Wael Salah El Din Mohamed*
Cairo University, Egypt
Received date June 16, 2016; Accepted date July 14, 2016; Published date July 21, 2016
Citation: El Din Mohamed WS (2016) Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Beni Suef Cement Company Employees. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 6:259.
Copyright: © 2016 El Din Mohamed WS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB) is a type of behavior which is also known as the Extra Role Behavior, Motivate the employees to go beyond what is expected from them by organization and job descriptions, this type of behavior have its benefits for both production parts employees and organizations. In Egypt and especially in Cement industry the term (OCB) still new concept and till now the companies didn’t realize the importance of having this type of behavior among its employees. Several researchers have found that there is a significant positive relationship between employee job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, which affect the employee and the organization performance. This research aim to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction (Intrinsic and Extrinsic) as independent variable and Organizational Citizenship Behavior as dependent variable among Beni Suef Cement Company employees, this study will provide guidelines to help the senior management of the company to measure and understand how Job satisfaction affect organizational citizenship behavior of their team members.
Job satisfaction; Organizational citizenship behavior
Human resource is the most valuable resource in any organization, and the concept “Resource” shows that employees are resources of employer, and the employee characteristics can add value to the organization.
One of the most important issue about the human resource that they are not interchangeable, or easily replaced but it’s the source for companies success or failure, therefore organizations need to be able to handle and organize their personnel in a prober way.
Due to factors such as capability, identity, encouragement and values human resources are considered as intelligent assets who act and perform differently, which as a consequence produces different organization results that will be experienced by any organization , and it’s also due to the differences in motivation and satisfaction level of different employees . Thus, organizations should decide and determine what type of behavior they require to be effective.
OCB one of the factors that represent a construct which have become a necessary in the daily operations of any organization to be able to survive and compete in the era of globalization.
Satisfaction is an essential facet of employee performance, which effects an organization’s performance and success, besides motivation. While satisfaction is related to how employees perceive their job, happy or not. Like or dislike , motivation is more related to goal orientation and the willingness to put in more in an attempt to reach the goal . Therefore, both factors motivation and satisfaction are important for an organization. According to Mattheew J , an organization will be effective if their employees are satisfied, motivated and therefore productive enabling maximum profit.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has influenced the psychology and supervision in any organization. Considering and creating this type behavior among the citizens of an organization is essential. In order to assist an organization to continue existing , and according to , to assist management to evaluate the working environment, motivation and satisfaction of their team members.
Further, by having good citizens within the organization through OCB, the effectiveness of an organization will be achieved from the workers in the organization. This behavior supports an organization, where there is a possibility to grow when employees go beyond their formal duties and responsibilities to reach the organization’s goals by assisting their colleagues.
This behavior is also used to help fellow employees insure smoothness of work from the unexpected and assisting to overcome tense situations by interdependence . In addition, OCB ask what contribution the employee can provide to the organization .
According to Ozturk there are two types of performance behavior, in role behavior which is employee behavior that is stated in the job description and required form the organization, the second type is extra role behavior which is not stated in the Job description but supporting the organization which is the same as OCB.
Previous studies discovered that employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, age, personality, advancement, motivation, leadership behavior and other factors influence OCB .
Job satisfaction is considered as forecaster of the performance, job satisfaction is an employee’s perception of their job. A satisfied employee tends to be positive about their job, according to Robbins , some factors such as pay, the job itself, supervision of the organization, and more could affect employee satisfaction .
A satisfied employee will show their citizenship behavior whereas a dissatisfied employee will be reluctant to show their citizenship behavior ; therefore, satisfaction plays an important role in the existence of citizenship behavior in an organization.
There are two types of job satisfaction, Intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction which is derived from individuals themselves and extrinsic job satisfaction which is derived from the environment .
Studies related to employees job satisfaction and OCB according to  have found that job satisfaction is a significant preceding to OCB and the results of the study among knowledge workers from various industries in Turkey found that Job satisfaction is a strong factor of OCB.
Other research was also conducted among bankers in Pakistan by Arif and Chohan , found that dimensions of satisfaction are significantly related with dimensions of OCB, such as Civic virtue, conscientiousness, and. OCB was also proven by Miao, 2011, that is positively related to job satisfaction, perceived Organizational Support (organization are concern and supports their own employees) and job performance in several large organizations in China.
Konovsky and Organ found that Job Satisfaction is positively related with OCB when conducting a study among hospital employees. The results was similar to Moore and Love’s study  in the context of IT.
Even though studies show that job satisfaction related to performance, as well as OCB, and the findings are differ from one another, the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction on OCB has not been realized by many researchers .
Thus, this research aims to understand and investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB among Beni Suef Cement Company team members.
Cement industry is worker demand industry, and the increasing of competition among companies in Egypt have its effect on the type of behavior required from the team members.
Organizations should have employees who are ready to help their colleagues with work, and go beyond duties mentioned in job descriptions, speak positively about the organization, follow company rules and regulations even when there is no one is watching them.
These are the employees who will be engaged in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and will be ready to help achieving organization goals.
Job Satisfaction is an important factor, which have its positive relationship with OCB. Thus, the research problem includes:
- Investigate the relationship between Job satisfaction and OCB among Beni Suef Cement Company Employees.
These research main objectives are:
1) To understand the relationship between intrinsic Job satisfaction and OCB
2) To understand the relationship between extrinsic Job satisfaction and OCB
1) Is there any relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and OCB?
2) Is there any relationship between extrinsic job satisfaction and OCB?
Significance of the study
By conducting this research, Beni Suef Cement Company senior management team will learn how crucial the two job satisfaction factors in forecasting the citizenship behavior among their employees to their advantage. If the variables of both intrinsic and extrinsic are related to OCB, both variables will drive employees to be more active in reaching the organization’s goals although they surpasses their work obligations.
This research focuses and analyzing the relationship between Job satisfaction and OCB of Beni Suef Cement Company employees, there are some limitations of this research, which are:
1) The Job Satisfaction is the factor that’s studied in that research.
2) This research will be conducted in Cement industry, where the population of the respondents is limited to Beni Suef Cement Company employees.
3) This research will be done in one plant which means that the findings can’t be generalized.
4) The data collection will be also done in certain point of time and the data was collected using a questionnaire.
Job satisfaction is assumed as the essential factor of the effectiveness of an organization, therefore, it is important to manage employees who have needs and wants both. By understanding employees and their needs and wants, job satisfaction can be used as good parameters of employee effectiveness .
The definitions of job satisfaction come from various researchers and authors as till now there’s no global definition for that term, the most quoted definition by researchers comes from Locke , job satisfaction “a pleasurable or a positive emotion state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences”.
Ozturk , defined job satisfaction as the emotional feeling of gratification that is experienced by an employee due to many factors of work.
Robbins and Judge , defined job satisfaction as “a positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characters”, where an employee who has a high level of Satisfaction will tend to positive toward his job, and on the other side, an employee who has a low level of satisfaction will defiantly tend to be negative towards his job.
While based on Arokiasamy et al. , job satisfaction is “an attitude that individuals had about their job” which in other words, depends on the idea of employees towards their job.
According to Ilham , job satisfaction explains whether employees are happy or not, as well as the fulfillment of their needs and wants when doing their jobs, which can influence their motivation, morals, and reaching target in the organization, also, if the employees are happy, in other words, satisfied, they will likely to keep working in the organization, according to , job satisfaction can affect both social and economics aspects of an organization it’s assume that employees who perform well in their job are definitely satisfied, which leads remaining in the organization and becoming more devoted to the organization, conversely.
According to a study by Varawalla , employees who have lower satisfaction levels will always complain to their employer and tend to look at the bad side of the job, satisfaction also leads employees to stay healthy and reach longevity, which lowers turnover and leads to lower costs, and higher productively .
Based on study by Aziri  on job satisfaction there are a number of factors that are related to job satisfaction, which are the work itself, pay, improvements, opportunities, the company supervisors, working environment, and the work team, while a research by Smitth et al.  determined there are two types of job satisfaction which are: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job satisfaction, Intrinsic Job satisfaction (coming from the individuals themselves, such as individual growth) and Extrinsic job satisfaction (coming from individuals environments such as Salary), which is shown in Figure 1.
Another similar job satisfaction factor was determined by Herzberg  in the two factors theory, were are there two factors that affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction which are hygiene factors such as pay, and job security, and motivation factors such as achievement, and recognition based on his recent research among knowledge workers on what drives people in work , hygiene factors focus more in the employees surrounding are of work, which are extrinsic factors, while motivation factors are more about the employees work itself, which is an intrinsic factors.
Based on this theory, employees are satisfied based on their work and the extent they are being used by the organization, but employees could be dissatisfied based on the organization treatment. The employees work based on the factors that can cause both satisfaction and dissatisfaction, where the cause of satisfaction are the motivation factors “to maintain job satisfaction” and the cause of dissatisfaction are the hygiene factors” attempt to lessen dissatisfaction” which is shown in Table 1.
Based on these two similar theories, Herzberg considered it intrinsic job satisfaction as motivation factors and extrinsic job satisfaction as hygiene factors , therefore the present research will use this two factors as research dimensions for job satisfaction, with intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction as the terms, and the factors within them will be used as the indictors.
Intrinsic job satisfaction: Intrinsic factors, which are also known as motivation factors in the two factors theory, are derived from the employees themselves and are the cause of the satisfaction. If they exist, these factors motivate employees, which leads to satisfaction, and conversely if they do not, there will be no satisfaction. However, this will not cause dissatisfaction , these factors are:
|Hygiene Factors||Motivation Factors|
|Interpersonal Relations||The work itself|
Table 1: Job satisfaction factors according to Herzberg.
1) Achievement: Achievement will happen, when an employee succeed in finishing or setting a certain task or a problem. For example learning a hard skill at work, succeeding in overcoming a complicated task, and more.
2) Recognition: Recognition is made based on the response of the accomplished work. It is a vital instrument to encourage employees and it rewards them in return for the work that has benefited the organization.
3) The work itself: The work and it’s condition from the employees’ point of view that leads to job satisfaction, whether the work is challenging, appealing, and valuable for them.
4) Responsibility: Responsibility is the accountability of employees in their work. For example, being delegated to a certain task that leads to a higher motivation and satisfaction .
5) Advancement: Advancement is a factor linked with the improvement of an employee’s occupation, such as promotion will probably leads to employee satisfaction .
6) Growth: Growth is the future prospect of the employee’s improvement in their employment. Growth opportunities in an organization may lead employees to be satisfied.
Extrinsic job satisfaction: The second factor is extrinsic factors which are also known as hygiene factors in two-factor theory. Are derived from an employee’s environment and considered as the cause of dissatisfaction.
If these factors do not exist, dissatisfaction will occur among employees, and conversely, if they exists, there will be no dissatisfaction. However, this will not cause satisfaction . These factors are:
1) Supervision: This factor is about the relationship between the employee and their supervisors, with good relationship with supervisor, there is a possibility of higher employee satisfaction and lower turnover .
2) Working conditions: Working condition is the employee is working environment. According to leblebici, working environment satisfaction is related to job satisfaction, and a positive working environment can drive motivation .
3) Interpersonal relation: This is the relation between one employee and his fellow employees or colleagues, which is also related to job satisfaction , for example, relationship with group or division members.
4) Company policy: These are policies, rules, and regulations in organizations where employee work which related satisfaction .
5) Salary: Salary is considered as a vital factor of job satisfaction, where employees are given salaries and wages by organization in return for their contribution . With nondiscriminatory the employee will be satisfied.
6) Job Security: This is the employees believe of their term of employment that they will must probably remain in the organization .
7) Status: This is a factor that is related to one’s position, which considered different to others.
Importance of job satisfaction: According to Sageer et al.  study about job satisfaction, determined various reasons why job satisfaction is very important, from the organization point of view, job satisfaction can contribute to higher productivity, lower cost for labor (turnover, hiring) higher satisfaction of customers and enhancing collaboration of employees, on the other hand, job satisfaction is also important for employees from the employees point of view job satisfaction will make them more dedicated for the employer and encourage them to contribute best work to the organization, and indeed will be more prolific.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Organizational behavior (OB) is a study about the people, and the structure of an organization who have behavior that impact the effectiveness of that organization, while according to Kaifi and Noori , OB is defined as a study identifying an elaborating the individuals and groups behavior in an organization and it is advancement in the future.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) I definitely part of OB, in accordance to Robbins and Judge’s book  on OB, OCB is the outcome of OB on an individual level where individuals or employees are working, performing, and behaving better than expected by the organization.
OCB is a type of behavior that can be defined as one not specified by any job description of contract. The behavior is not something that is expected and not something, that can be trained. However, researcher shows that type of behavior is desirable due to it is positive effect on the organization and workers . Some even consider the behavior synergistic to the organization’s performance.
According to Organ , OCB is defined as “Individual behavior that’s discretionary, not directly of explicitly recognized but the former reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective function of the organization”.
Moreover OCB means that employees are going beyond what’s expected of the organization and what’s in their Job Description .
In any organization or company there are tasks that are not part of certain employee duties and responsibility, thus an expected work should be anticipated by employees when unfathomable conditions happen. Therefore, anther definition of OCB based on Bateman and Organ is “some extra job related behaviors which go above and beyond the routine duties prescribed by the employees job description”.
Research about OCB was started by the father of OCB “Dennis Organ” in 1980 since then there has been a difference of two dimensions of employee behavior, which are general complaints (focused on behavior aimed at the system such as being a good employee” and altruism (Focused on behavior aimed at others such as helping other colleagues . Until now research about OCB and it’s antecedents, such as Organizational commitment, organizational culture, Job satisfaction and more has been done by many researchers.
1) Altruism: Voluntary action by helping a colleague dealing with work related problems, such as helping in accomplishing tasks how to use equipment and more. It is an action outside the requirements of employees’ jobs .
2) Conscientiousness: The behavior that goes beyond what is required by the organization, such as punctuality and adherence to the organization’s rules and regulations. A more conscientious employee will tend to “be attached” to organization for longer than those who don’t .
3) Civic Virtue: The willingness to be involved in the organization’s matter. Such as attending meeting, discussing organization issues with fellow employees, keeping update with organization matters, and more. It is also the behavior of being responsible and concerned with the organization’s life .
4) Courtesy: Behavior that’s done in order to avoid undesirable conditions happening with other employees, such as given prior notice of changing schedule or prior notice of meetings, conflict will lessen if employees are courteous .
5) Sportsmanship: The behavior where employees understand the difficulties they encounter and do not protest them, such as understanding the organization’s condition or hardships not protesting about work, and not making a situation worse .
In addition, Williams and Anderson  determine the types of OCB based upon whom the behavior is aimed at. These are Organizational citizenship Behavior towards Individual (OCBI), and organizational Citizenship Behavior towards the organization (OCBO).
In conjunction with five dimensions of OCB, altruism and courtesy can lead to OCBI , where employees help other individuals or are concerned with others, such as their colleagues. On the other hand, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and sportsmanship can lead to OCBO, where employee behavior are more directed to the benefit of the organization.
|Research Author||OCB Indicators|
|Swaminathan andJawahar, 2013||Responsibility|
|Reduction of Inner Conflict|
|Intaraprasong et al., 2012||Altruism|
|Mohammad et al.,||OCBO|
|Nielsen et al., 2012||Altruism|
Table 2: OCB measuring methods.
Methods of measuring OCB: Different methods of measuring levels of OCB within organizations have been utilized over the years. The pervious used methods by researchers are summarized in the Table 2 [10,11,23,29].
Job satisfaction and OCB
As mentioned before, the researches about OCB and its antecedents are developing until now. According to Jahangir et al.  several of its antecedents are leadership behavior, organizational commitment, motivation, job satisfaction and more.
In accordance to Robbins and Judge, job satisfaction is the most substantial element on job attitude, and OCB is the result of high level of job satisfaction. A satisfied employee will tend to show organizational citizenship behavior, for example, an employee who has a good relationship with his colleagues will tend to show altruistic behavior such as helping in accomplishing task, and others . Conversely, organizational citizenship behavior will not occur if the employee is not happy, or in other words, dissatisfied .
This was also proven in Organ and Ryan’s Study , where they found that OCB will occur if the employees are satisfied. Even job satisfaction is the strongest factor of OCB , or job satisfaction is a precise predictor of OCB .
There has been a lot of research that studied job Satisfaction and OCB. The findings are different from one another, some found that there is a positive relationship between the two and some did not,
Ozturk , found that job satisfaction is strong factor of OCB, another research found that some demographic factors influence employees’ satisfaction and OCB levels and job satisfaction relationship with OCB is positive .
Also, Arif, and Chohan, found a positive relationship between job satisfaction dimensions and OCB Dimensions as well as the job satisfaction and OCB themseleves. Miao  found a positive significant relationship between Job Satisfaction and OCB.
|Research Title||Author||A study among||Variables and Dimensions||Research results|
|Determinants of organizational Citizenship behavior among knowledge worker: the role of Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction and organizational commitment||FundaOzturk (2010)||Four different Studies in Turkey, which are IT, Software, Defense and banking industry||OCB
|There is a substantial relationship between job Characteristic and OCB.
Job Satisfaction is strong factor of OCB and there is a relationship between Organizational Commitment and OCB with affective commitment as the most significant.
|The relationship between job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB) in the retail industry inIndonesia||WanneeSaepung, Sukimo, SununtaSiengthai (2011)||Retail employees in Jogjakarta, Indonesia||Job Satisfaction
|They found that some demographic factors such as age and education influence employees’ satisfaction and ocb levels, for instance, the higher the education background, the higher satisfaction and OCB level. Whereas the relation of job satisfaction and OCB is 0.568 which means positively related|
|How job satisfaction is influencing the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): a study on employees working in banking sector of Pakistan||AmnaArif, and Aisha Chohan (2012)||Employees in Banking Sector in Pakistan||Job Satisfaction
|The found a positive relationship between job satisfaction dimensions and OCB dimensions, as well as the Job satisfaction and OCB relationship themselves that showed 57.2%|
|Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, task performance and organizational citizenship behavior in China||Ren-Tao Miao (2011)||Employees at two large scale companies in china||Perceived organizational support
|There is a positive significant relationship between job satisfaction and ocb, as well as between perceived organizational support and OCB, and task performance, also job satisfaction and task performance.|
|Does Job satisfaction influence organizational citizenship behavior? An empirical study in selected 4 stars hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia||Budiman, Anantadjaya, andPrasetyawati (2014)||Employees in 4 star hotels in Jakarta||Job Satisfaction
|Job satisfaction has an insignificant relationship with OCB, and nature of work is the strongest factor in job satisfaction|
|Deducting the organizational citizenship behavior dimensions and its antecedents (Job Satisfaction) in the Indian context||P.Vaijayanthi, K.A. Shreenivasan and Reena Roy (2014)||Employees in travel management company in India||Job Satisfaction
|Found that only the extrinsic job satisfaction has a strong relationship with OCB , not the intrinsic job satisfaction|
|Swaminathanand Jawahar (2013)||Higher Educational Institutions, Tamil, India||Job Satisfaction
|Positive Relationship between OCB and Job Satisfaction|
|Job Satisfaction and Oganizational Citizenship Behavior of Personnel at One Univerity Hospital In Thailand||Intaraprasong et al., (2012)||University Hospital, Thailand||Job Satisfaction
|Positive Relationship between OCB and Job Satisfaction|
|Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Empirical Study at Higher Learning Instituations||Mohammad et al, (2011)||Higher Learning Institution, Malaysia||OCB
|Intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job Satisfaction are essential in predicting OCB|
|Utility of OCB Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Group Performance in a Resource Allocation Framework||Nielsen et al., (2012)||Hospitals in Los Angeles||Group performance
|OCB is very influential towards certain factors of group performance such as individuality|
Table 3: Pervious studies.
The Table 3 below shows various research and their findings related to Job Satisfaction and OCB.
The research model
The research model as described by the theoretical reviews above, the proposed relationship between Job Satisfaction (Intrinsic and Extrinsic) and OCB (Figure 2).
Based on theories explained before, the present research aims to examine the relationship between factors of job satisfaction and OCB among Beni Suef Cement Company employees. Thus the hypothesis are:
1- H1 there is a significant relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and OCB.
2- H2 there is a significant relationship between extrinsic job satisfaction and OCB.
Population and sample
According to Cooper and Schindler 2011, the definition of the population is the whole component that is going to be studied until a conclusion is reached, thus, the population of this study is 325 employees which is the total head count of BSCC employee on 31/5/2015.
Sampling is the process of choosing components that represent the total population in order to reach an inference .
The sample sized based on:
Confidence Level: 95%, Confidence Interval: 4, the sample size will be 211.
Data collection technique
Data is divided into two types which are primary data and secondary data, primary data is gained by the researcher himself for a particular objective, and secondary data is gained by other researchers for achieve their own objectives.
The present research uses the primary data, which was gathered by distributing a questionnaire to BSSC team members.
This questionnaire consists, in addition to some demographic questions.
The 28 question format used the Likert scale where five point scale were used.
|Variables and Definition||Indicator/Sub Variables||Questions|
|Job Satisfaction is defined as “ a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” Locke||Intrinsic Job Satisfaction|
|Achievement||I Can See the results of my Work|
|I am satisfied because my achievement is recognized|
|Recognition||I Get recognition for my work|
|I am Satisfied because my superior always thanks me for a well done job|
|The work it self||I like doing the tasks of my job|
|My job is challenging and exciting|
|Responsibility||I’m trusted and given responsibility at work|
|Advancement||I have career opportunities at my job|
|Growth||I Can grow as a person and learn new skills|
|My Experience and performance improved by working for this company|
|Extrinsic Job Satisfaction|
|Supervision||I have got good relations with my superiors|
|Working Conditions||I have a good, clean, modern workplace/equipment|
|Interpersonal Relations||I have good relationships with my colleagues|
|Company Policies||I can see that my job hasclear and fair rules|
|The company policies are the advantageous for its employees|
|Salary||I got paid fairly for my job|
|Job Security||I have a stable job|
|Status||I have job that is prestigious|
|I believe that my job is respected by the community|
|Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as “Individual Behavior that is discretionary, not directly or recognized by the formal reward system , and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” Organ||Altruism||I help others who have heavy work loads|
|I help others who have been absent|
|Courtesy||I consider the impact of my actions on co-workers|
|I take steps to try to prevent problems with other workers|
|Conscientiousness||I don’t take extra breaks|
|I follow company rules and regulations even when no one watching|
|Civic Virtue||I keep abreast of changes in the organization|
|I attend meetings that are not mandatory, but are considered important|
|Sportsmanship||I am a person who always get attention because I pointed out my problems|
Table 4: Questions used in the questionnaire.
The questions used in the questionnaire for this research consisted of 28 questions. The questions regarding intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction were derived from a combination and some modification of Bernotaite  and Mangy , with 19 questions.
The questions regarding OCB were derived from Podsakoff with 9 questions. The format of the/questionnaire used a five point Likert scale where 5 was “Strongly Agree”, 4 was “Agree”, 3 Was “Neutral”, 2 was “Disagree”, and 1 was “ Strongly disagree”.
The Table 4 below shows the questions in the questionnaire.
The previous study shows a positive significant relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and it’s expected to find the same relationship among Beni Suef Cement Company Team Members.