1MS – Scholar, APCOMS, University of Engineering and Technology – Taxila, Pakistan, E-mail: [email protected]
2MS – Scholar, APCOMS, University of Engineering and Technology – Taxila, Pakistan, E-mail: [email protected]
3MS – Scholar, APCOMS, University of Engineering and Technology – Taxila, Pakistan, E-mail: [email protected]
4Associate Professor, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, E-mail: [email protected]
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TQM, HRTQM, employee performance, proposed model.
Total quality management as an approach originated from quality assurance methods. These methods were adopted during World War 1. The war resulted in the poor quality of production. To quench this issue Quality Inspectors or auditors were placed on the production units to point out the faults for improving quality. After some time these quality inspectors introduced Statistical Quality Control – SQC. A theory developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. The theory states that a deviation in the manufacturing process cause low and cheap quality products. If deviation is removed the quality would be improved. SQC is based on testing of a sample. A sample of a product could be tested to check the quality. The war always results in destruction and ruin of human systems and life. The same happened to Japanese industry which collapsed in the World War 2. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers invited Dr Deming to train engineers in quality processes. By 1950’s quality control and measures formed an integral part of Japan Industrial management. In 1970’s the quality control and management procedures were employed in Non – Japanese companies. This new tide in business became Total Quality Management. (Murray, 2012).
Pillars and Foundation of TQM
These have been shared by two HR practitioners Murray (2012) and Brown (2012).
• Executive management commitment to practice TQM
• Computer aided statistical process and quality monitoring software and technology to improve deviation and variation in the products.
• Training in computerized statistics tests and application for sample checking, usage of data, checking errors in the manufacturing process.
• Decision making on the measurement of results.
• Proper computerized procedural evaluation of employees’ performance regarding output.
• Organizational support for employees to work in teams.
• Employee empowerment and involvement in tasks.
• Responsibility and accountability on job.
• Continues improvement.
• Customers focus products and services to satisfy and retain them.
Approaches of TQM
The total quality management concept has undergone many changes and developments ever since it has been evolved. The modification of TQM has produced Six Sigma. It is a new face on the TQM canvas. The Six Sigma is based on five principals.
DMAIC – Define, measure, analyze, improve and control. His study revealed that this approach of TQM encourage team work to attain organization success. The companies using Six Sigma have two teams i.e. Green belt and Black belt. The green belts undergo 1-2 weeks training. This is learning and knowledge transference where the trainees learn effective project management, problem solving, data analysis etc. Black belts trained on specialized skills and knowledge. The training is designed to teach them computer aided statistical applications and technologies. The training to black belts is spread over 5 weeks time. Such courses and training demand a strong background of mathematics and stats education at college or university level. The benefits attached to this TQM approach is employee involvement at all levels, accountability, extensive training for continue progress. Motorola and General Electric companies prove the success of Six Sigma approach. It is practiced in other sectors also like military and government organizations, hospitals and food manufacturing companies to deliver quality results.
(Green, 2006). It is rapidly growing quality approach and in India Godrej – GE, Wipro and Hero Motors all use this management practice to improve business.
Total Quality Human Resource Management:
The literature review in total quality management support businessmen to attain brilliance in their work by improving and empowering employees. VanDevender (2011) has shown total quality management linked with human resource in the article titled Total Quality Human Resources Management – TQHRM. The study has explained this emerging concept as the AACC concept:
A = alignment
A = authority
C = capability
C = commitment
Alignment and cohesion in employees work could be achieved if they know and understand the nature of the business, shareholders, target market, customers’ demands and needs. Well defined Standard Operating Procedures and policies help employees in achieving tasks and goals.
Authority and autonomy be given to employees in order to meet quality in the work. No communication gap should exist between employee – employer. Employees should be shared important business news and their suggestions be welcomed if appropriate and relevant.
Competencies and capabilities of employees should be enhanced through adequate training programs and development opportunities.
Retention and commitment of employees is useful for uniformity and regularity in organizations operations. This would be gained by rewards and acknowledgement of employees work.
Effective employee performance model prepared by Eastman Chemical Company
Adapted from the article “Total Quality Human Resources Management” by Tiona VanDevender pg4.
Current practice of TQM
A Singapore Healthcare Study conducted by Lim and Tang (2012) indicated following facts and findings concluding that TQM is easy to achieve if the will of management and workers hard work is observed.
• Hospital management believes in TQM.
• Survey to check customer need analysis and satisfaction.
• Physicians are involved in decision making.
• Integration in networks to reach patients.
• Industrial standards and bench marking is observed.
• Continue training and development of employees.
• Rewards and recognition observed to encourage doctors and staff to deliver best.
The research carried out in 2006 by Idris and Zairi would help the employers to maintain quality. They have shared that enablers stand for positive energy or force in acquiring quality whereas inhibitors lay obstacles in aiming quality. Employers harsh practices can de motivate the employees and they won’t perform well and quality could be damaged. Friendly organization culture can empower employees in achieving the results.
Adapted from Sustaining TQM: A Synthesis of Literature and Proposed Research Framework by Idris and Zairi (2006). Pg 1255
Model to attain and retain internal as well as external customers
The paper throughout has professed about the role of management in attaining quality. The model has explained the mechanism for managers and employers on how to motivate and encourage workers to achieve desired actions for profit maximization. The first and foremost thing is that employees should be empowered to work according to their ideas regarding the jobs and tasks assigned to them. They have to carry out the strategic goals in daily business affairs and know the exact demands of their job so they should be given full charge of their work i.e. employee empowerment.
The employees must be involved in decision making so that bosses know what to do or how to do in order to expand the business as this not only ads in designing practical programs but provides the unity and harmony in the concern. Employees know that they are given importance and feel encouraged and enthusiastic about the work.
Rewards and recognition is the major driver in employees’ performance. At the end of the day it is the money or acknowledgement that matters the most to workers. They feel that whatever they have been doing is meaningful and they have awarded fairly. So rewards and appreciation can satisfy the employees and would aid in their commitment towards the company. Loss of brain and intelligence would be lessened.
Training and development is a universal truth in the business scenario. Training helps the employee to perform the current job with much smoothness and ease. It increases the abilities, knowledge and competencies of employees to do the work efficiently while saving extra time and resources. Development is career oriented. Employees if provided the chance to develop and define the career path on their own would minimize their future insecurity in the current organization or in some other organizations. As development is two way process, employers come to know that whether the employee has potential for promoting to advance or high level jobs and employees also come know their worth in the company that further progression in the job would give them a protein carrier or they might suffer from career plateau stage. Development is important for employers to do proper succession planning to fill the important posts from within the company. Instead of hiring new employees and train him on each and every aspect of the company. Employees’ perspective development broadens their outlook to explore and judge them selves whether or not the organization offers them competitive jobs as they climb the ladder or they find some other suitable career opportunity outside the organization. Mostly the well chalked out development plans help the organization to retain key and loyal workforce. Training and development ultimately help the employees to achieve organizational objectives.
Employee performance is at once improved and triggered by training and development. Training means the positive change in employees skills, knowledge and abilities if not so then the training modules, programs or trainers must be viewed critically in order to bring in positive results. Good organizations have well managed and sophisticated training methods and trainers to get quality employees for advancement and growth. Employee effective job performance is must to attain the organizational goals and strategies to gain market. The employees if trained properly would know what the customer wants and how to satisfy his needs.
Organizational goals and strategies become clear and are quickly comprehended by employees after they under go training. They smoothly and effortlessly move to the desired ends for optimal profits.
Employee efficacy in jobs, accomplishment of organizational goals both lead to quality and customer satisfaction.
There is a big responsibility on management shoulders to achieve quality and customer satisfaction. So the employers should learn to invest and delegate authority and responsibility to employees for mutual benefit of both the employer as well as employee.
The past and present research observed that quality could be achieved if management is keen and workers motivated to achieve quality and satisfy the customers for prosperity and business success.
It is recommended that total quality management approach is a major discovery in the history of business and management. It is a reliable tool in the hands of organization management to practice and enjoy the taste of success with the dedicated and trained work force. The companies who are not focusing on delivering quality would suffer and can become bankrupt. The biggest eye opener is Enron company where the management absolutely violated the standards of running a business and quality was not practiced rather the quantity of money and profit were aimed not realizing what customers and employees want. On the other hand companies like Proctor and Gamble, Nestle, Shell Oil Company, Colgate Palmolive, Unilever, Emirates Airlines etc having quality as the focus have gained customers, repute, profit and business worldwide. So total quality management be adopted and quality should be observed in day to day matters for optimization.
Forrest B. Green (2006): Six – Sigma and the Revival of TQM, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17:10, 1281- 1286.
Mohd Ashari Idris & Mohamed Zairi (2006): Sustaining TQM: A Synthesis of Literature and Proposed Research Framework, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17:9, 1245 – 1260.
Dr Puay Cheng Lim and Dr Nelson K H Tang (retrieved on 17/1/2012). Total Quality Management in Practice: A Singapore Healthcare Study, International Journal of Applied Health Studies, ISSN: 1742 – 5263. Volume 1 Issue 2, 1 – 7.
Martin Murray at http: // logistics.about.com/od/qualityin the supply chain/a/TQM.htm. Retrieved on 17/1/2012 Tuesday.
Mr. Stephen R. Brown, President at Performance Associates International, Inc at http://www.scribd.com/doc/53510006/TOTAL-QUALITY-MANAGEMENT-THE-TIME-HAS-COME-FOR-METALLURGICAL-PLANTS. Retrieved on 17/1/2012 Tuesday.
Tiona VanDevender (retrieved on 18/12/2011 Tuesday). Total Quality Human Resources Management at http: // www.freequality.org/documents/knowledge/Total%20Quality%20 Human%20Resource%20Management pdf.