96CDE 6.87A
90 2.226AB 4.92M 91.33IJKLM 0.933BC 9.27GHI 1.17B 16.31HIJ 63.65DEF 6.84A
SED 0.026 0.004 0.108 0.001 0.048 0.012 0.111 0.191 0.085
R-Square 0.996 0.999 0.999 0.998 0.999 0.9993 0.998 0.9997 0.996
Coeff. Var. 2.844 0.141 0.238 0.367 1.041 1.683 1.35 0.609 2.501

Table 2: Chemical properties of cereal fermented milks using burghul from whole wheat.

Samples Storage period (Days) Acidity as lactic acid pH Total Solids% Fat content% Ash% Crude Fiber% Crude protein% Carbohydrates% Salt%
B1 Fresh soft pro. 0.423P 5.23D 27.96QR 0.266MN 2.86J 0.70D 5.10K 18.19OP 2.07B
Fresh dried pro. 1.910HIJ 4.97L 91.98CDEFGH 0.900DE 9.71BC 2.38A 17.31A 61.68HIJK 7.01A
30 1.986EFGH 4.93M 91.85CDEFGHIJ 0.900DE 9.70BC 2.38A 17.28AB 61.58IJK 7.00A
60 2.233ABC 4.87NO 91.55HIJKLM 0.893EF 9.66C 2.37 A 17.23ABC 61.39IJKL 6.98A
90 2.310A 4.46U 91.43 HIJKLM 0.890F 9.65C 2.37A 17.20ABCD 61.30IJKL 6.97A
B2 Fresh soft pro. 0.440P 4.94M 26.70T 0.260N 2.83J 0.70D 5.05K 17.85P 2.03B
Fresh dried pro. 1.970FGH 4.87NO 91.09LMN 0.900DE 9.65C 2.40A 17.24ABC 60.90JKL 6.95A
30 2.086CDEF 4.74Q 90.96MN 0.900DE 9.64C 2.39A 17.21ABCD 60.81JKL 6.93A
60 2.250AB 4.66S 90.63NO 0.890F 9.62CDE 2.38A 17.15ABCDE 60.58KL 6.91A
90 2.336A 4.52T 90.30O 0.890F 9.59CDEF 2.37A 17.09ABCDEF 60.35L 6.88A
B3 Fresh soft pro. 0.413PQ 5.43AB 27.29ST 0.270M 2.85J 0.70D 5.10K 17.94P 2.03B
Fresh dried pro. 1.926GHI 5.22D 92.69AB 0.903D 9.70BC 2.38A 17.32A 62.38GHI 6.88A
30 2.033DEFGH 5.07IJ 92.21BCDEFG 0.900DE 9.65C 2.37A 17.23ABC 62.05HI 6.85A
60 2.190ABC 5.01K 91.84DEFGHIJK 0.896DEF 9.61CDE 2.36A 17.16ABCDE 61.80HIJ 6.82A
90 2.266AB 4.89N 91.64 GHIJKL 0.890F 9.62CD 2.35A 17.12 ABCDE 61.64HIJK 6.81A
SED 0.026 0.004 0.108 0.001 0.048 0.012 0.111 0.191 0.085
R-Square 0.996 0.999 0.999 0.998 0.999 0.9993 0.998 0.9997 0.996
Coeff. Var. 2.844 0.141 0.238 0.367 1.041 1.683 1.35 0.609 2.501

Table 3: Chemical properties of cereal fermented milks using burghul from whole barely.

Samples Storage period (Days) Acidity as lactic acid pH Total Solids% Fat content% Ash% Crude Fiber% Crude protein% Carbohydrates% Salt%
F1 Fresh soft pro. 0.306PQR 5.41B 27.20ST 0.220P 2.72J 0.27F 4.93K 19.05NO 2.03B
Fresh dried pro. 1.490O 5.24D 92.46BCD 0.733I 9.24GHI 0.93C 16.77ABCDEFGH 64.77ABC 6.90A
30 1.596NO 5.09I 91.67FGHIJKL 0.730I 9.166GHI 0.92C 16.63CDEFGHI 64.22BCDE 6.85A
60 1.690LMN 5.01K 91.36HIJKLM 0.730I 9.136GHI 0.92C 16.58DEFGHIJ 64.00CDE 6.82A
90 1.790IJKL 4.92M 91.22KLMN 0.720J 9.12GHI 0.92C 16.55EFGHIJ 63.90CDE 6.80A
F2 Fresh soft pro. 0.296PQR 5.33C 27.93QR 0.230O 2.74J 0.27F 4.94K 19.74MN 2.05B
Fresh dried pro. 1.593NO 5.14GH 92.47BC 0.750H 9.09GHI 0.91C 16.37GHIJ 65.33A 6.81A
30 1.740KLMN 5.08I 92.28BCDEF 0.750H 9.07HI 0.91C 16.34GHIJ 65.20AB 6.79A
60 1.806IJKL 4.82P 91.89CDEFGHI 0.750H 9.13GHI 0.90C 16.27HIJ 64.82ABC 6.76A
90 1.940FGHI 4.70R 91.72EFGHIJK 0.750H 9.02I 0.90C 16.24HIJ 64.80ABC 6.66A
F3 Fresh soft pro. 0.310PQR 5.41B 27.12ST 0.290O 2.86J 0.27F 4.92K 19.67MN 2.05B
Fresh dried pro. 1.500O 5.05J 91.44HIJKLM 0.766G 9.35EDFGH 0.89C 16.11IJ 64.31ABCDE 6.71A
30 1.516O 5.02K 91.34IJKLM 0.763G 9.34EDFGH 0.88C 16.09IJ 64.25ABCDE 6.71A
60 1.623MNO 4.88N 91.32IJKLM 0.760G 9.34EDFGH 0.88C 16.09IJ 64.24ABCDE 6.70A
90 1.766JKLM 4.85O 91.25JKLMN 0.760G 9.333FGH 0.88C 16.08IJ 64.18BCDE 6.67A
SED 0.026 0.004 0.108 0.001 0.048 0.012 0.111 0.191 0.085
R-Square 0.996 0.999 0.999 0.998 0.999 0.9993 0.998 0.9997 0.996
Coeff. Var. 2.844 0.141 0.238 0.367 1.041 1.683 1.35 0.609 2.501

Table 4: Chemical properties of cereal fermented milks using burghul from freek (green wheat).

There were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in acidity and pH values between different cereals fermented milk products, depending on the type of cereal or starter culture. The fresh soft cereal fermented milk products containing Barely (B2, B1 and B3, Respectively) were characterized by higher acidity as compared with their containing of freek (F3, F1 and F2) and wheat (W1, W3 and W2, Respectively). These results are in agreement with [9,16,25-28]. There is no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the values of ash, salt, protein and carbohydrate of kishk-like before draying. While, ranged as follow: (2.72-2.98), (2.03-2.14), (4.92-5.10) and (17.85-20.36), respectively. The crude fibers content was significant (P ≤ 0.05) depending on the type of cereal used. Whereas, the barley kishk products had higher its values (0.70%) than other samples, this is due to the higher content of crude fiber which reached 2.51% [9,25]. As expected the type of starter culture used in the fermentation did not effect on the total solids and fat contents but the variation could be attributed to the fat content of kishk components and blends. These results were in agreement with those obtained by [2,9,25,29].

There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in pH and acidity percentages for all fresh samples incorporation with the corresponding values of dry products (Tables 2-4). However, the samples of dried cereal fermented milk products which fermented with Yoghurt and Bio-Yoghurt starter (2) were characterized with higher acidity rates than either fermented with mixed cultures contained only Yoghurt starter culture (1) or fermented by mixed cultures of Yoghurt starter culture and Lactobacillus plantarum (3), respectively. During storage at (25 ± 2°C) for 90 days, significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) were recorded in pH of different dried kishk-like products. Moreover, gradual decrease in pH could be observed in all samples, with extending the storage period (3 months), that due to limit growth of various bacterial starter cultures and the slow fermentation of residual lactose [9,25,29-31].

Dried kishk-like samples had slightly decrease in total solids, fat, Ash, crude fibers, protein, carbohydrate and salt contents until the end of storage period [16,31]. The ranges of previous contents were as follow: (90.30% to 93.27%), (0.720% to 0.950%), (9.02% to 10.15%), (0.89% to 2.40%), (15.94% to 17.31%), (60.35% to 65.33%) and (6.66% to 7%) respectively. These results are in agreement with previous studies [2,16,31-35].

Colour of kishk samples

Data presented in Table 3 show the colour of dried kishk samples as obtained using Lovibond Tintometer. The values of the primary Colours (Red, yellow and blue) showed that all dried kishk samples as ranged (3 - 5), (6 - 6.9) and (1.9 - 4.9), respectively. The data for primary colours reflects the values of X, Y and Z coordinates. The X value for (B1) treatment had significantly higher than among of samples (0.395) while the (F3) sample had the highest value of Y coordinate (0.544). Whereas, the Z coordinate showed the opposite figure. As a result of saturation and visual density, the brightness of (W1) sample was the highest percentage (66.07%). on contrary, (F3) treatment had lower brightness (42.66%) than other samples. These results are in agreements with Toufeli et al. [17], Bilgicli and Ibanoglu [36].

Organic acids determination

The concentrations (ppm) of organic acids (Lactic acid, Propionic acid, Acetic acid and formic acid) in the dried Kishk samples after 90 days of storage made with wheat, barley and Freek Burghul Skim milk is shown in Table 4. Lactic, propionic and acetic acid formed during lactic fermentation. The (W1) treatment had the highest levels of Propionic, Acetic and Lactic acids respectively, except formic acid comparing to among of samples [6,15]. Furthermore, propionic acid had the lowest or not detected in kishk samples made with barley, and these results are in agreement with Tamime et al. [37].

Microbiological analysis

Microbiological composition of kishk-like products are shown in Table 5. To produce healthy and safety of kishk that it’s based on the critical control points during the making of kishk were cooking, fermentation, drying and storage [35,38]. The fermented fresh soft products had 2.30-2.48 and 1.60-2.44 c.f.u × 10-3/ gm. for lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. However, the drying treatment gets rid of the bacterial starter, and these results agreement with [2,16]. Furthermore, all the samples did not contain any growth in 0.1 gm on SDA, VRBA, NA and MSA media in either fresh or dried products through the storage period. These results are revealed the good hygiene sanitation during manufacture different products. The low pH (4.46-5.23), release of organic acids due to fermentation, salt additive and low moisture content (6.73% to 9.70%) lead to a harsh environment (bacteriostatic effect) for pathogenic microorganisms, in which food spoilage may not occur and shelf life increases [35].

Samples Red Yellow Blue X Y Z Visual density Saturation% Brightness%
W1 3 6 1.9 0.355 0.415 0.23 0.18 38.64 66.07
W2 4 6 2.6 0.34 0.425 0.235 0.23 45.45 58.88
W3 4 6 2.7 0.355 0.475 0.19 0.235 59.57 58.21
B1 4 6 2.7 0.395 0.415 0.19 0.235 59.57 58.21
B2 4.6 6.9 3.3 0.385 0.465 0.15 0.28 66.67 52.48
B3 4.4 6.9 3.3 0.35 0.53 0.12 0.25 70.21 56.23
F1 5 6.9 3.9 0.36 0.53 0.11 0.33 79.07 46.77
F2 4.6 6.9 3.9 0.36 0.525 0.115 0.35 70.21 44.76
F3 4.9 6.9 4.9 0.356 0.544 0.1 0.37 83.72 42.66

Table 5: Colour of dried kishk-like samples as measured by Lovibond and C.I.E system.

Sensory evaluation of recombined dried kishk like

Sensorial evaluation of recombined dried kishk samples is given in Tables 6-8. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between the soup samples in flavour and body and texture scores. However, significant difference existed with regard to appearance and color and acidity, with barley skimmed milk Kishk soup having the lowest score. It was clear that, the addition of wheat or freek burghul didn’t affect the general acceptability of them, whereas the addition of barley burghul had lowering the total score acceptability (Figure 2) [16,17,37]. These products could be used to feed infants to 6 months as a complementary diet, children and elderly persons who need special care instead of the commercial extracts because the nutritive value of cereal fermented milks higher than of cereal alone. On the other hand the therapeutic effect of crude fibers and wheat bran in diets [16] (Tables 7 and 8).

Samples Organic acids
Lactic acid
Propionic acid
Acetic acid ppm Formic acid ppm
W1 1134.57 3522.16 2930.35 < 50
W2 908.94 3341.66 2728.21 < 50
W3 901.86 3451.5 973.285 < 50
B1 903.9 < 50 2147.14 < 50
B2 889. 16 < 50 < 50 320.05
B3 717.5 < 50 2153.64 366.248
F1 601.25 562.33 < 50 738.954
F2 691.52 562.7 481.357 < 50
F3 638.33 598.72 < 50 < 50

Table 6: Organic acids concentrations of dried cereal fermented milks.

Storage Period Media
Samples (Days) MRS MRS+L-Cysteine NA SDA VRBA MSA
W1 Fresh soft pro. 2.3 Not detected in 0.1 gm.
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----
W2 Fresh soft pro. 2.56 1.6
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 < 0.001
  W3 Fresh soft pro. 2.84
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----
B1 Fresh soft pro. 2.32
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----
B2 Fresh soft pro. 2.31 1.8
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 < 0.001
B3 Fresh soft pro. 2.76
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----
F1 Fresh soft pro. 2.48
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----
F2 Fresh soft pro. 2.68 2.44
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 < 0.001
F3 Fresh soft pro. 2.64
Fresh dried pro. 90 < 0.001 ----

Table 7: Changes in viable microbial counts (c.f.u × 10-3/ gm.) in dried cereal fermented milks.

Sample Flavour -45 Body /texture -30 Appearance and colour -15 Acidity -10 Total -100
W1 38AB 25A 13A 7BC 83A
W2 39AB 25A 12A 7BC 83A
W3 40A 26A 11A 6C 82A
B1 33C 24A 8B 6C 71B
B2 36BC 24A 8B 5D 70B
B3 34C 24A 9B 6C 74B
F1 40A 25A 13A 9A 87A
F2 40A 24A 12A 8AB 84A
F3 40A 24A 13A 8AB 85A
SED 0.555 0.368 0.43 0.248 0.881
R-Square 0.897 0.53 0.928 0.883 0.95
Coeff. Var. 2.534 2.583 6.663 6.246 1.891

Table 8: Organoleptic properties of recombined mixtures.


Figure 2: The pictures of dried Kishk-like products.
W: Dried kishk-like manufactured from fermented whole wheat burghul Skim milk with different types of starter cultures.
B: Dried kishk-like manufactured from fermented whole barley burghul Skim milk with different types of starter cultures.
F: Dried kishk-like manufactured from fermented freek burghul Skim milk with different types of starter cultures.


The cereal fermented skim milk shown long shelf-life without changing in either chemical or microbial characteristics during the storage period at room temperature. This phenomenon is accepted as result of those mixtures.


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