alexa INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF OCB WITH JOB SATISFACTION ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND TURNOVER INTENSIONS | OMICS International
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INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF OCB WITH JOB SATISFACTION ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND TURNOVER INTENSIONS

Rabia Aslam*

Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Rabia Aslam
Hailey College of Commerce
University of the Punjab
Lahore, Pakistan
E-mail: [email protected]

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Keywords

OCB, Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, Turnover intensions, Punjab University.

INTRODUCTION

Employees are key asset for any organization. Employee's attitudes and behaviors not only affect their performance but also affect organizational performance as a whole. Teachers play important role in effective functioning of educational institution so they must be satisfied and committed with their jobs so there is less turnover of quality teachers. Studies showed that employees who show more OCBs are more satisfied and committed with their organization (Organ & Ryan, 1995 cited in Huang et al., 2004; Foote & Tang, 2008) and show less turnover intentions. OCB is all about the matter of emotional attachment to the organization and matter of personal choice of the employee. The pioneer Dennis Organ defined the concept “Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)” in the words ". . . an essential condition of organization . . . “that reflects ". . . a willingness [of] participants to 'go beyond what is required" (Organ as cited in Staw & Cummings, 1990, p. 43).

This study is first case study to see the impact of organizational justice on job related attitudes and behaviors of Punjab University teachers. This research expands the study of organizational justice and its impact on different employee’s (Teacher’s) attitudes and behaviors like job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) educational sector of Pakistan. The rationale of conducting research on this topic is to find type of relationship among variables and then to suggest possible solution to improve the situation in educational institutions.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Since 1930s organizational citizenship behavior was a topic of various studies (Owen & Pappalardo, 2000). The significance of “willingness to cooperate” from employees was introduced as addition to the literature of organizational behavior by Chester Barnard.

According to Organ (1988, p.4) “Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.” Significance of OCB in educational and different sectors is revealed from these studies. A study was conducted by Oplatka (2009) at fifty Israeli elementary and secondary schools to enrich the understanding about effects of OCB on teachers, their pupils and on their school. Findings of that study revealed that teachers perceive extra role, unrewarded and non-obligatory tasks to have strong influence on themselves (in the shape of feeling of self-fulfillment and job satisfaction at higher levels), on their students (e.g., greater achievements of students) and on their school as a whole (in shape of enhanced and better school discipline and image). There is a relationship between OCB and performance of teachers in Higher Education setting and it results in professional motivation and self confidence among students. There was a relationship between OCB of university teachers and quality of teaching-learning process. (Regoxs, 2003 cited in Lara, 2008).

Relationship of OCB with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions

A correlation within OCB, job satisfaction, perceived fairness, organizational commitment and leaders’ supportive behaviors was proved through a meta-analysis (Organ & Ryan, 1995 cited in Huang et al., 2004) therefore business to employee benefit (B2E) system has the prospective for improvement in the performance of organization and hence increased organizational value. It was also empirically tested by research that a relationship exists between OCB and experiences of workers with work-family benefit package where POS acted as mediator. According to social exchange theory when people get benefits from the organization’s actions, it resulted in obligation of response from people to the organization and then OCB acts as currency to respond to the organization. (Lambert, 2000 cited in Huang et al., 2004).

A model was suggested by Foote and Tang (2008) in their study conducted among full time employees working in self directed teams at manufacturing concerns and in that model relationship between job satisfaction and OCB was mediated by team commitment in self directed teams. Results explain a significant relationship between OCB and job satisfaction, and between team commitment and OCB. Team commitment moderated the relationship between OCB and job satisfaction because when we added team commitment in that relationship, it become stronger. Job satisfaction was positively and significantly correlated with OCB for committed employees in teams.

Job satisfaction improves the working relationship among workers that leads to commitment in team and ultimately results in higher level of OCBs (Wilke & Lanzetta, 1970; Bolino et al., 2002).

Jain (2009) examined the predictive ability of OCB and Emotional Intelligence (EI) to predict organizational variables among the middle level executives of Motorbike Company of India. According to his findings one dimension of OCB i.e. concern for organizational resources was positively related to sense of attachment and negatively related to conditional continuance commitment which means OCBs help employees to relate with organization in true sense. OCB not only resulted in less turnover intentions but also enhanced one’s commitment level. Results showed that career orientation, perceived job mobility and work recognition were uniquely predicted by OCB. OCB strongly predicted turnover intentions, organizational commitment and organizational productivity better than EI did while OCB and EI both were relevant predictors of job satisfaction, vertical trust and organizational effectiveness.

A study was conducted by Junhee, Eunkyung and Sangsook (2009) to see the factors that influenced OCB among nurses. The results revealed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were some factors that positively influenced OCB of nurses which means that there was a positive relationship between OCB and all selected variables. Good interaction between supervisors and subordinates increases the commitment of employees, OCB among employees and reduce their turnover intentions which ultimately improve organizational effectiveness (Asgari et al., 2008).

The above literature stated that there is positive relationship between OCB, job satisfaction and organizational commitment while OCB is negatively related with turnover intensions.

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research model

3.2 Hypothesis

H1: OCB is positively correlated with Job satisfaction.
H2: OCB is positively correlated with Organizational commitment.
H3: OCB is negatively correlated with turnover intentions.

3.3 Research design

This study is a “causal study” because it will explain relationship among variables.

3.3.1 Population; sample; sampling technique

Population of this research consists of Teachers of University of the Punjab. University of the Punjab from educational institution is taken to collect data from. 250 teachers from five faculties of University of Punjab were taken as sample. Multistage sampling is a type of probability sampling design. Multistage sampling technique is used for drawing sample from the population.

From the public sector universities of Pakistan I selected University of Punjab at first stage of sampling. This university was selected because this university has large number of faculties and departments as well as great number of teachers. Then in the second stage of sampling, different faculties and then different departments of those faculties were selected through simple random sampling technique.

There are 13 Faculties in the University. I have selected five faculties from 13 faculties i.e; commerce, Economics and management sciences, Science, Engineering and Law. From the three departments of faculty of Commerce, I have selected one department. From six departments of faculty of Economics and management sciences, I have selected four departments From the five departments of faculty of Engineering & Technology, I have selected three departments. From the two departments of faculty of Law, I have selected one department. From sixteen departments of faculty of Science, I have selected seven departments. Questionnaires were randomly distributed among teachers of these departments to collect the data.

3.3.2 Instrument used

Questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument. Questionnaire was used to cope with the constraints of limited time and budget. As questionnaire help to obtain more responses from a large number of respondents in short time than interviews so structured questionnaire with 5 and 7 likert scale was used for obtaining structured responses which was also convenient in data analysis (Cooper & Schindler, 2003).

3.3.3 Instrument development

Scale of organizational citizenship behavior is adopted from Podsakoff et al. 1990, this variable contains twenty six questions and its reliability was 0.94. 7 likert scale is used for OCB. Scale of organizational commitment is adopted from Mowday et al. (1979). 7 point likert scale for organizational commitment was used to obtain responses and it contains eight questions. Scale of turnover intention was adopted from Cammann et al. (1979) which contains three questions and its reliability was 0.85. Scale of overall job satisfaction was adopted from Cook et al. 1981 which contains seven questions and its reliability was .67 to .71. Five likert scale was used for overall job satisfaction and turnover intention items.

3.3.4 Data Collection

As this research is primary so data was collected primarily. For data collection purpose, personally administered questionnaire was used. Data were collected from selected departments of five faculties of PU.

3.3.5 Response rate

250 questionnaires were distributed in 5 faculties of University of the Punjab. Response rate was 60% as 150 questionnaires were returned.

3.3.6 Data analysis tool

SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Regression and descriptive and demographical analysis is used to analyze the data.

4.0 DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Demographical analysis

Table1: See Appendix A

In table 1, Demographical analysis showed that among the sample selected of 150 respondents 52% of them fell in age category 20-30 years, 34.7% fell in category 30-40 years, 10.7% fell in the category 40-50 years, 2.7% fell in the category 50-60 years.

Table2: see Appendix A

Table 2 shows the gender wise division of the respondents. 53.3% of the respondents were male while 46.7% were females. So both the gender is given equal chance of representation in the study.

Table3: see Appendix A

Table 3 showed marital status of respondents which is categorized as single, married, divorced. 39.3% of the respondents were single, 60% were married and 0.7% were divorced. Majority of the respondents were married.

Table4: see Appendix A

Table 4 shows that 18% of the respondents were belonged to faculty of Eco.& Mgt., 28% of respondents were belonged to faculty of sciences, 14.7% of the respondents were belonged to faculty of law, 16% of the respondents were belonged to faculty of commerce and 23.3% respondents were belonged to faculty of engineering.

Table5: see Appendix A

Table 5 shows qualification of the respondents who were classified as Masters, M.Phil, P.hd. 29.3% respondents were Masters, 58% of the respondents were M.Phil, 12.7% of the respondents were P.hd, it means that majority of respondents were with qualification of M.Phil.

Table6: see Appendix A

Table 6 shows the overall experience of respondents. 24.7% of the respondents were having 0-2 years of overall experience, 42% of the respondents were having 2-5 years overall experience, 15.3% of the respondents were having 5-10 years of overall experience, 18% of the respondents were having 10 or more year’s experience.

Table7: see Appendix A

Table 7 showed the Current job experience in University of the Punjab of the respondents that is as follows: 44% of respondents were having 0-2 years of experience, 40% of respondents were having 2-5 years of experience, 10% of respondents were having 5-10 years of experience, and 6% of respondents were having 10 or more years of experience.

4.2 Descriptive Analysis

Table 8 shows that the mean score of OCB is 5.2539 on 7 likert scale which means that respondents were slightly agree to agree in terms to show OCBs. Organizational commitment was found to be 5.8713 on 7 likert scale which means that respondents were found to be slightly agree to agree in terms of organizational commitment. The overall mean score of turnover intentions was found 2.1022 on 5 likert scale which means that respondents were disagree to leave the organization (university of the Punjab). Mean score of overall job satisfaction on 5 likert scale was found to be 3.9952 or 4 which indicated that respondents were overall satisfied.

  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Organizational_citizenship_ Behavior   150   3.05   6.29   5.2539   .60945
Overall_job_satisfaction 150 1.71 5.00 3.9952 .60324
Organizational_commitment 150 2.00 7.00 5.8713 .89374
Turnover_intentions 150 1.00 4.33 2.1022 .98076
Valid N (listwise) 150        

Table 8

4.3 Regression analysis

H1: OCB is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

Table 9 shows that the Correlation between Independent variable (IV) OCB and dependent variable (DV) overall job satisfaction is 0.427 while the regression coefficient R2 is 0.182 which means that only 18.2% variation in the DV is due to IV and rest of the variance in overall job satisfaction can be attributed to other factors which are held constant. Unstandardized Beta is 0.422 or 42.2% means that if there is one unit increase in IV then DV will increase by 0.422 units. F value is 32.914, it is greater than 10 so and P value is also less than 5% so model is said to be fit. The results indicated that there is significant positive relationship (r=0.427, P<0.01) between OCB and overall job satisfaction, consequently hypothesis 1 is supported.

  R R2 Beta F P
OCB 0.427 0.182 0.422 32.914 0.000

Table: 9

H2: OCB is positively correlated with organizational commitment.

Table 10 shows that the Correlation between Independent variable (IV) OCB and dependent variable (DV) organizational commitment is 0.675 while the regression coefficient R2 is 0.337 which means that only 33.7% variation in the DV is due to IV and rest of the variance in organizational commitment can be attributed to other factors which are held constant. Unstandardized Beta is 0.851 or 85.1% means that if there is one unit increase in IV then DV will increase by 0.851 units. F value is 75.163, it is greater than 10 so and P value is also less than 5% so model is said to be fit. The results indicated that there is significant positive relationship (r=0.580, P<0.01) between OCB and organizational commitment consequently hypothesis 2 is supported.

  R R2 Beta F P
OCB 0.580 0.337 0.851 75.163 0.000

Table:10

H3: OCB is negatively correlated with turnover intentions

Table 11 shows that the Correlation between Independent variable (IV) OCB and dependent variable (DV) turnover intentions is 0.007 while the regression coefficient R2 is 0.000 which means that 0% variation in the DV is due to IV and 100% variation is due to other factors which are held constant. Unstandardized Beta is -0.011 means that if there is one unit increase in IV then DV will decrease by 0.011 units. F value is 0.007, it is less than 10 so and P value is also greater than 5% so model is said to be unfit. Relationship between OCB and Turnover intensions is weak. The results indicated that there is insignificant negative relationship (r=0.007, P>0.01) between OCB and turnover intention, consequently hypothesis 3 is not supported.

  R R2 Beta F P
OCB 0.007 0.000 -0.011 0.007 0.933

Table: 11

5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

OCB is found to be positively related with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Employees who are more satisfied and committed with the organization they show more OCBs and are show less turnover intentions. Relationship of OCB with job satisfaction and organizational commitment was find to be positive and significant so hypothesis 1 and 2 is supported. These results are also consistent with previous researches (Wilke & Lanzetta, 1970; Bolino et al., 2002; Foote & Tang 2008; Junhee, Eunkyung & Sangsook 2009).

while relationship between OCB and turnover intensions was find to be weak, insignificant and negative. It implies that OCBs increased with the increase in job satisfaction and organizational commitment, while OCB has weak relationship with turnover intensions and demonstration of OCB does not necessarily means that employees will not leave that organization so hypothesis 3 is not supported. In nut shell OCB has positive relation with Job satisfaction and organizational commitment but negative weak relation with turnover intentions. Result of hypothesis 3 was not consistent with previous researches (Asgari et al., 2008; Jain, 2009) in which OCB is found to be negatively related with turnover intentions.

Hypothesis 1 Supported
Hypothesis 2 Supported
Hypothesis 3 Not supported

6.0 IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH

This study examined the relationship of work related outcomes i.e. OCB, Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions. This study represents the empirical research regarding OCB and its affect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions in educational sector of Pakistan. The present study provides the both theoretical and practical implications. This study enhanced our understanding regarding the concepts of OCB, organizational commitment, overall job satisfaction and turnover intentions.

First, this study provides a basis for researchers in educational sector for future research to further test the relationship of these constructs. Second, this study is conducted in organizational setting, i.e. University of the Punjab, so validity of the results is more as compared to the results from laboratory research settings. Third, this study used turnover intentions as indication of withdrawal behavior. Turnover intentions of employees are affected from job satisfaction and commitment level. This variable is very important as far as the educational sector is concerned because retention of dedicated and scholarly teachers is crucial for the effective functioning of the educational institutions. So this research has implications for turnover research in educational sector to further explore the relationship of these variables with turnover intentions. Fourth, this study provides authorities at top levels in educational sector with guidelines regarding how to enhance positive attitudes like job satisfaction and commitment and how to decrease negative behaviors like turnover intentions.

Teachers of University of the Punjab were found to be slightly agreed to show organizational commitment and OCBs but were found to be overall satisfied and were disagreed to leave the University job. Policy makers should do efforts to improve the level of commitment and OCB to higher levels so that they show less turnover intentions which are crucial for successful organizations.

REFRENCES

Asgari, A. , Silong, A.D., Ahmad, A., and Samah, B.A. (2008), The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Organizational Justice, Leader-Member Exchange, Perceived Organizational Support, Trust in Management and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, European Journal of Scientific Research 23(2), 227-242.
Bolino, M.C., Turnley, W.H. and Bloodgood, J.M. (2002), “Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations”, Academy of Management Review, 27, 505-22.
Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D. & Klesh, J. (1979). The Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire. Unpublished Maniscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Citizenship Behavior, Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 39(4):499-50
Cook. J. D., Hepworth, S. J., & Warr, P. B. (1981). The experience ofwork. San Diego: Academic Press.
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2003). Business Research Methods, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.
Foote, D.A. and Tang, T.L.P. (2008) Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Does team commitment make a difference in self-directed teams? Management Decision, 46 (6), 933-947
Huang, J.H., Jin, B.H. and Yang, C. (2004) Satisfaction with business-to-employee benefit systems and organizational citizenship behavior An examination of gender differences, International Journal of Manpower 25(2),195-210
Huang, J.H., Jin, B.H. and Yang, C. (2004) Satisfaction with business-to-employee benefit systems and organizational citizenship behavior An examination of gender differences, International Journal of Manpower 25(2), pp. 195-210
Jain, A.K.(2009) Exploring the Relative Relevance of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Emotional Intelligence, Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35(1), 87-97.
Junhee, P. Eunkyung, Y. Sangsook, H. (2009). Factors influencing Nurses’ Organizational
Lambert, S.J. (2000), “Added benefits: the link between work-life benefits and organizational citizenship behavior”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, pp. 801-15.
Lara, P.Z.M.(2008), Fairness, teachers’ non-task behavior and alumni satisfaction The influence of group commitment, Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 514-538.
Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
Oplatka, I. (2009), Organizational Citizenship Behavior in teaching, the consequences for teachers, pupils, and the school. International Journal of Educational Management Vol. 23 No. 5, 2009 pp. 375-389
Organ, D.W. and Ryan, K. (1995), “A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior”, Personnel Psychology, 48, 775-802.
Owen, F.A. and Pappalardo, S.J (2000), Canadian Journal of Counselling I Revue canadienne de counselin, 34 (2)
Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S.B., Moorman, R.H. and Fetter, R. (1990), Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-142.
Regoxs, A. (2003), “Citizenship behaviours of university teachers: the graduates’ point-of-view”, Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 8-23.
Staw, B. M . & Cummings, L.L. (1990), Research in Organizational Behavior, 12. Greenwich,CT: JAI Press  Inc
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Appendix A

Age of respondent
    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 20-30 78 52.0 52.0 52.0
  30-40 52 34.7 34.7 86.7
  40-50 16 10.7 10.7 97.3
  50-60 4 2.7 2.7 100.0
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:1

Gender of resp.
    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid male 80 53.3 53.3 53.3
  female 70 46.7 46.7 100.0
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:2

marital status
      Frequency   Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid single 59 39.3 39.3 39.3
  married 90 60.0 60.0  
  Divorced 1 .7 .7 99.3
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:3

  Department/faculty
  Frequency Percent Valid  Percent Cumulative Percent  
faculty of Eco.& Mgt. 27 18.0 18.0 18.0  
Faculty of Sciences 42 28.0 28.0 46.0  
Faculty of Law 22 14.7 14.7 60.7  
Faculty of commerce 24 16.0 16.0 76.7  
Engineering 35 23.3 23.3 100.0  

Table: 4

Qualification of respondent
      Frequency   Percent   Valid Percent   Cumulative Percent
Valid Masters 44 29.3 29.3 29.3
  M.Phil 87 58.0 58.0 87.3
  P.hD 19 12.7 12.7 100.0
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:5

Overall experience
    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0-2 years 37 24.7 24.7 24.7
  2-5 years 63 42.0 42.0 66.7
  5-10 years 23 15.3 15.3 82.0
  10 or more 27 18.0 18.0 100.0
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:6

Current job exp.
    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0-2 yr 66 44.0 44.0 44.0
  2-5 yr 60 40.0 40.0 84.0
  5-10 yr 15 10.0 10.0 94.0
  Total 150 100.0 100.0  

Table:7

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