Michael Thomas Deans*
Cavendish House, Cavendish Road, Chiswick, London W4 3TD, UK
Received Date: March 23, 2016; Accepted Date: April 22, 2016; Published Date: April 25, 2016
Citation: Deans MT (2016) Insights Arising When Quantum Mechanics is Reappraised from a Biological Perspective. J Phys Chem Biophys 6: 215. doi: 10.4172/2161-0398.1000215
Copyright: © 2016 Deans MT . This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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A recently reported ferroelectric phase transition at 72 Kelvin in ice XIc corroborates an observation made as a physics student in 1967. I attributed anomalous readings from a silica helium thermometer suspended in liquid nitrogen to distortion by ice crystallizing on its surface, suggesting a proton ordered tetragonal variant, ice It of cubic ice had changed shape during an ordering phase transition releasing latent energy as 'ice light', wavelength λ ~ 4 μ infrared laser light. My research into its consequences reinterprets the axiomatic basis of science, affording simple accounts of familiar topics. Ice light emitted from pools of nitrogen on Earth's poles during a primordial ice age was multiply reflected in cloud and surface ice, creating DNA, including tRNA analogue 'transport DNAs', tDNAs by selectively polymerizing nucleotides in equatorial waters. They constituted H-bond lined pores through proto-cell membranes, polarization by ice light created an electric field propelling ionic substrate-trace element complexes constituting life’s molecular vocabulary inside. 64 tDNA variants orchestrate biochemistry, supplementing trace elements prevents mental and physical maladies. ‘Minions’ arose from comparing cybernetics, psychology and traditional wisdom. 189 flat anti-parallel β-sheet hairpins with alternate neutral and basic amino acid residues bind 1,701 DNA base pairs, forming a nine-coil abacus. Minions probably evolved to pack DNA in chromosomes for accurate replication. 189*18 arrays of proton ordered H-bonds connecting amino acid ω-amines to DNA phosphates control metabolism, are biological clocks and 'chips in the brain. When sarcomeres of striated muscle contract, they form ½-wave resonant cavities for λ, exemplifying biological energy coupling. Protons accelerated along minion tunnels drive molecular scale nuclear fusion, if coupled they could resolve global warming. Artificial intelligence modeled on minions would satisfy Turing's vision, allowing for personality and compensating the relativity between perception and conception, reinterpreting quantum mechanics, uncertainty and relativity.
Proton ordered hydrogen bond; H-bond; Transport DNA; tDNA; Trace element metabolism; Minion DNA-protein complex; Resonant cavity couples energy; Reinterpreting quantum mechanics; Distorted reality creates new axioms
Solving Professor Brian Pippard’s Problems in classical physics as a Cambridge undergraduate convinced me of its validity. When an experiment involving liquid nitrogen produced a hysteresis curve unexpectedly in 1967, I proposed a tetragonal variant of cubic ice, ice Ic (recently confirmed by reports of a phase transition at 72 K in ice XIc ), had crystallized on the silica helium thermometer bulb and deformed it. While employed as a programmer, I noted computer instruction sets could be reduced to nine, suggested the same might apply to human intelligence. A report of chromosomes degrading to strings of nine beads  suggested the minion DNA-protein complex.
If the B-helix is uncoiled and arranged to retain its original spacing, Figure 1, hydrogen bonds, H-bonds connect its base pairs (C, G, A and T) to the ω-amines of Lys and Arg in an anti-parallel β-pleated sheet  composed of alternate neutral (Ala, Leu, Ile and Val) and basic (Lys and Arg) residues with Pro forming an asymmetric U-bend (mnemonic A LIVe CiGAreTte), Figure 2. That 18*63 H-bond array stores an eighteen-letter word using a sixty-three-character alphabet. Those contained in a human cell nucleus could store the Bible, Koran and Shakespeare’s works.
Resonant interactions facilitate memory recall, nerve fibers serve as optic cables and synaptic junctions as logic gates. The H-bonds oscillate, constituting biological clocks following Dekatron™ logic used in Geiger counters. Their time unit τ ≈ 1.4 × 10-15 seconds determines the periods of coils 11, 13 and 18, matching day-length, Sun-spot cycle period and the age of the universe respectively. Time is illusory, not equivalent to a linear dimension.
Minions’ roles in human intelligence are well supported [4,5], their instability, degrading to nucleosome core particles  on extraction, explains why they’ve eluded detection. As abaci, they make 1 in 639 ≈ 1.56 × 1016 wrap-around counting ‘errors’. τ effectively replace Planck’s constant, limiting conception and reinterpreting Heisenberg’s uncertainty. Michelson and Morley’s determination of the speed of light  shattered confidence in the potential of science to explain everything. Figures 3-5 shows the Tyger relativity equation, it translates perception to conception, interpreting planes as spheres, restoring the simplicity of science.
Current scientific axioms were established by Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday added discrete positively charged electric particles, Charles Darwin the concept of evolution and Linus Pauling classified chemical bonds, especially hydrogen bonds. Karl Popper’s philosophy dictates that extrapolations leading to false conclusions justifies their revision but as Piet Hein wrote, Things Take Time. Minion theory confirms Einstein’s suspicion of spooky action at a distance , affording deeper chemical insights than quantum physics. I advocate redirecting research resources from cosmology and particle physics to disease prevention, sustainable agriculture and clean energy generation.
H-bond length h=1.75 Å
OH-bond length b=1.01 Å
Dipole moment μ=1.27 × 10-29 m
Dielectric constant ε=3.1 Faraday m-1
Space dielectric const Ε0=8.85 × 10-12 Faraday m-1
Tetrahedral angle θa=104.5°
H-O-H bond angle θb=109.5°
Charge cloud angle θc=120°
Velocity of light c=3 × 108 m/sec
Planck’s constant N=6.02 × 1023
Hexagonal/cubic 130 K
Nitrogen boils 77 K
Cubic/vitreous 110 K
Ferroelectric 72 K
Molecular coordinates of water in ice crystals:
ice Ic: Δx=Δy=2.26 Å, Δz=1.6 Å
ice It: Δx=Δy=2.32 Å, Δz=1.5 Å
The latent energy released by the ferroelectric transition of ice Ic to ice It can be estimated as: 22.3 kJ/mole with wavelength ≈ 4 μ, approximating the phosphodiester bond energy of ATP. Some of the 16 known ice forms are orderly, lacking Linus Pauling’s residual entropy .
Joan Baez wrote: My life’s like a crystal teardrop in ‘Daybreak’. During a primordial ice age, ice crystallizing in pools of liquid nitrogen on Earth’s poles morphed from cubic to tetragonal, releasing latent energy as ~4 μ infrared laser light. Reflection by ice in clouds and on Earth’s surface shone polarized laser light on Darwin’s warm equatorial waters , selectively activating nucleotides . Their polymerization created a DNA noodle soup – some formed ‘transport DNA’s, tDNAs, transfer RNA analogues. These fed Oparin’s coacervates [12-14] with life’s prerequisites. The replication of a tDNA signaled life’s beginning.
Hydrolysis of ATP replaces ice light, releasing ~4 μ laser light driving tDNA pumps. It depolarizes the H-bond-lining their pores, creating a trans-membrane electric field, Figure 6.
Before chemical reactions can occur, substrates need concentrating. Originally, nucleotides were slowly concentrated, eventually concatenating to replicate tDNAs in coacervates. Modern tDNAs deploy trace element ions with unique shapes as carriers, selecting a short list of substrates familiar to modern biochemists, Figure 7.
Figure 7: Active transport complexes. A) Catecholamines exchange 3 Na for 2 K, B) Sulphite exchanges Ca for Mg, C) Manganese chlorides transport NaCl, D) Iodinium transports oxygen, E) Copper carries amino acids, F) Silicon hexafluoride transports apatite, G) Zinc is carrier for glucose, H) Silver exchanges creatine for creatinine and orchestrates arginine.pyrophosphate transport, I) Selenite exchanges Ca for Mn and exchanging phosphomevalonate for phosspho-mevalono-lactone transports water, contradicting Mitchell’s chemiosmosis .
Minions comprise 1701 uncoiled DNA base pairs retaining B-helical base-pair spacing and overlap. Anti-parallel β-pleated protein hairpins with alternate neutral (Ala, Leu, Ile and Val) and basic (Arg and Lys) and Pro forming a U-bend hold them flat, Gramicidin S has an analogous structure . 21 hairpin units form a coil and 9 coils bound by further hairpins complete a minion. Minions evolved to pack chromosomes, ensuring their accurate copying (Table 1; Figures 8 and 9).
|-9||Unity||8.7 fs||Red||me/7||Quantum mechanics|
|-7||Stability||350 ps||Blue||2*bp mass||Chemistry|
|-6||Progress||22 ns||Violet||8.3 ag||Computer processing|
|-5||Love||1.4 μs||Bronze||0.033 pg||Biochemistry|
|-4||Peace||87 μs||Yellow||130 pg||Genetics|
|-3||Beauty||5.5 ms||Pied||0.51 μg||Biology|
|-2||Truth||350 ms||Gold||2 mg||Engineering|
|-1||Goodness||22 s||Green||8.1 g||Psychology|
|+1||Goodness||23 min||Green||32 kg||Psychiatry|
|+2||Truth||1 day*||Gold||130 t||Head Hunting|
|+3||Beauty||9 weeks||Pied||0.5 Mt||Sociology|
|+4||Peace||11 y*||Yellow||2,000 Mt||Politics|
|+5||Love||685 y||Bronze||8 Gt||History|
|+6||Progress||43 ky||Violet||31 Pt||Archaeology|
Table 1: Mental associations with minion coils. The numbers label inner and outer coil surfaces. *Connotes approximation. periods=63N τ, colours feature in metaphors, adverts, flags and politics. Masses are in ratio 632, me and mp are electron and proton masses, a, f, p, n, μ, M, P, G and P=10-18, 10-15, 10-12, 10-9, 10-6, 106, 109, 1012 and 1015 respectively. Using μ=√M to measure mass makes Einstein’s E=Mc2 symmetrical: E=μ2c2.
Reversed H-bonds on coil surfaces store 18-letter words using a 64-character alphabet. Minions holding similar words resonate, enabling memory recall. Axons and dendrites serve as optic cables, communicating with other nuclei.
Oscillating H-bonds accelerate protons along minion tunnels. Representing fermions as planes according to the Tyger equation substitutes concentric polyhedra for electron orbitals, affording a new perspective on nuclear structure. Protons fuse with nuclei blocking their paths, driving the carbon nitrogen cycle  and the γ-rays released follow Tyger curves, returning like boomerangs as pulsars  with matching periods and frequencies.
A ping-pong ball bouncing on spring balances illustrates the cytochrome chain, mitochondria are ½-wave resonant cavities trapping λ ~ 4 μ energy, Figure 10. Something better than zeolites need be devised to harness γ-rays nuclear fusion in minions releases to address climate change. Cold fusion had a bad press following Fleischmann and Pons’ observations of palladium crystals . Water adsorbed on them creates tunnels analogous to those through minions. Physicists persuaded to question quantum mechanics might think of ways to implement cold fusion. My book Science Uncoiled  details other consequences of my research, resolving malnutrition, ignorance and environmental problems.