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International Journal of Accounting Research
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Is the Poverty of the Country a Consequence of the Structure of the Mexican Economy?

Dora Elena Ledesma-Carrión* and Lidia Hernández-Hernández

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), Av. Patriotismo 711, Col. San Juan Mixcoac, C.P. 03730, Benito Juárez, México

*Corresponding Author:
Dora Elena Ledesma-Carrión
Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI)
Av. Patriotismo 711, Col. San Juan Mixcoac
C.P. 03730, Benito Juárez, México
Tel: 52781000
Ext: 1624
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 26, 2017; Accepted Date: June 27, 2017; Published Date: June 05, 2017

Citation: Ledesma-Carrión DE, Hernández-Hernández L (2017) Is the Poverty of the Country a Consequence of the Structure of the Mexican Economy? Int J Account Res 5: 163. doi:10.4172/2472-114X.1000163

Copyright: © 2017 Ledesma-Carrión DE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

As has been observed for decades, poverty alleviation programs have not ended this generational social debt. Isolated policies such as the per capita wage increase sound attractive but do not greatly benefit households with incomes below the minimum welfare line. Also, the most powerful industry in this country is the manufacture of petroleum and coal products, it does not help solve the increase in the number of people living in poverty. It is the wholesale trade in groceries and food that impacts both on the change in the poverty index and on its depth and intensity. This explains how households with incomes between the first and fifth decile of income remain within the informal trade.

Keywords

Social accounting matrix; Decomposition of multipliers; Poverty index

Introduction

The concepts and opinions expressed in this document represent only the point of view of the authors; Do not necessarily reflect the vision of the institution to which they belong. Much has been said about poverty in Mexico and its causes, but for many years we have been in recurrent crises that do not allow for its decline [1-3]. The objective of this paper is to present the multiplier decomposition method [4,5] applied to a social accounting matrix (SAM-MX120 [6,7] built for 2012 and to focus it on the analysis of poverty alleviation using the Foster- Greer-Thorbecke index [8]. The SAM-MX12 is based on the Mexican System of National Accounts (SCNM-MX) and includes the inputoutput matrix (IOT-MX12) as intermediate consumption [6,9] and the tariff databases were coupled with the North America Industrial Classification System, NAICS 2007 code [10-12].

More information on the construction of SAM can be found in the previous papers [13,14].

In the Official Journal of the Federation dated 16 of 2010, the general guidelines and criteria for the definition, identification and measurement of poverty are established. National Council for Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) defines that a person is in multidimensional poverty when he is not guaranteed the exercise of at least one of his rights for social development, and if his income is insufficient to acquire the goods and services that he needs to satisfy his needs. Regarding economic well-being, only per capita current income is taken into account. While social rights are used for social rights related to education, health, social security, food, housing and services [15]. Here the economic welfare line will be taken and as the upper limit the welfare line denoted as ?, and if it is the minimum welfare line will be ?.

Brief State of the Art

Thorbecke and Jung [8] apply the poverty indicator proposed by Foster-Greer-Thorbecke to Indonesia’s economy with 76 economic sectors including 23 categories for rural and urban areas. Households are subdivided into eight groups depending on their average income and companies linked to 24 productive activities. Kim [16] does the same for South Africa by distinguishing between sex and skilled and unskilled workers. It uses the same social accounting matrix structure proposed by Defourny and Thorbecke in 1984 [5]. For both analyzes, it was necessary to have additional information on elasticities for rural and urban areas of poverty for different groups of employees in different sectors.

During the 50s, Antonio Ortiz Mena [1] argued that resolving the situation of the lower income population, especially in rural areas, was crucial for the true stabilizing development of the Nation. Many decades of this have passed and this inequality still persists and the gap between the poor and the rich has widened. Taking the historical data and definitions of poverty in the different periods, the following graphs, Figures 1a-1c which show what has been said [2].

international-journal-accounting-population

Figure 1: Line of food poverty (line of minimum welfare) and patrimonial (economic welfare line from 2014) from 1992 to 2012. a) Population, b) in urban areas and c) in rural areas.

Alcides Lasa and Deuda [3] points out that over time the national real wage index or simply the real wage shows the increase in poverty. Resuming what indicated in ref. [2] calculates the current equivalent salary with Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (National Institute of Statistic and Geography, INEGI) data of the minimum wage of 1935-2015, Figure 2 shows that the minimum wage in 1938 was higher than the current one and that controlled inflation is not determinant in the wage increase.

international-journal-accounting-historical

Figure 2: Historical mínimum wage and annual inflation 1934-2012: a) Inflation and minimum wage data and, b) Historical facts.

The false wage increase during Luis Echeverría’s tenure with uncontrolled inflation led to a brutal decline in purchasing power over the next four years. But before Echeverría, the wage increase by presidential decree had worked during the mandates of Adolfo López Mateos and Gustavo Díaz Ordaz with controlled inflation, 2b. That is, if inflation is not controlled, the wage increase is risky because it depends on many other factors such as the production of crude oil and its derivatives, the domestic market, the interest rate, the trade balance and the peso-dollar exchange rate. All this impacts on what Mexicans are looking for, a well-paid and long-term job. It is required that employment through SMEs is generated, for it requires entrepreneurs and trained people. This leads us to the other poverty or social deficiencies that are not taken into account in the present work for 2012, the percentages of the population with educational lag by decile are: I (34.3), II (29.5), III (25.3), IV (22.1), V (20.1), VI (17.9), VII (16.0), VIII (13.2), IX (9.4) and X (4.6). These percentages are high, so the problem of poverty must study these other aspects, which is open to further research.

Methodology

The economic conceptual framework is described in Figure 3a and, starting from a social accounting matrix (SAM-MX12) where the money flows from the columns and arrive at rows is constructed in the form of Defourny and Thorbecke [4,17,18] (Figure 3b). Figure 3c schematizes the multiplier effect between endogenous accounts of SAM-MX12. When it comes to households, the distribution will be in terms of income or expenditure, according to the direction of flow. The distribution by deciles of both income and expenditure of the Survey of Household income and expenditure (ENIGH-12) that were adjusted to SCNM.

international-journal-accounting-endogenous

Figure 3: a) Flow chart of the SAM-MX12. b) Social accounting matrix with structure of Defourny & Thorbecke, year 2012. c) Diagram of the multiplier process between endogenous accounts of SAM-MX12.

X1 is the final exogenous demand for government consumption factors, exports and investment demand:

A13X1

X2 is the exogenous injection from government transfers and remittances abroad:

X3 is the final exogenous demand for government consumption, exports and investment demand:

Subsequently, normalizing by columns and renaming sub-matrices as:

Solving the system

If one works with the marginal propensities to the expense or consumption and follows the same procedure it is gotten to substitute

is distribution effect y is interdependence effect

Rearranging terms

intersectoral production effect,

direct distributional effects,

Transfer effects

The Foster-Green-Thorbecke index, Pα, is well known [8,9] and serves to analyze poverty. If α=0 is known as counting. For α=1 as the poverty gap and α=2 sensitivity. The sensitivity of poverty is determined by the elasticity of the selected poverty measure with respect to the median income by the various groups of households and their rates of growth.

Pαij is F − G − T Pα index for sector j and group of households i

is the average per capita income of the household group i;

θijk are the parameters of the income distribution.

The first term after equality is the change in average per capita income relative to the change in production in sector j. The second term is the change in income distribution.

An important assumption in this characterization is that the change in output of activity j is distributionally neutral such that

(2)

ηαi is elasticity of Pαij respect to the per capita mean of each group of households and a result of the increase in the production of sector j;

dy fix price multiplier.

The definition of aggregate poverty is as follows:

(3)

(4)

(5)

qi number of poor in the i-th group

total number of poor

Another assumption in this modeling is that there is a poverty limit on the i-th group. Let Sαi be those above the limit of that group.

(5)

(6)

Part of the mij indicator that contributes to the increase of income of poverty in the i th group.

(7)

It represents the sensitivity of Pα to the change in income called “effect to the sensitivity of poverty”.

Like

In other words, the total effects of poverty alleviation on the increase in production in sector j consists of the product of two components: 1) the average income change of the poor in all groups of households (mαj); and 2) the sensitivity of the measure of poverty (qαj). The welfare income line is defined as the equivalent of the total value of the food basket and the non-food basket per person per month. The minimum welfare line equals the value of the food basket per person per month. The poverty rate of Foster-Greer and Thorbecke, FGT (α=0) is the number of people living in poverty. The FGT index (α=1) is a measure of the average gap to the welfare or minimum welfare line, as appropriate depth measure. The FGT index (α=2) is a measure of the squared average gaps or intensity measure [15].

We consider six scenarios: for each α (=0,1and2) is applied to the minimum welfare and welfare line. CONEVAL establishes for 2012 [15] that the population with income below the minimum welfare line is 20.0457391189998% with respect to the total population, that is, 23’514,885 people and the population with income below the welfare line is 51.6413926154648% or 60’578,530 people. The average monthly income per capita in rural areas is $ 790.63 and in urban areas of $ 1,112.60 for the population with income in the minimum welfare line. Similarly, for the population with income in the welfare line in both areas are $ 1,483.68 and $ 2,322.79, respectively. In addition, FGT poverty rates are calculated in relation to welfare lines for deciles I to V (Table 1).

FGT INDEX Minimum welfare line Welfare line
    decil Rural Urban Rural Urban
FGT α= 0 I 0.076 0.044 0.039 0.067
    II   0.081 0.038 0.065
2012   III     0.069 0.058
    IV       0.06
    V       0.12
  α= 1 I 0.036 0.027 0.028 0.055
    II   0.016 0.015 0.04
    III     0.011 0.027
    IV       0.018
    V       0.017
  α= 2 I 0.017 0.017 0.02 0.045
    II   0.003 0.006 0.025
    III     0.002 0.012
    IV       0.006
    V       0.002
FGT α= 0 I 0.081 0.069 0.071 0.119
    II   0.044 0.046 0.076
2010   III     0.036 0.061
    IV       0.057
    V       0.055
  α= 1 I 0.037 0.042 0.051 0.097
    II   0.006 0.017 0.046
    III     0.004 0.027
    IV       0.015
    V       0.005
  α= 2 I 0.017 0.026 0.037 0.08
    II   0.001 0.006 0.028
    III     0.0004 0.012
    IV       0.004
    V       0.0005

Table 1: FGT poverty indexes for welfare lines. Own elaboration based on the income distribution of the ENIGH.

Results

Comparing the total per capita income per decile with the corresponding one reported by CONEVAl [15] in the welfare lines for the rural and urban population, the percentages of the population in each situation are obtained, (Table 2).

% Total population 2010 Population with income below the minimum welfare line Population with income below the welfare line
Deciles Rural Urban Rural Urban
I 0.081 0.069 0.071 0.119
II   0.044 0.046 0.076
III     0.036 0.061
IV       0.057
V       0.055
% Total population 2012 Population with income below the minimum welfare line   Population with income below the welfare line  
DECILES RURAL URBAN RURAL URBAN
I 0.076 0.044 0.039 0.067
II   0.081 0.038 0.065
III     0.069 0.058
IV       0.06
V       0.12

Table 2: Percentage of the Mexican population in poverty with income below the welfare lines per deciles.

Approximating the derivative of the poverty index by the increase of the same one obtains the Table 3 elasticities with respect to the parameters α and decil of income. The same for the case of income.

  ηαij =(?Pαij /Pαij)(?i/??i)
2012 Minimum welfare line Welfare line
decil Rural Urban Rural Urban
α=0        
I -0.7565 -6.3492 -9.1478 -8.5669
II   9.7328 -4.3727 -3.6326
III     11.668 -1.004
IV       1.5199
V       16.8341
α=1        
I -0.3435 -6.1175 -9.1374 -8.6192
II   13.1095 -2.4611 -3.0865
III     15.6791 0.2533
IV       4.4486
V       21.3285
α=2        
I 0.0552 -5.8888 -9.1271 -8.6717
II   15.5143 -0.691 -2.5522
III     18.4582 1.4491
IV       7.0608
V       24.3987

Table 3: Elasticities by decile of household income for α=0,1,2.

With this information only the substitutions are made in the cases of interest of equation 2.

(9)

And as

(10)

The decomposition is obtained by the distributional and transfer effects. Since the matrix of social accounting from the beginning was disaggregated into deciles of income in the relevant cells.

The results of three industries are shown: Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal, manufacture of parts for motor vehicles and basic steel industry. All for Δxj=1.

Testing with various income-expenditure distributions of households results that the same branches of economic activity are those that more or less impact on poverty alleviation [19-21]. And the multipliers are of the same order of magnitude.

Analysis and Discussion

For the branches of economic activity that most impact on poverty alleviation, we observe: In the line of minimum welfare for the rural and urban population, poverty alleviation is only in decile I, while in the population below the welfare line it is in deciles I and II for rural and I, II and III for the urban zone. For the urban population below the minimum welfare line mitigation is at least an order of magnitude higher than in the rural area. The same for the decile III in the case of the population below the welfare line, but for deciles I and II are almost of the same magnitude for both rural and urban areas. Similarly for those branches of economic activity that least impact (Tables 4 and 5).

α=0
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
Rural Urban Rural
Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
    D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) -0.0017 -0.01406 0.010071 -0.02025 -0.00453 0.008587
6117 Education support services -0.0017 -0.01404 0.01006 -0.02023 -0.00452 0.008577
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies -0.0017 -0.01401 0.010039 -0.02019 -0.00451 0.008559
6115 Trade Schools -0.0017 -0.01401 0.010037 -0.02018 -0.00451 0.008558
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools -0.0017 -0.01397 0.010008 -0.02013 -0.0045 0.008533
4879 Other tourist transport -0.0017 -0.01396 0.010002 -0.02011 -0.00449 0.008528
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation -0.0017 -0.01391 0.009968 -0.02004 -0.00448 0.008499
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services -0.0017 -0.0139 0.009962 -0.02003 -0.00448 0.008494
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization -0.0017 -0.01389 0.009949 -0.02001 -0.00447 0.008483
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes -0.0017 -0.01388 0.009944 -0.02 -0.00447 0.008478
6213 Other health care practices -0.0017 -0.01388 0.009943 -0.02 -0.00447 0.008478
4855 Bus hire with driver -0.0016 -0.01374 0.009841 -0.01979 -0.00442 0.00839
4812 Not Regular air transport -0.0016 -0.01366 0.009787 -0.01968 -0.0044 0.008344
5617 Cleaning services -0.0016 -0.01359 0.009738 -0.01958 -0.00438 0.008303
4832 Inland water transport -0.0016 -0.01359 0.009737 -0.01958 -0.00438 0.008302
4854 School and personnel transportation -0.0016 -0.0135 0.009672 -0.01945 -0.00435 0.008246
7212 Camps and recreational shelters -0.0016 -0.01345 0.009633 -0.01937 -0.00433 0.008214
5414 Specialized design -0.0016 -0.01334 0.009558 -0.01922 -0.00429 0.00815
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar -0.0016 -0.01329 0.00952 -0.01915 -0.00428 0.008117
6216 Nursing services at home -0.0016 -0.01326 0.009501 -0.01911 -0.00427 0.008101
α=0 Code
NAICS
Economic activity/decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
Urban
Welfare line
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5  
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) -0.01897 -0.00376 -0.00074 0.000871 0.007764  
6117 Education support services -0.01895 -0.00376 -0.00074 0.00087 0.007756  
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies -0.01891 -0.00375 -0.00074 0.000868 0.00774  
6115 Trade Schools -0.0189 -0.00375 -0.00074 0.000868 0.007739  
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools -0.01885 -0.00374 -0.00073 0.000865 0.007716  
4879 Other tourist transport -0.01884 -0.00373 -0.00073 0.000865 0.007711  
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation -0.01877 -0.00372 -0.00073 0.000862 0.007685  
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services -0.01876 -0.00372 -0.00073 0.000861 0.00768  
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization -0.01874 -0.00371 -0.00073 0.00086 0.00767  
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes -0.01873 -0.00371 -0.00073 0.00086 0.007667  
6213 Other health care practices -0.01873 -0.00371 -0.00073 0.00086 0.007666  
4855 Bus hire with driver -0.01853 -0.00367 -0.00072 0.000851 0.007587  
4812 Not Regular air transport -0.01843 -0.00365 -0.00072 0.000846 0.007545  
5617 Cleaning services -0.01834 -0.00364 -0.00071 0.000842 0.007508  
4832 Inland water transport -0.01834 -0.00363 -0.00071 0.000842 0.007507  
4854 School and personnel transportation -0.01821 -0.00361 -0.00071 0.000836 0.007457  
7212 Camps and recreational shelters -0.01814 -0.0036 -0.00071 0.000833 0.007427  
5414 Specialized design -0.018 -0.00357 -0.0007 0.000826 0.007369  
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar -0.01793 -0.00355 -0.0007 0.000823 0.00734  
6216 Nursing services at home -0.01789 -0.00355 -0.0007 0.000821 0.007325  

Table 4: Branches of economic activity that most impact on the alleviation of poverty in the rural and urban population for the lines of well-being by household income decile.


α=0
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Rural Urban Rural
Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.00026 -0.00218 0.001561 -0.00314 -0.0007 0.001331
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.00026 -0.00218 0.001561 -0.00314 -0.0007 0.001331
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.00026 -0.00215 0.001537 -0.00309 -0.00069 0.00131
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.00026 -0.00214 0.001535 -0.00309 -0.00069 0.001309
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.00025 -0.00212 0.001521 -0.00306 -0.00068 0.001296
4841 General cargo haulage -0.00025 -0.00208 0.001488 -0.00299 -0.00067 0.001269
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.00025 -0.00206 0.001475 -0.00297 -0.00066 0.001258
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.00025 -0.00206 0.001475 -0.00297 -0.00066 0.001258
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.00025 -0.00206 0.001474 -0.00296 -0.00066 0.001257
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.00024 -0.00205 0.001471 -0.00296 -0.00066 0.001255
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00024 -0.00204 0.001462 -0.00294 -0.00066 0.001246
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.00024 -0.00203 0.001458 -0.00293 -0.00066 0.001243
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.00024 -0.00201 0.001437 -0.00289 -0.00065 0.001225
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.00024 -0.002 0.001436 -0.00289 -0.00065 0.001224
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.00024 -0.002 0.001432 -0.00288 -0.00064 0.001221
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.00024 -0.00199 0.001428 -0.00287 -0.00064 0.001217
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.00023 -0.00193 0.001386 -0.00279 -0.00062 0.001181
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.00023 -0.00193 0.001385 -0.00279 -0.00062 0.001181
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.00023 -0.00193 0.001379 -0.00277 -0.00062 0.001176
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.00023 -0.00191 0.00137 -0.00276 -0.00062 0.001168
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.00023 -0.00191 0.001368 -0.00275 -0.00062 0.001167
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.00022 -0.00187 0.001338 -0.00269 -0.0006 0.001141
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -0.00021 -0.00178 0.001277 -0.00257 -0.00057 0.001088
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -0.00021 -0.00177 0.001265 -0.00254 -0.00057 0.001079
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -0.00019 -0.00161 0.001155 -0.00232 -0.00052 0.000985
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -0.00016 -0.00132 0.000944 -0.0019 -0.00042 0.000805
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.00016 -0.00131 0.000941 -0.00189 -0.00042 0.000802
α=0
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/ Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Urban
Welfare line
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5  
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.00294 -0.00058 -0.00011 0.00014 0.0012  
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.00294 -0.00058 -0.00011 0.00014 0.0012  
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.00289 -0.00057 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00118  
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.00289 -0.00057 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00118  
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.00286 -0.00057 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00117  
4841 General cargo haulage -0.0028 -0.00056 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00115  
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.00278 -0.00055 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00114  
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.00278 -0.00055 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00114  
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.00278 -0.00055 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00114  
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.00277 -0.00055 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00113  
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00275 -0.00055 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00113  
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.00275 -0.00054 -0.00011 0.00013 0.00112  
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.00271 -0.00054 -0.00011 0.00012 0.00111  
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.0027 -0.00054 -0.00011 0.00012 0.00111  
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.0027 -0.00053 -0.00011 0.00012 0.0011  
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.00269 -0.00053 -0.00011 0.00012 0.0011  
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.00261 -0.00052 -0.0001 0.00012 0.00107  
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.00261 -0.00052 -0.0001 0.00012 0.00107  
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.0026 -0.00052 -0.0001 0.00012 0.00106  
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.00258 -0.00051 -0.0001 0.00012 0.00106  
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.00258 -0.00051 -0.0001 0.00012 0.00106  
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.00252 -0.0005 -9.8E-05 0.00012 0.00103  
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -0.0024 -0.00048 -9.4E-05 0.00011 0.00098  
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -0.00238 -0.00047 -9.3E-05 0.00011 0.00098  
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -0.00218 -0.00043 -8.5E-05 0.0001 0.00089  
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -0.00178 -0.00035 -6.9E-05 0.000082 0.00073  
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.00177 -0.00035 -6.9E-05 0.000081 0.00073  

Table 5: Branches of economic activity that least impacto on the poverty alleviation in the rural and urban population for well-being lines by household income decile.

Poverty in decile I is marked with respect to the decile II in the branches that most mitigate poverty and with respect to the decile III in the branches of economic activity that least alleviate poverty andare similar between deciles I and II. This shows the enormous social inequality still among the lowest deciles of income and the differences between rural and urban zones (Tables 6 and 7).

α=1
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
Rural Urban Rural
Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) -0.00076 -0.01354 0.013565 -0.02023 -0.00255 0.011538
6117 Education support services -0.00076 -0.01353 0.01355 -0.02021 -0.00254 0.011526
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies -0.00076 -0.0135 0.013522 -0.02016 -0.00254 0.011502
6115 Trade Schools -0.00076 -0.0135 0.01352 -0.02016 -0.00254 0.0115
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools -0.00076 -0.01346 0.013481 -0.0201 -0.00253 0.011467
4879 Other tourist transport -0.00076 -0.01345 0.013472 -0.02009 -0.00253 0.01146
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation -0.00075 -0.01341 0.013426 -0.02002 -0.00252 0.01142
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services -0.00075 -0.0134 0.013418 -0.02001 -0.00252 0.011413
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization -0.00075 -0.01338 0.0134 -0.01998 -0.00252 0.011399
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes -0.00075 -0.01337 0.013394 -0.01997 -0.00251 0.011393
6213 Other health care practices -0.00075 -0.01337 0.013393 -0.01997 -0.00251 0.011392
4855 Bus hire with driver -0.00074 -0.01323 0.013255 -0.01977 -0.00249 0.011275
4812 Not Regular air transport -0.00074 -0.01316 0.013182 -0.01966 -0.00248 0.011213
5617 Cleaning services -0.00074 -0.0131 0.013116 -0.01956 -0.00246 0.011157
4832 Inland water transport -0.00074 -0.0131 0.013115 -0.01956 -0.00246 0.011156
4854 School and personnel transportation -0.00073 -0.01301 0.013027 -0.01943 -0.00245 0.011081
7212 Camps and recreational shelters -0.00073 -0.01296 0.012975 -0.01935 -0.00244 0.011037
5414 Specialized design -0.00074 -0.0131 0.013116 -0.0192 -0.00242 0.010951
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar -0.00074 -0.0131 0.013115 -0.01912 -0.00241 0.010908
6216 Nursing services at home -0.00073 -0.01301 0.013027 -0.01908 -0.0024 0.010886
α=1
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
URBAN
Welfare line
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5    
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) -0.01908 -0.00319 0.000186 0.002548 0.009837    
6117 Education support services -0.01906 -0.00319 0.000186 0.002546 0.009827    
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies -0.01902 -0.00318 0.000186 0.00254 0.009806    
6115 Trade Schools -0.01902 -0.00318 0.000186 0.00254 0.009805    
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools -0.01896 -0.00317 0.000185 0.002533 0.009776    
4879 Other tourist transport -0.01895 -0.00317 0.000185 0.002531 0.00977    
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation -0.01889 -0.00316 0.000185 0.002522 0.009737    
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services -0.01888 -0.00316 0.000184 0.002521 0.009731    
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization -0.01885 -0.00316 0.000184 0.002517 0.009718    
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes -0.01884 -0.00315 0.000184 0.002516 0.009713    
6213 Other health care practices -0.01884 -0.00315 0.000184 0.002516 0.009713    
4855 Bus hire with driver -0.01865 -0.00312 0.000182 0.00249 0.009612    
4812 Not Regular air transport -0.01854 -0.0031 0.000181 0.002476 0.00956    
5617 Cleaning services -0.01845 -0.00309 0.00018 0.002464 0.009512    
4832 Inland water transport -0.01845 -0.00309 0.00018 0.002464 0.009512    
4854 School and personnel transportation -0.01833 -0.00307 0.000179 0.002447 0.009448    
7212 Camps and recreational shelters -0.01825 -0.00306 0.000178 0.002438 0.00941    
5414 Specialized design -0.01811 -0.00303 0.000177 0.002419 0.009337    
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar -0.01804 -0.00302 0.000176 0.002409 0.0093    
6216 Nursing services at home -0.018 -0.00301 0.000176 0.002404 0.009281    

Table 6: Branches of economic activity that most impact on the poverty allivation and social inequality in the rural and urban population for the lines of well-being by household income decile.

α=1
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Rural Urban Rural
Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.000118 -0.0021 0.002102 -0.00088 -0.00011 0.000504
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.000118 -0.0021 0.002102 -0.00076 -9.5E-05 0.00043
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.000116 -0.00207 0.00207 -0.00065 -8.2E-05 0.000371
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.000116 -0.00207 0.002068 -0.00085 -0.00011 0.000482
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.000115 -0.00205 0.002048 -0.00082 -0.0001 0.000465
4841 General cargo haulage -0.000112 -0.002 0.002004 -0.00117 -0.00015 0.000669
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.000111 -0.00198 0.001987 -0.00079 -9.9E-05 0.000449
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.000111 -0.00198 0.001987 -0.0009 -0.00011 0.000514
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.000111 -0.00198 0.001985 -0.0007 -8.8E-05 0.000398
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.000111 -0.00198 0.001982 -0.00086 -0.00011 0.000488
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00011 -0.00197 0.001969 -0.0004 -5.1E-05 0.000229
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.00011 -0.00196 0.001963 -0.00038 -4.8E-05 0.000216
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.000108 -0.00193 0.001935 -0.00032 -4.1E-05 0.000185
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.000108 -0.00193 0.001934 -0.00111 -0.00014 0.000635
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.000108 -0.00193 0.001929 -0.0007 -8.8E-05 0.0004
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.000108 -0.00192 0.001923 -0.00061 -7.7E-05 0.000348
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.000105 -0.00186 0.001866 -0.00119 -0.00015 0.000677
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.000105 -0.00186 0.001866 -0.00064 -8.1E-05 0.000367
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.000104 -0.00186 0.001858 -0.00073 -9.2E-05 0.000415
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.000103 -0.00184 0.001846 -0.00073 -9.3E-05 0.000419
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.000103 -0.00184 0.001843 -0.00064 -8.1E-05 0.000365
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.000101 -0.0018 0.001803 -0.00088 -0.00011 0.000502
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -9.64E-05 -0.00172 0.00172 -0.00024 -3.1E-05 0.000139
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -9.55E-05 -0.0017 0.001704 -0.00046 -5.8E-05 0.000265
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -8.72E-05 -0.00155 0.001556 -0.00067 -8.5E-05 0.000383
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -7.13E-05 -0.00127 0.001272 -0.00034 -4.3E-05 0.000192
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.000071 -0.00127 0.001267 -0.00016 -2E-05 8.87E-05
α=1
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Urban
Welfare line
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5  
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.002957 -0.0005 2.89E-05 0.000395 0.001524  
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.002957 -0.0005 2.89E-05 0.000395 0.001524  
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.002912 -0.00049 2.84E-05 0.000389 0.001501  
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.002909 -0.00049 2.84E-05 0.000389 0.0015  
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.002881 -0.00048 2.81E-05 0.000385 0.001485  
4841 General cargo haulage -0.002819 -0.00047 2.75E-05 0.000377 0.001453  
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.002795 -0.00047 2.73E-05 0.000373 0.001441  
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.002795 -0.00047 2.73E-05 0.000373 0.001441  
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.002792 -0.00047 2.73E-05 0.000373 0.00144  
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.002788 -0.00047 2.72E-05 0.000372 0.001437  
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00277 -0.00046 2.71E-05 0.00037 0.001428  
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.002762 -0.00046 2.7E-05 0.000369 0.001424  
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.002722 -0.00046 2.66E-05 0.000364 0.001404  
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.002721 -0.00046 2.66E-05 0.000363 0.001403  
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.002713 -0.00045 2.65E-05 0.000362 0.001399  
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.002705 -0.00045 2.64E-05 0.000361 0.001395  
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.002625 -0.00044 2.57E-05 0.000351 0.001354  
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.002624 -0.00044 2.56E-05 0.000351 0.001353  
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.002613 -0.00044 2.55E-05 0.000349 0.001347  
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.002596 -0.00044 2.54E-05 0.000347 0.001338  
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.002593 -0.00043 2.53E-05 0.000346 0.001337  
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.002536 -0.00042 2.48E-05 0.000339 0.001307  
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -0.002419 -0.00041 2.36E-05 0.000323 0.001247  
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -0.002397 -0.0004 2.34E-05 0.00032 0.001236  
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -0.002188 -0.00037 2.14E-05 0.000292 0.001128  
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -0.001789 -0.0003 1.75E-05 0.000239 0.000922  
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.001782 -0.0003 1.74E-05 0.000238 0.000919  

Table 7: Branches of economic activity that least impact on the poverty alleviation and social inequality in the rural and urban population for well-being lines by household income decile.

The population below the welfare line, it is more sensitive to poverty in decile I in both rural and urban areas and in decile II in the urban area for the economic activities that least impact. While in the branches of economic activity that most mitigate poverty, it is in the decile I the greatest sensitivity in both urban and rural areas. And for the population with incomes below the welfare line, the decile II in urban areas the sensitivity to poverty is higher than in rural areas (Tables 8 and 9).

α=2
Code
NAICS
Economic activity /decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
Rural Urban Rural
Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 0.000122 -0.01304 0.016053 -0.02021 -0.00072 0.013584
6117 Education support services 0.000122 -0.01302 0.016036 -0.02018 -0.00071 0.013569
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies 0.000122 -0.013 0.016002 -0.02014 -0.00071 0.01354
6115 Trade Schools 0.000122 -0.01299 0.016 -0.02014 -0.00071 0.013539
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools 0.000121 -0.01296 0.015953 -0.02008 -0.00071 0.013499
4879 Other tourist transport 0.000121 -0.01295 0.015943 -0.02007 -0.00071 0.013491
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation 0.000121 -0.0129 0.015889 -0.02 -0.00071 0.013445
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services 0.000121 -0.0129 0.015879 -0.01999 -0.00071 0.013436
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization 0.000121 -0.01288 0.015858 -0.01996 -0.00071 0.013419
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes 0.000121 -0.01287 0.015851 -0.01995 -0.00071 0.013412
6213 Other health care practices 0.000121 -0.01287 0.01585 -0.01995 -0.00071 0.013412
4855 Bus hire with driver 0.000119 -0.01274 0.015686 -0.01974 -0.0007 0.013273
4812 Not Regular air transport 0.000119 -0.01267 0.0156 -0.01964 -0.0007 0.0132
5617 Cleaning services 0.000118 -0.01261 0.015522 -0.01954 -0.00069 0.013135
4832 Inland water transport 0.000118 -0.01261 0.015521 -0.01954 -0.00069 0.013134
4854 School and personnel transportation 0.000117 -0.01252 0.015417 -0.01941 -0.00069 0.013045
7212 Camps and recreational shelters 0.000117 -0.01247 0.015355 -0.01933 -0.00068 0.012993
5414 Specialized design 0.000116 -0.01237 0.015236 -0.01918 -0.00068 0.012893
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar 0.000115 -0.01233 0.015176 -0.0191 -0.00068 0.012841
6216 Nursing services at home 0.000115 -0.0123 0.015145 -0.01906 -0.00068 0.012815
α=2
Code
NAICS
Economic activity/decil Economic activities that most alleviate poverty
URBAN
Welfare line
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5  
6231 Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) -0.0192 -0.00264 0.001066 0.004045 0.011253  
6117 Education support services -0.01918 -0.00264 0.001065 0.00404 0.011241  
9321 International and extraterritorial organizations and bodies -0.01914 -0.00263 0.001063 0.004032 0.011218  
6115 Trade Schools -0.01913 -0.00263 0.001063 0.004031 0.011216  
6114 Commercial, computer and executive training schools -0.01908 -0.00262 0.00106 0.00402 0.011184  
4879 Other tourist transport -0.01907 -0.00262 0.001059 0.004017 0.011177  
5225 Services related to non-stock exchange credit intermediation -0.019 -0.00261 0.001056 0.004003 0.011138  
7213 Pensions and guesthouses, and apartments and houses furnished with hotel services -0.01899 -0.00261 0.001055 0.004001 0.011131  
6214 Centers for the care of patients who do not require hospitalization -0.01897 -0.00261 0.001054 0.003996 0.011117  
6233 Nursing home and other nursing homes -0.01896 -0.00261 0.001053 0.003994 0.011112  
6213 Other health care practices -0.01896 -0.00261 0.001053 0.003994 0.011111  
4855 Bus hire with driver -0.01876 -0.00258 0.001042 0.003952 0.010996  
4812 Not Regular air transport -0.01866 -0.00257 0.001036 0.003931 0.010936  
5617 Cleaning services -0.01856 -0.00255 0.001031 0.003911 0.010881  
4832 Inland water transport -0.01856 -0.00255 0.001031 0.003911 0.010881  
4854 School and personnel transportation -0.01844 -0.00254 0.001024 0.003884 0.010808  
7212 Camps and recreational shelters -0.01836 -0.00253 0.00102 0.003869 0.010764  
5414 Specialized design -0.01822 -0.00251 0.001012 0.003839 0.010681  
5614 Secretarial support service, photocopying, collection, credit investigation and similar -0.01815 -0.0025 0.001008 0.003824 0.010639  
6216 Nursing services at home -0.01811 -0.00249 0.001006 0.003816 0.010617  

Table 8: Branches of economic activity that most impact on the sensitivity of poverty in the rural and urban population for the lines of well-being by household income decile.

α=2 Economic activity/Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Code Rural Urban Rural
NAICS Minimum welfare line Minimum welfare line Welfare line
  D1 D1 D2 D1 D2 D3
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.00202 -0.00202 0.002488 -0.00313 -0.000111 0.002105
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.00202 -0.00202 0.002487 -0.00313 -0.000111 0.002105
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.00199 -0.00199 0.00245 -0.00308 -0.000109 0.002073
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.00199 -0.00199 0.002447 -0.00308 -0.000109 0.002071
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.00197 -0.00197 0.002424 -0.00305 -0.000108 0.002051
4841 General cargo haulage -0.00193 -0.00193 0.002372 -0.00299 -0.000106 0.002007
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.00191 -0.00191 0.002352 -0.00296 -0.000105 0.00199
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.00191 -0.00191 0.002351 -0.00296 -0.000105 0.001989
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.00191 -0.00191 0.002349 -0.00296 -0.000105 0.001988
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.0019 -0.00191 0.002345 -0.00295 -0.000104 0.001985
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00189 -0.00189 0.00233 -0.00293 -0.000104 0.001972
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.00189 -0.00189 0.002324 -0.00293 -0.000103 0.001966
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.00186 -0.00186 0.00229 -0.00288 -0.000102 0.001938
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.00186 -0.00186 0.002289 -0.00288 -0.000102 0.001937
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.00185 -0.00185 0.002282 -0.00287 -0.000102 0.001931
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.00185 -0.00185 0.002276 -0.00287 -0.000101 0.001926
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.00179 -0.00179 0.002209 -0.00278 -0.0000984 0.001869
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.00179 -0.00179 0.002208 -0.00278 -0.0000983 0.001868
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.00179 -0.00179 0.002198 -0.00277 -0.0000979 0.00186
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.00177 -0.00177 0.002184 -0.00275 -0.0000973 0.001848
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.00177 -0.00177 0.002181 -0.00275 -0.0000971 0.001846
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.00173 -0.00173 0.002133 -0.00269 -0.000095 0.001805
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -0.00165 -0.00165 0.002035 -0.00256 -0.0000906 0.001722
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -0.00164 -0.00164 0.002017 -0.00254 -0.0000898 0.001706
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -0.0015 -0.0015 0.001841 -0.00232 -0.000082 0.001558
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -0.00122 -0.00122 0.001505 -0.00189 -0.000067 0.001273
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.00122 -0.00122 0.001499 -0.00189 -0.0000668 0.001269
α=2 Economic activity/Decil Economic activities that least alleviate poverty
Code URBAN
NAICS
Welfare line
  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5  
3311 Basic iron and steel industry -0.00297 -0.00041 0.000165 0.000627 0.001744  
3321 Manufacture of forged and die-cut metal products -0.00297 -0.00041 0.000165 0.000627 0.001744  
3329 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products -0.00293 -0.0004 0.000163 0.000617 0.001717  
3326 Manufacture of wire, wire products and springs -0.00293 -0.0004 0.000163 0.000617 0.001716  
3259 Manufacture of other chemical products -0.0029 -0.0004 0.000161 0.000611 0.001699  
4841 General cargo haulage -0.00284 -0.00039 0.000158 0.000598 0.001663  
3222 Manufacture of paperboard and paper products -0.00281 -0.00039 0.000156 0.000593 0.001649  
3256 Manufacture of soap, cleaners and toilet preparations -0.00281 -0.00039 0.000156 0.000592 0.001648  
3323 Manufacture of metal structures and products of blacksmithing -0.00281 -0.00039 0.000156 0.000592 0.001647  
3152 Manufacture of wearing apparel -0.0028 -0.00039 0.000156 0.000591 0.001644  
3313 Basic aluminum industry -0.00279 -0.00038 0.000155 0.000587 0.001634  
3345 Manufacture of measuring, control, navigation and electronic medical equipment -0.00278 -0.00038 0.000154 0.000585 0.001629  
3325 Manufacture of fittings and locks -0.00274 -0.00038 0.000152 0.000577 0.001606  
3241 Manufacture of products of petroleum and coal -0.00274 -0.00038 0.000152 0.000577 0.001605  
1153 Services related to forest harvesting -0.00273 -0.00038 0.000152 0.000575 0.0016  
3261 Manufacture of plastic products -0.00272 -0.00037 0.000151 0.000573 0.001595  
4851 Urban and suburban public fixed-route passenger transport -0.00264 -0.00036 0.000147 0.000557 0.001548  
3339 Manufacture of other machinery and equipment for general industry -0.00264 -0.00036 0.000147 0.000556 0.001548  
3399 Other Manufacturing -0.00263 -0.00036 0.000146 0.000554 0.001541  
3336 Manufacture of internal combustion engines, turbines and transmissions -0.00261 -0.00036 0.000145 0.00055 0.001531  
3363 Manufacture of parts for motor vehicles -0.00261 -0.00036 0.000145 0.00055 0.001529  
3312 Manufacture of iron and steel products -0.00255 -0.00035 0.000142 0.000538 0.001496  
3342 Manufacture of communication equipment -0.00243 -0.00034 0.000135 0.000513 0.001427  
3353 Manufacture of electricity generation and distribution equipment -0.00241 -0.00033 0.000134 0.000508 0.001414  
3361 Manufacture of cars and trucks -0.0022 -0.0003 0.000122 0.000464 0.001291  
3341 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment -0.0018 -0.00025 1.00E-04 0.000379 0.001055  
3343 Manufacture of audio and video equipment -0.00179 -0.00025 9.96E-05 0.000378 0.001051  

Table 9: Branches of economic activity that least impact on the sensitivity of poverty in the rural and urban population for well-being lines by household income decile.

Conclusion

The results show that poverty is related to the structure of the Mexican economy. That is why the permits given by the government to informal traders is a kind of corruption as it is not reflected in the tax system. More than 50% of the population work in the informal sector. In addition, in this decade the most requested jobs are those related to the provision of services in the health sector. Unlike in branches of economic activity specialized in metallurgical and petroleum technologies.

Differences in the impact of poverty alleviation between rural and urban areas are notable as well as among low income deciles.

The most vulnerable population is income in decile I in rural areas and in decile II in urban areas.

References

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Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

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Stephanie Skinner

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

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Rachle Green

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Jim Willison

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1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

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1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

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1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

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1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
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