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Gonca Telli Yamamoto1*, Özgür Şekeroğlu2 and Eser Eke Bayramoğlu3

1Center for Distance Education, Okan University, Kadikoy Campus, Uzunçayır Cad. No:4/A 34722 Hasanpaşa-Kadıköy, Istanbul, Turkiye

2Center for Distance Education, Okan University, Kadikoy Campus, Uzunçayır Cad. No:4/A 34722 Hasanpaşa-Kadıköy, Istanbul, Turkiye

3Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Leather Engineering Dept. Bornova, Izmir, Turkiye

*Corresponding Author:
Gonca Telli Yamamoto
Center for Distance Education, Okan University
Kadikoy Campus, Uzunçayır Cad. No:4/A 34722 Hasanpaşa-Kadıköy
Istanbul, Turkiye
E-mail: [email protected]

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Marketing activities in the leather industry are critically important similar to the companies in a global competitive environment. Benchmarking of international activities, monitoring the activities of competitor countries, adopting models from the best practices of other countries and improving marketing activities are utmost important. Besides, evaluation of the works of industry-supporting various non-governmental organizations such as public organizations and associations is also essential for success in competition. Assessment of many industrial promotion factors will be guiding for the benchmarking activities to be conducted, or enable optimizing many activities. This study includes a comparative country analysis under the light of the data retrieved with web screening method about various associations, non-governmental organizations, foundations etc. acting in various countries ambitious in the leather industry. The differing formats of the websites of such organizations regarding the data offered about the countries has imposed a limitation for the study; albeit, the comparisons have been compared with the compilation and incorporation the data retrieved from both the contents of these websites and from secondary sources. This study also gives a snapshot of marketing activities of world leather industry in today’s situation.


Leather Industry, monitoring, comparative country analysis


Industries are trying to conform to the changing conditions and forms of commerce in a global market and develop suitable marketing efforts in parallel to their own potentials. Furthermore, in the environments where the global competition is felt so deeply, monitoring and following the movements of other competitors has also become critically important. The circumstances require an examination not only on company basis, but also in terms of the general attitudes and subsidies of countries. Getting prepared for giving correct response to the change is also an important action that the companies should take.

Leather industry enterprises are continuously influenced by the social, cultural, technological, political and legal changes around them on both strategic and tactical terms. The leather industry must keep up with the changes around it to be able to survive and compete against its rivals. In the competitive environment, leather industry is expected to utilize up-to-date technologies in order to improve its current situation and enhance its export potential. The marketing and promotion efforts, which employ various electronic environments following the marketing activities and current general tendencies, are among the leading issues, which must be carefully followed in the leather industry. A scientific infrastructure based on information and technology must be created by the leather industry due to the breakneck and global commercial and competitive conditions required by the modus operandi. This infrastructure must be based on serious knowledge and form the basis for R&D studies.

Meanwhile, ensuring continuity and standing against competition without promotion and marketing is not quite possible. Under current conditions, the Turkish leather industry has serious knowledge on production, while the changing world and consumer preferences and trends let the consumers to adopt different expectations and necessitated the development of new products with different characteristics. Moreover, the need of producing new modified products, which remove certain disadvantages of the natural products, has required the reconfiguration of the infrastructure according to these demands in many industries. And this results in efforts for developing new products and enhancing product quality. However, only carrying out product oriented efforts is not enough for survival of companies. Marketing activities must be improved, but considering the current conditions, it must be achieved with minimum cost.

Under the current global economic crisis, leather companies are struggling to survive. Many companies opt to reduce their capacities due to stagnancy during the crisis. In the studies conducted, the necessity of certain activities such as increasing the export potential, concentrating on marketing activities, giving more importance to branding and endeavoring for international marketing by penetrating into new markets have been identified for overcoming the crisis. In order to fulfill the objectives of the industry, strategically, focusing on the production and marketing of high value added products is necessary. Efforts are required to create an image and branding for such products in the world market. Information generation and globalization also have strategic importance for providing an infrastructural support for the production and marketing of high value added products. In international markets firms may experience „myopia‟ because of their concentration in their commercial affairs. Monitoring which is done by nonprofit organizations rather than companies is more efficient and independent. Certain studies include researches dealing the subject on the country of origin (Yamamoto et. al., 2009a, Sekeroglu et. al. 2009) but an overall benchmarking is unavailable. Therefore, we wanted to monitor and screen the web sites of the selected associations in the global leather sector. In this way a promotion-weighted benchmarking may provide a clearer view.


Developed countries gradually abandoned the labor-intensive leather and leather products industry in time, and raw skin processing started shifting towards underdeveloped and developing countries, due to high cost of labor in leather industry and environmental pollution. The expansion of the liberal market economy after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Block also caused to a change of equilibrium in the leather industry. The earlier production centers in Europe gradually shifted towards the East. Currently the center of gravity of the world‟s leather production is Asia. China is the leading of all prominent countries in the leather industry. India and Hong Kong are among the other rivals. However, in the leather garment sub-industry, Italy leads the industry compared to Asia and South America, as also being the center of fashion. Among the EU countries, France is also among the leading countries. Germany, as the biggest importer of the EU, imports mostly from Turkey, China and India.

Certain developing countries such as Turkey and Brazil also endeavor especially for positioning in the global market. Branding may be considered as a concept, which has been on the agenda of Turkey for nearly ten years. Especially from the perspective of the textile and ready wear industry, in addition to the high production strength, the development of the design capacity also can be considered as an important factor. Having a prestigious brand in international markets is extremely important for the Turkish Companies. Indeed, highly serious changes are being observed in the retail industry at present.

In the exports of Turkish Leather Industry, it is conspicuous that certain countries have a higher influence than the others. For example; according to 2010 figures, Russia‟s share in the overall leather export is 25% and the share of the first 5 countries in the overall leather exports is 53% (General Secretariat of Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters‟ Associations, İTKİB, 2011). It indicates that the markets need improvement. The industry requires diversification and searching for alternative market expansions. This can be realized with a long-term strategic perspective. In the European countries such as Italy and Spain, the situation is on the contrary, however. There, the critical point is that the governmental policies of the leather industrialists and especially the activities of related associations direct the marketing perspectives. Accordingly, comparison of the services of the unions/associations in Turkey against those of the unions in the countries considered as rivals will be beneficial.

For instance, from the economic aspect, the devaluation of the US dollar is considered as a very important issue in Brazil, and they particularly highlight that such policies hare influential on exports. Currently, there are 2148 leather entrepreneurs in Brazil and 24 of them form a cluster of shoemakers, exporting Brazilian-made semi-finished and finished goods to 160 countries. Especially, new companies focus on foreign markets and they highly stress branding and product differentiation. Brazilian companies consider fairs important and it is understood that they are involved in various production, technology and fashion exhibitions in the USA, Asia and Europe (Assintecal, 2011).

In this context, different and new channels are gradually attracting more attention especially for promotion. Using web pages and taking advantage from digital technologies are gradually becoming more important. However, excluding certain companies, any related efforts are not observed in the leather industry.


China Leather Industry Association, CLIA -founded in 1998- consists of 1300 members. China Leather Industry Association is a national organization and serves for the entire Chinese leather industry. China Leather Industry Association covers fur and leather tanning, footwear, leather apparel, leather products and chemical agents related organizations, research institutes and universities and briefcase industries. CLIA was established as a bond and a bridge between government and enterprises in order to execute governmental policies and decisions about conducting governmental efforts, which are made, by the government and both to perform decisions and encourage the development of the leather industry. CLIA also supports the development of national leather industry with market researches, survey studies about the leather industry, branding studies, researches about science and technology, various training and information activities. Hong Kong produces various leather consumer goods such as footwear, handbags, wallets, luggage, apparel, gloves, belts and other fashion accessories and offers them to the international market. Hong Kong leather industry became an industry that the foreign country exporters prefer to work with due to its production of high quality products, production and supply flexibility, ability to deliver in a short time, fast response to fashion trends and meeting customers‟ special requests.

Hong Kong

Overseas buyers regard Hong Kong as an important supply center for leather products. Because Hong Kong is a transit trade point rather than being a manufacturer country, most of the leather and leather product companies in Hong Kong are not manufacturers but international trade companies. Hong Kong leather manufacturers moved most of their production to China in order to reduce their manufacturing costs with cheaper labor and raw material sources. At the end of 2008, there were only 30 footwear manufacturing companies in the country, while there were totally 3730 companies dealing with leather and leather products foreign trade. On the other hand, Turkey substantially bears the characteristics of being a manufacturer country in the leather industry. Therefore, Turkey is expected to focus on the strategies which, transform its leather industry's characteristics into an advantage in the world market (İTKİB, 2010b).

China is the biggest supplier of Hong Kong, among the biggest leather markets of the world. With cheap labor and raw materials, China rules the leather industry. China, alone, controls 61.9% of Hong Kong leather market. To promote trade relations with China, on June 29 2003, Hong Kong signed “Closer Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)” with the People‟s Republic of China, covering many branches of commerce. This is a free trade agreement that aims to increase bilateral trade between the parties. In August 2004, regarding leather and leather products industries, China and Hong Kong agreed to further liberalize the Chinese market for Hong Kong companies regarding the leather and leather products industry. On January 1, 2005, customs duty exemption was provided for the import of other natural and manufactured items made of leather and hide from Hong Kong to China. Italy is another country from which Hong Kong imports most leather. Hong Kong imports approximately 1.1 billion dollars worth leather and leather products from Italy. Turkey -under the pressure of increasing manufacturing costs- is the 34th country in the list of Hong Kong leather industry‟s imports.


Leather processing and leather product industries, which are among the traditional industries of Spain, generally consist of many small and middle scale enterprises. These enterprises gather under various unions and associations in order to both maintain their domestic market shares and keep up with the competition in exports. Spanish Leather Processors Confederation (CECFECUR) with 211 members is the representative of the Leather Processing Industry of Spain. The confederation unites Leather Processing Associations under its umbrella. The members of the Confederation are also the members of the Leather Industry Association of Spain for Foreign Trade (ACEXPIEL). The Confederation, in collaboration with ACEXPIEL, helps the industry in protecting its rights against all national, international, private and governmental authorities and also helps on certain issues such as education, seminar, and trade delegations and attendance to exhibitions. Such confederations prepare the industrial plan for trade in tanning industry and provide strategic support. They publish various reports, statistics and studies about the leather industry, and receive various supplies and demands. As the countries such as Spain are EU members, they participate in the EU programs and try to benefit from these projects. They also conduct studies on the right use of the „leather‟ concept as a trademark. This confederation organizes Spanish pavilions in exhibitions, in a sense undertakes a commercial mission (Leather Spain, 2010). Spanish leather product manufacturers are united under the Spanish Saddlery, Luggage and Leather Products Producers (ASEFMA). Spanish Leather Product Exporters Association (GEME) also acts as an affiliate of this association. ASEFMA generally serves its members on providing information and statistics about local and foreign institutions and organizations, conducting market researches, informing its members about the incentives given in Spain and EU, and maintaining up-to-datedness of its website, while GEME works for coordinating the exporters' attendance to international fairs and stand organization, conducting promotional activities about the exhibitions, promoting the industry in the media and for foreign professionals, organizing participation to fashion parades and other activities, as well as arranging agreements with agencies and representatives in other countries.

There are also, certain associations, which unite regional manufacturers in Spain. Among them, Union D‟adobadors de Catalunya in Catalonia region, Asociacion de Curtidores de Valencia Zona Centro in Valencia, Curtidor Asociado al Germio de Lorca in Murcia and Asociacion Interregional de Industrias Curtidoras which unites the manufactures in the north can be listed. Every year another theme is considered within the scope of the „Leather Made in Spain‟ campaign, which was initiated for promoting the Spanish leather products industry (Madrid Embassy of the Republic of Turkey, Commercial Counsellor, 2007).

COTANCE is a non-profit organization founded for representing the European leather industry internationally and enhancing its interests. It focuses on economic growth, the sustainability and development of European tanning industry as its mission. COTANCE council of members meets regularly two times a year to discuss the problems and sustainability of the European leather industry and propose solutions. Bulgaria, Italy, Germany, Lithuanian, Spain, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Finland, Sweden, France and the UK are the members of COTANCE organization. The following table provides leather industry evaluation figures as per countries according to COTANCE 2009 data.


Figure 1: World Leather Industry Production


Italy is still one of the countries leading the world fashion in leather apparel. With its highly advanced tanning industry, modern accessory manufacturers and innovative designs, as well as high quality, branded products representing the latest fashion; Italy refers to upper income groups of the world. Approximately 15% of the world‟s processed leather production and 60% of Europe‟s processed leather production are carried out by Italy. Italian leather industry presents a structure with 17000 employees, innumerable companies and an annual sales turnover nearing to 4 billion Euros. In one sense, they consider themselves as the world leader in terms of design, quality, environment friendly products and innovation capacity. There are 7800 manufacturer companies in footwear industry. Germany, USA and France are among the leading countries to which Italy exports footwear. The biggest competitors of Italy in this industry are China, Indonesia and Hong Kong. In footwear exports, „Made in Italy' shows the best dynamics in the leather and hide segment (İTKİB, 2010a). The “Made in Italy” concept is an important concept for marketing in the industry, and from the point of brand recognition, one can say that this phrase is considered as a very confiding word especially among the world leather consumers. The “Made in Italy” concept is considered as a synonym with quality in many countries of the world. Similar to the leather industry in Turkey, Italian industry mainly (80%) consists of by SME‟s. These enterprises are represented by the National Union of the Tanning Industry (UNIC). A considerable part of the Italian national footwear industry is associated under the Italian Footwear Producers Association (A. N. C. I.) The Association with approximately 1000 member companies represents 70% of the Italian footwear production in terms of production volume (İTKİB, 2010a).

Various leather industry clusters are observed in Italy. In Vicenza Valley, there are clusters of footwear and furnishings; while in high handwork requiring fashion product manufacturers are clustered in Tuscany. Campalia and Lombardy focus on apparel and accessories; and mainly work on ovine leather production. Customers are categorized in two groups. One for furnishing and footwear and the other for apparel and saddlery products (UNIC, 2010). Italy exports to 116 countries. Brazil and EU countries are considered as the competitors. Russia, Argentina and India are seen as competitors in raw material supply. Italian leather and leather product industry currently has comparative advantages in the industry. Here, Asian and European fairs and quality certification issues are emphasized. Moreover, some of the developed countries support developing countries. For example, Italy supports Iran. By this means, developed countries can eliminate the disadvantages of the leather industry for their environment and their country.

Customers in developed countries act consciously. In these countries, the environmental pressure encountered increases the tendency for environmental production, placing a big burden on the manufacturing cost. Therefore, developed countries shift their production to developing countries in order to lessen their burden. In this context, the leather industry shifts from developed countries to developing countries day by day for production. Certain labels such as Ecotox (50 Swiss Franks for 1000 labels), which indicate the quality and eco-friendliness of the product are available in Turkey, but such practices have not developed in Turkey.


In this study there is a comparative country analysis collected from the web sites of the various associations (non-governmental organizations, foundations etc.-See Appendix I) operating in the countries that have a special importance in the world leather industry.

Countries‟ Associations are compared around these categories.

1- The Target Mass

2- Emphasis

3- Population

4- Leather Processing Capacity

5- Number of Employees

6- Sales Amount

7- Prominent Subjects in Sales

8- Weaknesses of Marketing

9- Intensively Exporting Countries

10- Competitors

11- Branding

12- Characteristics of the Companies in the Industry

13- Representative Unions and Associations

These are the main factors for the assessment of the industry in terms of marketing and promotion; and the researchers choose them as their data can be accessed in the general sense. These associations are also the biggest and most influential associations for the leather companies within their countries.


Findings were collected in a single Table. The cheapest labor is founded in the most populated countries India and China. They also have a huge capacity of production. Italy, Spain and Turkey try to serve higher income segments and give more attention to the quality. However Germany is also a producer of a special segment for all the leather chemicals so Germany founded an important special market for herself. Expensive labour effects all developed countries. Developing countries still have no big problem of finding inexpensive labour. South American Countries such as Brazil and Argentina mostly endures on footwear. In Europe, UK and Portugal follow these countries in footwear market. Most of the leather companies are SME‟s. There is a harsh competition within and without countries. Branding becomes a very important factor to these companies to survive. Italy, Spain, UK and Turkey give more value to branding. Number of the Associations also gives an idea for trials to improve the products and marketing operations all around the world. China and India seem to be important rivals in global arena because they really have comparative advantage of production cost. The detailed comparisons can be seen in Categories of Result Analysis Table in Appendix II.


In this study the worldwide leather industry is structured with SME‟s in general. Countries which develop their brand images such as Italy and Spain come to the forefront in the world market by emphasizing their quality, while China, India and Brazil emphasize cheap labor and low cost. Upon evaluating the countries of the study in terms of their sales potential, the order includes China, Italy, India, Turkey, Argentina, Spain, UK, Brazil, Germany and Portugal in turn. According to an assessment by number of employees, India and China has the most employees. In India, in addition to the very high number of employees, the number of associations and unions that represent the leather industry is also very high. Similarly, in some of other developing countries such as Turkey, China and Brazil, such associations and unions are densely observed. As a result of the conducted analysis, concentration in different areas of specialization is observed in different countries. For example, production of leather chemicals in Germany, footwear in Brazil, Portugal and UK; fur, suede and apparel leather in Turkey.

Leather industry enterprises are continuously influenced by the social, cultural, technological, political and legal changes around them on both strategic and tactical terms in global arena. The leather industry must keep up with the changes around, in order to survive and compete against its rivals. In the competitive environment, the improvement of the leather industry‟s current situation and the development of its export potential depend on taking advantage of the information technologies and choosing electronic/mobile commerce as an important way. Marketing activities and e-marketing efforts following the general tendencies of our time are among the leading issues that should primarily and carefully be considered in the leather industry (Yamamoto et al., 2009b).

Non-profit associations and similar groups in leather sector have a lot to do, but the activities of such non-profit associations and groups are considered insufficient. There are various organizations such as the Union of Leather Exporters, DETEK, etc. in Turkey. In addition, Leather Promotion Group (DTG) is willing to make the Turkish leather a world brand, while the efforts conducted in this regard are inadequate. Such organizations prepare kits, etc. (Euroleather online shop) but these kits are inadequate for promotion. However, especially upon examining the associations of the countries which have become brands; it is noted that such organizations are also influential in direct the industrialists.

In business-to-business marketing activities, initially the deficiencies of companies in marketing may be identified and training may be provided in this regard at various levels in order to recover this deficiency. A portal, which works actively in global terms, can be created to accelerate cooperation between enterprises in the global sense. Currently, ways of trading develop in parallel with the speed of the technological progress. In this context, the use of new methods and applications such as electronic and mobile marketing are in question for marketing. After the required e-marketing infrastructure is set up for this purpose, the companies acting in the leather industry must join this infrastructure. In this structure, the companies may be enabled to benefit from the advantages of electronic and mobile commerce when they are integrated into the marketing processes. On the other hand, for business to consumer commerce, the establishment of e-stores to increase the customer potential, especially with e-stores oriented towards abroad mainly to EU countries may be considered as means of e-media applications to expand the target mass and market share.

One of the limitations of the study is the existence of different data at different sources especially in developing countries such as China, Turkey and India. There are, though partially, some suspects about the accuracy of figures. The associations of the industry must make an effort to verify these figures. Identification of the categories are also decided by the researchers.


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Appendix I. Categories of Result Analysis Table

Name of the Country: Target Mass Emphasis Population Leather Processing Number of employees: Sales Amount Highlights in Marketing Weaknesses of Marketing
Italy Mostly high level income group in the world Quality 60,157,214 15% world 60% Europe 17000 4 billion Euros (2010) Design, quality, cooperation, clustering, marketing, promotion, ecologist products, innovation, presentation, standardization Expensive labor, Environment pressure.
Spain Mostly high level income group Quality 46,030,109 77,34% national 22,66% world 20000 409353000 Euros (2009 Export) 1,805.90 billion Euros (Total Production) Design, market proximity, old experiences. Expensive labor, environmental pressure.
China The Whole World Cheap labor 1,347,740,174 75% world 2.3373 million 15399 billion dollars High production capacity, world‟s biggest leather manufacturer. Tendency to low-price chemicals, Lower quality.
India The Whole World Cheap labor 1,198,003,000 2% world 2,5 million people 2 Billion Dollars World‟s second-largest footwear manufacturer Tendency cheap chemicals.
Brazil World‟s second- largest leather manufacturer   191,241,714 70% USA 2148 enterprises 210,000 People 938 Million US Dollars(2007), The 2010 turnover of the tanning industry is 3,8 billion US Dollars Footwear High Cost
Name of the Country: Intensively Exporter Countries Competitor information Branding Company Features in Industry Representative Unions and Associations
Italy USA, Germany, France China,Indonesia, Hong Kong, Brazil, EU Countries,India Made in Italy 80% SME ANCI – Italian Association of Footwear Industrialists UNIC - National Union of Leather Processing Industrialists
Spain EU Countries (Italy, France, Portugal, Germany, Belgium) Turkey,Hong Kong, China, Japan China, India, Hong Kong Leather Made in Spain 80% SME ASEFMA - Spanish Saddlery, Luggage and Leather Product Producers ACEXPIEL - he Leather Industry Association of Spain for Foreign CEC-FECUR - Spanish Leather Processing Confederation GEME - Spanish Leather Product Exporters Association
China UK,Germany,Japan,USA, Hong Kong India, Hong Kong N/A Public Companies CLIA - China Leather Industry Association C.L.I.I.C. - China Leather Industry Information Center China National Information Center For Footwearmaking Industry
India USA,Germany,Italy,UK,N etherlands,Canada,Sweden ,Russia China,Indonesia, Korea, Taiwan - {} - N/A S M E CLE - India's Council for Leather Exports, AGRA Footwear Manufacturers and Exporters Chamber, All India Skin and Hide Tanners & Merchants Association All India Leather Machinery Manufacturers Association All India Small Scale Tanners And Exporters Association Indian Footwear Federation Indian Leather Products Association Indian Leather Technologists Association The Tanners Federation of India
Brazil China, UK, Canada, USA, China, Portugal, India -{}- N/A 80% SME ABICALÇADOS - Brazilian Footwear Manufacturers Association, The Brazilian Footwear Association, Apex-Brazil - Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency,
Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Assintecal, ABEST- The Brazilian Association of Fashion Designers,
United Arab Emirates ABECA - Brasilian Footwear and Accessory Designers Association,
  CICB - Confederation of Brazilian Hides and Skins Industries
Name of the Country: The target group Emphasis Population Leather Processing Number of employees: Sales Amount Prominent Subjects in Sales Weaknesses of Marketing
Turkey High level income group in the world, countries that can make contract manufacturing, Turkey domestic market N/A 74,816,000 N/A 23000 1 billion 272 million Dollars (Export year, 2010) High experience and know-how in fur and suede production and world leadership, high knowledge in Zig production and ranking among the top five, enough level of infrastructural investment Exported raw material (exporting 70% of its raw material), finance difficulties, no established cooperation between the companies in the sector, Having not enough settled capacity for production, relatively high input cost (energy, labor, raw material= e.g. People‟s Republic of China.
Germany Leather for furnishing Leather chemicals Technology Automation Quality 82,400,000 80% export 2500 400 Million Euros Leather Chemicals Production, Leather Devices, Furnishing Leather especially for automotive industry Expensive labor
Argentina N/A N/A 40,064,910 80% of production 60,000 1.2 Million Dollars Footwear and fur production Quality of raw material
UK N/A High quality in footwear production 51,482,105 57% 27,000 700 Million Euros Footwear production, Accessory, Bag, Luggage production, Branding Expensive labor, Environment pressure.
Portugal Footwear High quality in footwear production 11,655,674 80% (direct 40% of its production to France and 30% of production to other countries that it export 53,000 200 Million Euros Being a traditional industry, intercompany trainings, Very good relations between employers and employees, permanent customers and suppliers, experienced staff Low quality compared with other EU countries, Low performance
Name of the Country: Intensively Exporter Countries Competitor Branding Company Features in Industry Representative Unions and Associations
Turkey Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Spain, UK, Iraq China, India N/A 98% SME TASD – Footwear Industrialists Association of Turkey TDSD – Association of Turkey Leather Industrialists TÜRDEV – Leather Foundation of Turkey EGEAYSAD – Eagan Footwear Sub-industrialists Association ITKIB - General Secretariat of Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters‟ Associations AYSAD - Footwear Sub-industrialists Association DETEK- Leather Technologists, Technicians and Chemists Association DTG – Turkish Leather Council
Germany USA, UK, Japan, Sweden Italy, Spain, Brazil N/A 3 of 50 companies are SME, and others are co. ltd. and most of them family companies. VDL - German Leather Federation,
Argentina Chin USA, Italy, Netherlands, Mexico, Brazil China, Portugal, India N/A 85% SME Argentine Chamber for Leather Manufacturing AAQTIC - Argentine Leather Industry Chemists and Technicians Association
UK Ireland,   Made in Britain % 80 SME BFA (British Footwear Association) BLC (Leather Technology Centre Ltd )
Germany, Italy, BTAA (British Travelgoods and Accessories Association )
France, Spain, CEC (European Footwear Manufacturers Confederation)
Netherlands, Brazil SLTC (Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists)
Portugal France, Netherlands,   N/A 90% SME APIC (Portuguese Leather Industry Association), National Leather Trade Union, CTIC (Leather Technology Centre),
Germany, UK, USA, China, APICCAPS (Portuguese Footwear, Components and Leather Goods
Sweden, Australia, India Manufacturers‟ Association)

Appendix II.

The associations selected herein are; ANCI (Italian Association of Footwear Industrialists), UNIC (National Union of Leather Processing Industrialists), ASEFMA (the roof of Spanish Saddlery, Luggage and Leather Product Producers), ACEXPIEL ( Leather Industry Association of Spain for Foreign Trade), CEC-FECUR (Spanish Leather Processing Confederation ), GEME (Spanish Leather Product Exporters Association), CLIA (China Leather Industry Association), C.L.I.I.C. (China Leather Industry Information Center), China National Information Center for Footwearmaking Industry, CLE - India's Council for Leather Exports, AGRA (Footwear Manufacturers and Exporters Chamber),All India Skin and Hide Tanners & Merchants Association, All India Leather Machinery Manufacturers Association, All India Small Scale Tanners And Exporters Association, Indian Footwear Federation, Indian Leather Products Association, Indian Leather Technologists Association, The Tanners Federation of India, ABICALÇADOS (Brazilian Footwear Manufacturers Association, The Brazilian Footwear Association), Apex-Brazil (Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency), Assintecal, ABEST (The Brazilian Association of Fashion Designers), ABECA (Brazilian Footwear and Accessory Designers Association), CICB (Confederation of Brazilian Hides and Skins Industries), TASD (Footwear Industrialists Association of Turkey), TDSD (Association of Turkey Leather Industrialists), TÜRDEV (Leather Foundation of Turkey, EGEAYSAD (Eagan Footwear Sub-industrialists Association), ITKIB (General Secretariat of Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters‟ Associations), AYSAD (Footwear Sub-industrialists Association), DETEK (Leather Technologists, Technicians and Chemists Association), DTG (Turkish Leather Council), VDL (German Leather Federation), Argentine Chamber for Leather Manufacturing, AAQTIC (Argentine Leather Industry Chemists and Technicians Association), BFA (British Footwear Association), BLC (Leather Technology Centre Ltd), BTAA (British Travelgoods and Accessories Association), CEC (European Footwear Manufacturers Confederation), SLTC (Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists), APIC (Portuguese Leather Industry Association), National Leather Trade Union, CTIC (Leather Technology Centre), APICCAPS (Portuguese Footwear, Components and Leather Goods Manufacturers‟ Association), COTANCE.

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