Shah M* and Jamal H
Department of Rural Sociology, University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
Received Date: May 06, 2016; Accepted Date: June 15, 2016; Published Date: June 23, 2016
Citation: Shah M, Jamal H (2016) Lack of Security: A Major Phenomenal of Brain Drain in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. J Account Mark 5:180. doi: 10.4172/2168-9601.1000180
Copyright: © 2016 Shah M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The present study was conducted in district Swat, with the sole aim of discovering the situational facts leading to brain drain. A sample size of 300 respondents, who had permanent residence in Australia, US, and UK and who had random visiting to their families back at homeland were randomly selected. Independent variable lack of security and dependent variable brain drain was devised through developing certain questions on likert scale. Dependent and independent variables were indexed and cross tabulated and explained through the application of Chi square statistics. The study found that terrorism, kidnapping, fear of youth forced inclusion, poor laws, poverty, prolong legislative system are some of the pushing factors. The study further explored that all income groups were equally prone to lack of security. However, level of qualification did not yield any significant results with brain drain due to the insecure and fearful environment on the respondents at controlling income and education qualification at multi variate level respectively. The study concluded that a militant culture was in prevalence to the presence of elements. Kidnapping rate was high and local youth had a tendency of getting militant. A local area has no proper job market, which led to a holistic movement of feeling the areas by the locals. Most of the people had the inclinations of moving around, this leading to brain drain. State of the art training for local law enforcing agencies, re-vibrating of local job market and the reawakening of cohesive and integrating cultural values were some of the recommendations in light of the study.
Security; Brain drain; Push and pull factors
Brain drain is a phenomenon which can be defined as a movement of highly skilled or professional people from their own country to another country where they can earn more money. The loss of a country is when skilled and clever people leave it to go and work in other country. It could further be explained as depletion of intellectual or professional resources of a country, region, etc., especially through emigration .
The phenomenon consists of both in bulk and sundry migration of the huge number of scientists, engineers, doctors and other specialists with professional point of the developing countries to migrate to the developed countries. This is not a new phenomenon however; it took a very encouraged turn after the 2nd world war. The US, Canada and other European destinations were due to their sound and socioeconomic and scientific base. The pushing factors in part of the developing countries could be backwardness in education. Since, Pakistan too is not immune to this disease.
Human migration is one of the hard debated issues in the population studies in general associated with dimensions of sociological importance and development economic as well. It has gained eminence due to globalization soon after the emergence of the industrial revolution. Ramifications of either extreme are one of the potential threat/strength of any phenomena taking place in the society. Wisdom associated to it, is measured with detrimental effects also. Human migration is whenever applied to drain, a particular level of brains from any society in the perspectives of skills and education of the other society makes the domain for the brain drain methodology. Educated youth though, unemployed, but labour market is always in need of such persons as per the demand of the scenario. Human capital, though as a resource has a meaningful determination in economic return, but the return on the basis of their skills and education is also monetarily significant with outcomes. The policy determination to establish a path for the controlling human migration is needed to be based on collaboration of both nations involved. Human brain drain could reduce the government tax return in the absence of a particular working class, but simultaneously adds to the economy of the destination country. The beneficial effects of skilled persons reduce the investment in education, however, the home country’s growth suffered with the decline due to brain drain in the countries which face it as a phenomenon.
This research effort was conducted in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan had in its domain; the brain drain in relation to lack of security,
A sample size of 300 respondents was selected from the study area through snow ball sampling techniques. All those who had the age group between 25 and 60 years constituted the population for this study. A snowball technique enhances the chances of selection for each potential and also leads to high reliability of data. More over chi square test was applied to check the association between Independent variable i.e. lack of security and dependent variable brain drain. For spurious and non-spurious relation among lack of security, brain drain was assessed through controlling variable, namely income and age of the respondents (see multi variate analysis) all these associations were carried out through various statistical tests shown below;
Fi Fj Fij
(χ2)=Chi-square for two categorical variables
fij=The observed frequencies in the cross-classified category at ith row and j the column
Fij=The expected frequency for the same category, assuming no association between variables under investigation
The above formula leads to take the square sum of each cell frequency, divided by the expected frequency. The follow-on frequency was considered as chi-square with relevant degree of freedom. Formula for degree of freedom is given below;
Df=Degree of freedom
Probability Fisher Exact Test=(a+b) ! (c+d)! (a+c)! (b+d)!
N !a !b !c !d !
Responses of lack of security Aspect
Lack of secure and respectable environments do act as a push factor to move from the home country to other parts of the world. Moreover, political climate, discrimination in the merit system and incapable leadership is very unfavorable to provide justice for all those learned brains and thus they move on by leaving their country.
Table 1 elaborated that 81.0 percent of the respondents were agreed that terrorism is one of the push factors contributing to brain drain phenomenon. Similarly, 60.7 percent of the respondents also agreed that kidnapping for ransom is one of the pushing factors for each class of the society to leave the home country. Terrorism and related activities encouraged the terrorists to start anti state activities. These activities included, kidnapping for ransom which made people’ lives miserable and people started migrating to safer areas both in home land and abroad to protect their dignity, honor and life. Raleigh, has similar findings for this study where he pointed out towards the protection of identity for which people migrate to safer area of life whenever this identity is threatened some hostile environment. About 74.3 percent of the respondents pointed towards the fear of youth member of family getting militant in light of prevalence of militant culture. Along with this, 53.7 percent of the respondents also agreed that forced inclusion of youth by the militants to fight against government/armed forces. Migrants with true physical violence were highly exposed to vulnerabilities and risk of some fatal consequences which result in the most obvious manifestation or social exclusion, marginalization, discrimination to basic amenities of life. Similarly, 60.7 percent of the respondents agreed that low economic activities due to poor law and order situation is also one of the contributing factor to brain drain phenomenon. Rafferty has conspicuously focused on the process of migration and concluded that only hostile environment could not be termed as the true reason of brain drain rather some sociological consideration pertaining to status and mode of migration also coexist. Also, 63.3 percent of the respondents also disclosed that trend of fleeing the area amongst the local to the safer parts of the globe, 62. 7 percent of the respondents explored that poor and prolonged legislative system incapable of disposing off the cases, is another cause to leave their homeland as soon as possible. Similarly, 67.3 percent of the respondents agreed that the poor and incapable security agencies to provide protection to people are also one of the reasons. All these findings were in consonance to the facts that terrorism and related acts of violence had made people life hostile in terms of security and protection. People fled to safer areas for the purpose of protection. Moreover religious misinterpretation and violent cultural tendencies had led to aggressive human behavior, devoid of human thinking. Gleeson and Bloemraad, ; and Azam  had noticed a high vulnerability of people, who migrate in the shape of exposure to violence (Table 1).
|Terrorism is one of the push factors contributing the brain drain.||243(81.0)||57(19.0)|
|Kidnapping for ransom is one of the pushing factors for each class of the society||182(60.7)||118(39. 3)|
|Fear of youth member of family getting militant in light of prevalence of militant culture.||223(74. 3)||77(25. 7)|
|Forced inclusion of youth by the militants to fight against govt /army||161(53. 7)||139(46. 3)|
|Low economic activities due to the existence of poor law and order situation||182(60.7)||118(39. 3)|
|Trend of fleeing the area amongst the local to the safer parts of the globe||190(63. 3)||110(36. 7)|
|Poor and prolong legislative system incapable of disposing off the cases||188(62. 7)||112(37. 3)|
|The poor and incapable security agencies to provide protection to people.||202(67. 3)||98(32. 7)|
|Values in table present frequency while values in parenthesis represent percentage proportion of respondents.|
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of lack of security.
Association between Lack of security and brain drain
People can achieve high achievements and financial rewards based on their personal abilities or group efforts. However, growth and retention of these benefits need some strong government investments in security of the society. A country with peaceful security environment, therefore, attracts more investments in terms of finances and manpower. On the other hand the reasons that forced the individuals to leave their countries are lack of health services, poor management, workload and less reward, slow promotions policy, high level of violence and crime and less security. Association of lack of security and brain drain is given in Table 2.
|Lack of security||Dependent Variable||Statistics Chi-Square(P-Value)|
|Terrorism is one of the push factors contributing the brain drain||Brain Drain||X2=2.209 P=0.137|
|Kidnapping for ransom is one of the pushing factors for each class of the society||Brain Drain||X2=18.471 P=0.000|
|Fear of youth member of family getting militant in light of prevalence of militant culture.||Brain Drain||X2=6.813 P=0.009|
|Low economic activities due to the existence of poor law and order situation||Brain Drain||X2=51.053 P=0.000|
|Trend of fleeing the area amongst the local to the safer parts of the globe||Brain Drain||X2=20.374 P=0.000|
|Poor and prolong legislative system incapable of disposing off the cases.||Brain Drain||X2=1.967 P=0.161|
|The poor and incapable security agencies to provide protection to people||Brain Drain||X2=13.294 p=0.000|
Table 2: Association between lack of security and brain drain.
A highly significant (p=0.000) showed that kidnapping for ransom is one of the pushing factors for each class of the society to opt for brain drain. Moreover, a significant (p=0.009) association was found between brain drain and fear of youth member of family getting militant in light of prevalence of militant culture. Likewise, a significant (p=0.048) association was established between brain drain and forced inclusion of youth by the militants to fight against government and armed forces. Pakistan has been subjected to war against terrorism in post 9/11 scenario. The society once lived in harmony has greatly been subjected to acts of terrorism and insurgency since the year 2000. Kidnapping of well off people and their dependents for ransom is common like a business entrepreneur. The business persons and investors, therefore, are fleeing out of the country to secure their lives and investments. The poor unemployed segment of the society, on the other hand, is easily inducted into militant groups in lieu of nominal salaries paid to them. Rehmatulah, found terrorism and insecurity compel skilled workers to move, as per Act of Pakistani Constitution every person is free for migration in any areas of world for life security.
Furthermore, a highly significant (p=0.000) association showed that low economic activities due to the existence of poor law and order situation causes brain drain. Similarly, a highly significant (p=0.000) association showed that trend of fleeing the area amongst the local to the safer parts of the globe. Further, a highly significant (p=0.000) association explored that the poor and incapable security agencies to provide protection to people. Due to poor state of economy and fleeing investors the poverty has increased and state of deprivation has worsened. Beside international investors, the local traders are also fleeing from the area to secure their lives and investments and to put it in business in some secure place. Government commitment to curb militants has not been successful as after a decade of war against insurgency, complete success is still a dream. The outcome is high out flow of able minds from the country. According to a survey of Gallup- Pakistan , about two third of Pakistanis went abroad for work and education but half of them has no desire to return. Pakistan economy is down and these migrants are losing their faith as countries major issues and sectors are on decline. The unskilled and the semi-skilled also willing to leave their country, with this the qualified doctors, professors, university graduates and lawyers are searching for best opportunities to shift to permanent based settlement in the foreign countries. About 62% of the adults interviewed for the survey said they would like to work abroad. And as many as 38% said they would prefer to permanently settle outside the country . Economic stability plays a vital role in the smooth and sound life style, with this lack of justice and freedom, discrimination and nepotism and too much political interference plays a vital role in accelerating the phenomenon of brain drain .
Conversely, a non-significant (p=0.137) association showed that terrorism is one of the push factor contributing the brain drain. A non-significant (p=0.161) showed that poor and prolonged legislative system incapable of disposing off the cases .
Poor state of governance, low economic growth, inability to control law and order situation and growing insurgency has remained major threats for national security and survival as a dignified nation. Insurgents have exercised strong hold of several areas and challenged writ of state at large. The security agencies, in a series of actions, have achieved some success yet there is a long way to secure complete peace. The insurgents regularly challenge writ of state and question government’s hold. In such insecure state the able persons and their investments are at risk. Most of them have fled to secure places and the remaining is in the process of winding up (Table 2).
Association of lack of security and brain drain
The association between the lack of security and brain drain was found highly significant (p=0.000; Table 3).These results indicated that the increase in the lack of security had let to increase in the individuals to left their homeland and migrate to the safe and sound developed countries. Rehmatulah, also highlighted that country like Pakistan is suffered a lot by terrorism and war and there exist the security issues and harassment environment because of that mentioned reasons. These individuals who got capable brain has the right to leave this fearful environment and cherish their abilities in the developed countries. Qamar Habib also discovered from his studies that security reason acts as a key factor for these migrants to move (Table 3).
|Independent Variable||Dependent variable||Statistics Chi-Square(P-Value)|
|Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=21.447P=0.000|
Table 3: Showing the association of lack of security and brain drain.
Association between the lack of security and brain drain controlling age
In Table 4 the influence of age grade on the association of lack of security with brain drain was significant (p=0.04) for those respondents with the age groups 18-31 years. Similarly, the association of the above mentioned variables was highly significant for the age groups between 32-45 years (p=0.00). In addition, a highly significant (p=0.000) association between the above mentioned variables was revealed for the years age group between the 46-60 years, respectively . Based on the above similarities regarding various age gradation of the respondents perception for the lack of security and brain drain was non-spurious for the all age groups with identical nature in the first category. It is explicitly exposed from these findings that non prevalence of security was a major concern for all the above mentioned categories which had left the country and thus contributed to brain drain. Pakistan since 1979 after the introduction of communism revolution in Afghanistan is suffering from damages to property and human life due to terrorism. These waves of extremism and terrorism have been increased multifold after the initiation of Zarbi Azab military operation in 2014 against militants, where almost 50 thousands humans including law enfacing personals have lost their lives.
|Age groups||Independent Variable||Dependent Variable||Statistics Chi-Square (P-Value)|
|18-31 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=3.866 (P=0.048)|
|32-45 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=21.903 P=0.000|
|46-60 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=21.447 P=0.000|
Table 4: Showing the association between the lack of security and brain drain controlling age.
Association between lack of security and brain drain controlling educational qualification
In Table 5, the influence of the educational qualification on the association lack of security and the brain drain was assured and found non-significant (p=0.196) for the educational qualification up to 12 years. Similarly, the educational qualification 12-16 years was found highly significant (p=0.000). Moreover, this association between brain drain and violence was also significant (p=0.024) and identical for the educational qualification above 16 years . However, these results were found spurious while comparing it with the value of level of significance at the bivariate level while controlling the education as a controlled variable. It could be concluded from these findings that people from different qualification level had high inclination for leaving the country and getting settled in the host countries. It could be attributed to the wide scale unemployment, injustice, treatment in access to education, and prevalence of high sense of physical insecurity. These findings had the same interventions that threat to life and property has been in prevalence due to the recent waves of terrorism (Table 5).
|Educational qualification||Independent Variable||Dependent Variable||StatisticsChi-Square (P-Value)|
|Up to 12 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=2.379 P=0.196|
|13- 16 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=14.008 P=0.000|
|Above 16 years||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=5.944 P=0.024|
Table 5: Showing the association between lack of security and brain drain controlling educational qualification.
Association between lack of security and brain drain controlling monthly family income
In Table 6, the influence of the monthly income on the association between the lack of security and the brain drain showed that the association was found significant (p=0.009) with the monthly income up to Rs. 40000-60000. Similarly, the association was found significant (p=0.025) for the monthly income Rs. 60001-120000. Also, there existed a highly significant (p=0.000) association between brain drain and lack of security for the income groups between Rs.120001-180000 respectively. These results were found non spurious and almost identical to all income groups. These results indicated the prevalence of fear of lack of security in their local home country for the respondents. This lack of security has acted as a pushed factor to leave their ancestral area. Vulnerability to hostile working conditions were some of the push factors as pointed by Bloemraad et al. (Table 6).
|Monthly income||Independent Variable||Dependent Variable||Statistics Chi-Square(P-Value)|
|40000-60000||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=6.720 P=0.009|
|60001-120000||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=5.022 P=0.025|
|120001-180000||Lack of security||Brain Drain||X2=14. 491 P=0.000|
Table 6: Showing the association between lack of security and brain drain controlling monthly family income.
The present study concluded that kidnapping for ransom was widespread in the area, however in young people tendencies towards getting militants were at the apex high due to the presence of militants. The prevalence of such scenario had led to perpetuation of imploding traits for people from the lawyer of economic, who were mostly focusing on rearing monetary relations retaken from such activities instead participating in labor market. The study further explored that inefficiency and poor deliverance on part of security agencies, which compressively lack the professional zeal and commitment, further aggravated the situations. All these situational factors force the inhabitants to leave their ancestral location in search of safe areas preferably focusing on moving abroad. Enhancement of working efficiency of the local police through providing state of the art tracing along with combating weaponry, provision of jobs for the local youth in the job market and vibrating the local cultural values, prophesying the right and lead through religious clergies were some of the recommendations in light of the study.
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