alexa Learning by Failing? | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2150-3508
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Learning by Failing?

Ole Kristian Berg*

NTNU Norwegian University of `Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Corresponding Author:
Ole Kristian Berg
Department of Biology
NTNU Norwegian University of `Science and Technology
Trondheim, Norway
Tel: +47 73596294
Email: [email protected]

Received date: September 26, 2014; Accepted date: September 29, 2014; Published date: October 7, 2014

Citation: Berg (2014) Learning by Failing?. Fish Aquac J 5:e112. doi:10.4172/ 2150-3508.1000e112

Copyright: © 2014 Berg OK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal

Editorial

Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is the most widely distributed fish species in freshwater environments. From a limited European natural distribution range, humans successfully introduced the brown trout to freshwater locations on all continents. This was done at a time (before 1900) when knowledge of parasites and pathogens were limited and so the release of fish in various environments could be excused. A favorable factor in earlier day’s transport of living organisms were that transportation took time and often fertilized eggs were the preferred stage to transport. This reduced the probability of unwanted organisms to hike.

Today, we transport all kinds of organisms we use in aquaculture production, freshwater or sea-water. This transport is done fast and all live stages of our focal species are usually involved. This leads to a spread of parasites and diseases which are more efficient than our predecessors across continents and natural barriers. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from northern Europe were transferred for aquaculture production across natural barriers like equator to e.g. Chile and across the American continent to the Pacific Ocean. The history of Nile perch (Lates nilotecus) introductions into African lakes is a classic case. This was done in modern time and both parasites and diseases are successfully transferred along with the fish.

An illustrative example is a small transport of live Swedish Atlantic salmon smolts to a Norwegian aquaculture plant which also cooperated with wild salmon culture interests. The salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris , originating from Sweden, has so far infected over 40 Atlantic salmon producing rivers in Norway. To eradicate the parasite, Norwegian interests have spent more than 100 million USdollars in rotenone treatment and restocking of earlier infected rivers. The costs for Norwegian society s is far larger, due to the high interest for sport fishery after Atlantic salmon and which is nonexsistent in Gyrodactylus salaris infected rivers.

Modern agriculture in many areas has a great benefit from a pestand parasite-free environment. Production can be performed in monocultures and be increased with a predictable yield. Disease and parasite control is an important part of modern agriculture and western countries have a strict legislation to keep pest organisms under control.

Also for aquatic production we must seek to keep the environment healthy for future generations, avoid escapes and introductions of our focal aquatic organisms as well as their pathogens and/or their parasites. This is especially important when organisms are transplanted outside their natural area of distribution, as they potentially can evolve in a pathogen and parasite environment.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11551
  • [From(publication date):
    December-2014 - Aug 19, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7760
  • PDF downloads :3791
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords