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Measuring Service Quality Expectation and Perception Using SERVQUAL: A Gap Analysis | OMICS International
ISSN: 2151-6219
Business and Economics Journal
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Measuring Service Quality Expectation and Perception Using SERVQUAL: A Gap Analysis

Usman Ahmad Qadri*

National University of Modern Language, Officer Grade –III, The Bank of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Usman ahmad qadri
National University of Modern
Language, Officer Grade –III
The Bank Of Punjab, Lahore Pakistan
Tel: 042- 6316855
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 15, 2015 Accepted Date: June 16, 2015 Published Date: June 23, 2015

Citation: Qadri UA (2015) Measuring Service Quality Expectation and Perception Using SERVQUAL: A Gap Analysis. Bus Eco J 6:162. doi:10.4172/2151-6219.1000162

Copyright: © 2015 Qadri UA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The study was carried with the objective of understanding the level of gap exists between expectation (excellent bank) and perception (experience bank) among the banking customer in Pakistan in the content of service quality. This study is measuring service quality by using SERVQUAL- a perceived service quality questionnaire methodology. SERVQUAL examines five dimensions of service quality, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangible and Reliability. For each dimension of service quality measures both the perception and expectation of the service on a scale of 1 to 7, total questions in the questionnaire are 22. Through Gap analysis Gap score is calculated by subtracting the perception score from expectation score. A negative Gap indicates that the actual service is less than what was expected and the GAP is highlighted area for improvement. Convenience sample of 250 public and private bank’s account holders in Pakistan was used to collect the data. The finding of this study showed there is very huge Gap exists between excellent bank (expectation) and account holder experience (perception) bank in Pakistan with the regards of service quality. Finding of this study is help to minimize the GAP that was exist between excellent bank and account holder experience bank in Pakistan. This study used the word excellent bank because no bank in Pakistan up to the expectation of the account holders.


SERVQUAL; Customer perception; Customer expectation; Gap analysis; Banking sector in Pakistan


Commercial banks play the main role in the development of financial growth in the nation. Banking industry in Pakistan has been great transition during sixty-seven years of its history, especially since early 1970s. The nationalized commercial banks maintained their financial hold in financial services industry till the early part of 1990s before a major shake-up leading up to liberalization and reforms, which was instrumental in restructuring of the entire banking industry in 1990s. Berry et al. [1] investigated that service quality is measured with comparing customers’ perceptions and expectations of the services extended by the business; moreover perceptions are articulated as consumer’s experience about the service received and expectation as customer demand. Thus, the knowledge about customers’ perceptions and expectations is significant to service marketers to achieve sustainable viable advantage by maintaining quality service. The consistency competitive edge in the banking industry highlights the significance of quality of customer service. Hence, reviewing quality of service for the customer in the service industries such as insurance, hospitals, telecommunication, hospitals, and library is very vital in determining the standard expected from the service industry. To attain this attaining competitive edge, banking industries face the exceptional challenge of meeting the needs of the customers dependably and regularly [2-20].

Objective of the Study

The objective of this study is to understanding the level of gap exists between expectation (excellent bank) and perception (experience bank) among the banking customer in Pakistan in the content of service quality.

Literature Review

Berry et al. [1] said service quality is the conformance to consumer specification which are counts by the customer not management. Berry et al. explored the ways to increase quality throughout a service company. Berry et al. suggested that service quality is comparison of perception with expectation. Swailes and Dawees (1999) said banks know that customers will be retaining if they provide better service quality to the customers then competitors [21-28]. Chaoprasert and Elsey investigate that core competitive strategy for the banks is service quality furthermore; all the banks around the world have similar kinds of service and competitors. They said banks should investigate customer perception gap in the service quality for getting better market share. Cowling and new man investigated that two UK banks used SERVQUAL models after that both banks enjoying substantial enhances in the profit. Zeithaml investigated that profit for any business will increase if the organization provides the better quality of the services. Heskett et al. [29-40] explored the positive relationship between customer satisfaction, service quality and profitabliity. Zeithaml et al. [41-60] investigated that service quality is most important factor for success of any organization. In the banking industry, service quality is as critical factor as any other service organization. Newman and cowling investigated that service quality broadly used to investigate the performance of banking service. Parasuraman et al. [1] highlights the gaps that cause unsuccessful delivery. Accordingly Parasuraman et al. quality has five dimensions (i) assurance, (ii) empathy, (iii) responsiveness, (iv) Reliability, (v) tangible

i. Reliability

Leonard et al. investigated that Reliability has the ability to provide the promised service regularly, consistently, timely and accurately to the consumers (Tables 1-4).

Items Number (N) Experience bank Expectation (excellent bank) GAP=experience-Excellent
RB1 225 4.6901 4.6431 -0.047
RB2 225 4.521 3.8741 -1.646
RB3 225 4.7812 3.4312 -1.352
RB4 225 4.7229 3.2821 -1.44
RB5 225 4.9013 4.3432 -0.558
Total SERVQUAL-reliability gap   4.7233 3.9147 -0.808

Table 1: Mean score of excellent bank and experience bank items of reliability.

Items Statement
RB1 When Experience/excellent banks assure to do great by a certain time, they do.
RB2 When a consumer has a issue, Experience/excellent banks will demonstrate a genuine interest in solving it.
RB3 Experience/excellent banks will execute the service true during the first instance.
RB4 Experience/excellent banks will execute the service at the time they assure to do so.
RB5 Experience/excellent banks will persist on error free records.

Table 2: Reliability items of reliability.

  Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Excellent bank 23.6165 225 2. 48135 0.19376
Experience bank 19.5735 225 2.08448 0.16277

Table 3: Paired sample statistics of reliability.

Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-
Mean Std.
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Lower Upper
4.043 0.23663 0.46363 4.13625 4.36952 24.805 224 0.000

Table 4: Paired sample test of reliability.

ii. Assurance

Assurance means knowledge of competence, courtesy of staff, respects of customers, probity and confidentiality, safety and security and creditability (Tables 5-7).





(v) Tangible

Tangible defines as visual appealing, physical facilities, equipment, employees and communication materials. Tangible is the image of the organization services and physical represent [61-70] (Tables 8-11).





iii. Empathy

Empathy mean treating the customers as individual and understanding the needs and wants, customer easily access to the staff of the organization and to their service and information, staff communicate clearly, appropriately timely with their customer, organization understanding the needs and wants for the consumers, organization should give the appropriate service to customers accordingly they needs, organization should give the individual attention to the every customer (Tables 12-15).





iv. Responsiveness

Responsiveness is the prompt attention to requests and questions, willingness to sort the problem and help, organization should provide the problem solution on demand, providing the better complaint handling service, providing the flexibility service to the customers (Tables 16-19).





Conceptual Framework

The Parsuraman, Zethaml, and Berry theory of the Determinants of perceived quality (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Conceptual frame work.

The above model shows the gap exists between expectation and perception in the content of service quality, in which the variance is attempted to be explained by the five independent variables of

i. Assurance

ii. Empathy

iii. Responsiveness

iv. Reliability

v. Tangible


The following hypothesis were prepared for the purpose of the researchi.

i.There is no gap exist between service quality-assurance of excellent bank and experienced bank in Pakistan.

ii. There is no gap exist between service quality-empathy of excellent bank and experienced bank in Pakistan.

iii. There is no gap exist between service quality-responsiveness of excellent bank and experienced bank in Pakistan.

iv. There is no gap exist between service quality-Reliability of excellent bank and experienced bank in Pakistan.

v. There is no gap exist between service quality-tangible of excellent bank and experienced bank in Pakistan.


The study used both secondary and primary data. Secondary data was collected from different, books, journal and websites and Primary data was collected through a structure Questionnaire. Items of the questionnaire relating SERVQUAL dimension was adopted from Berry et al. The study was conducted in Lahore City. The questionnaires were distributed among the 250 account holders in banks of Pakistan. Only 225 accordingly filled questionnaire were found appropriate. A convenience sampling technique is used for collecting the data within the city [71-76].

Data Analysis and Findings

Data obtained through questionnaire are punched and analyzed with help of “Statistical Package for Social Science” SPSS-17.

Conclusion and Recommendation

It is evident from the above there is gap exist between service quality of excellent bank and experience bank of Pakistan. The results of the research showed that account holders of the banks in Pakistan are not satisfied with banking services. Their expectations were higher than the experience of service quality from the existing bank in Pakistan in the all aspect of SERVQUAL. The task of banking industry under such circumstances is to develop and implement new strategy that would minimize the gap between the excellent bank and experience bank. In order to minimize the gap between the account holder’s experiences and their expectation of the service quality, the officer, managers and executives in the banks have to ensure that every contact with the account holders is the positive experience for the account holders about the banks. It is important for the bank to define the service quality standards that are measurable and transparent [78-84].


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