alexa Interstitial Cells of Cajal and the Promise of Single Cell Molecular Analysis | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2157-7013
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Interstitial Cells of Cajal and the Promise of Single Cell Molecular Analysis

Raúl Loera-Valencia*

Center for Alzheimer Research, Division for Neurogeriatrics Novum, Sweden

*Corresponding Author:
Raúl Loera-Valencia
Karolinska Institutet, Department NVS
Center for Alzheimer Research
Division for Neurogeriatrics, Novum
Blickagången 6, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
Tel: 46(0)8-58583751
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 27, 2015; Accepted Date: April 28, 2015; Published Date: April 30, 2015

Citation: Loera-Valencia R (2015) Interstitial Cells of Cajal and the Promise of Single Cell Molecular Analysis. J Cell Sci Ther 6:e123. doi: 10.4172/2157-7013.1000e123

Copyright: © 2015 Loera-Valencia R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Cell Science & Therapy

Editorial

The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells organized in networks located in all layers of the intestines [1,2]. Together with the myenteric neurons and the smooth muscle cells, they comprise the machinery that controls the peristaltic movements [3,4]. However, the individual contribution of smooth muscle and ICC to the different motility patterns present throughout the GI tract is not completely described [5]. This task has proven difficult because of the overlapping mechanisms to produce motility in the gut, as well as the close embryonic and anatomic relationship of ICC and myocites, which underlies the myocyte-like differentiation of ICC after several days in culture [6] impeding the generation of pure ICC cultures and the performance of “bulk” molecular analyses.

Recent attempts to purify ICC and define their transcriptomic differences with myocites have identified genes that can be used to discern between the anatomically distinct populations of ICC and myocites at the molecular level [7,8]; unfortunately, the required FACS enrichment of ICC to obtain a transcript library hampers the identification of ICC subtypes with physiological functions. The existence of these subtypes has been suggested previously in W/W (v) mutant mice had a subpopulation of c-Kit-/Ano1+ ICC underlying the normal motor patterns termed “ripples” in the mouse colon [9]. Moreover, ICC subpopulations are being discovered in organs such as the bladder [10], epicardium [11] and in the embryonic intestine [12]. A recent publication point out the myogenic origin of the ripples in the embryonic GI tract, where they looked for c-Kit positive cells and recorded the electrical and mechanical activity of W/W (v) mice [13]; however in the same fashion as with the Ano1+ ICC in the colon, would it be reasonable to think of c-Kit- ICC precursors in the developing embryo which can replace the function of the c-Kit+ ICC ablated by the W (v) mutation? Using single cell RT-PCR in its simplest form combined with electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry we have been able to identify subpopulations of ICC based on their expression of Kv channels in the murine colon, calling for further research into this aspect of ICC biology [14].

When the GI tract suffers from pathological insults, the ICC network is disrupted and the number of ICC in the intestine diminishes. After the injury is resolved, the ICC network is restored together with normal motility in the gut [15-17]. This phenomenon raises the question of the existence of a population of cell progenitors replenishing the lost ICC. Whether this population is part of one of the layers of the ICC or comes from the trans-differentiation of fibroblasts or myocites are questions that can be addressed applying the new molecular tools for single cell analysis.

The electrical activity of ICC originates from the interplay between pumps and channels, generating their oscillating pacemaker activity. Although most of the conductances in ICC are known, there are “orphan” conductances that have not a particular gene associated to them. Such is the case of the maxi channel, which has proven elusive to identify as shown by knockdown studies performed in fibroblasts [18]. To address the identity of the maxi channel, its differential expression between ICC and myocites is and invaluable tool that harbors the potential for this particular discovery, however, the maxi channel is not present in 100% of the ICC which difficult knock-down studies. Carbachol and other agonists that elevate intracellular calcium have shown to activate the maxi channel [19] and very recent developments in spatially resolved, quantitative mRNA profiling in single cells [20-22] could detect the increase of messengers in a transcriptomic scale, allowing identification of the genetic entity –or entities- that upregulates in response to pharmacologic stimulus.

In summary, the study of ICC physiology as well as the study of GI motility can tremendously benefit from the implementation and use of the single cell molecular analysis tools available today. The accumulated knowledge in the field has produced many unique experimental settings and approaches which, combined with the use of more precise molecular tools, opens possibilities for solving questions that have stood for more than 100 years.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11554
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2015 - Oct 24, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7785
  • PDF downloads :3769
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords