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Measuring the Job Satisfaction Level of the Academic Staff | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-0234
Journal of Business & Financial Affairs
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Measuring the Job Satisfaction Level of the Academic Staff

Naseem I* and Salman M

Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Naseem I
Assistant Professor
Department of Management Sciences COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology
Abbottabad, Pakistan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: June 03, 2015 Accepted: June 23, 2015 Published: July 15, 2015

Citation: Naseem I, Salman M (2015) Measuring the Job Satisfaction Level of the Academic Staff. J Bus Fin Aff 4:142. doi:10.4172/2167-0234.1000142

Copyright: © 2015 Naseem I, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This study was conducted for the aim to find the job satisfaction of academic staff in Abbottabad. Important factors that have an impact on job satisfaction level are pay, job security, relationship with coworkers and relationship with supervisor. A sample of 84 teachers is selected by simple random sampling technique. Data is collected from four colleges both public and private in Abbottabad region. Simple percentages indicated that academic staff of these four colleges is more satisfied with relationship with coworkers and supervisor than pay and job security.

Keywords

Job satisfaction; Academic staff; Abbottabad; Factors affecting job satisfaction

Introduction

The foundation of any society depends upon its students. They are the valuable and essential part of a society. Students play extremely important role in the development and well-being of any society as they will take the responsibility of the success of the society in coming days. In achieving this goal, Teachers play a major role. Teachers are source of guidance and motivation at many important steps in academic life as well as professional life. Teachers will perform their duties with more commitment, concentration and competence when they are pleased with job. When teachers are dissatisfied with their job, it will directly affect students.

Education is extremely important component in the life of all human beings. It is the education which makes differentiate between good and bad humans. According to the Noordin and Jusoff [1] societal expectations depends upon the successful running of the educational system. Academic staff plays a vital role in the success of an educational system. Job satisfaction, retention and commitment to the organization are very necessary for the success and development of any educational institution. Clearly the higher academic faculty pleased with their job the healthier and positive climate will be of an institute. Positive climate of an academic institute results in higher job satisfaction which in turn increases the overall performance and productivity of the institution. Positive and healthy climate of an institution also puts a positive effect on the performance and interest of students of that particular institute.

So in the light of above arguments managers, human resource specialists, supervisor and workforce itself are involved in determining the methods that cause increase in job satisfaction. According to Santhapparaj and Alam Baloch job satisfaction has a significant relationship with the performance of the work force, overall productivity and profitability of the organization.

Research Objectives

The main objectives of the research are:

1. To investigate the levels of job satisfaction of the academic staff of Abbottabad.

2. To determine the factors having impact on the levels of job satisfaction of the teachers.

Research significance

This study may be significant in providing college management a clearer understanding of the attitudes and it can be a helpful in efforts regarding job satisfaction, selection policy and retention towards organization.

Research gap

This investigation should be conducted in other colleges as well as in universities of different areas to find out whether the data collected from the private education sector makes the scenario different.

Second research gap is that the participation of female teachers in the present study is very low. Therefore, this study is unable to define clearly the job satisfaction level of female teachers. Future research should be conducted on this issue.

Literature Review

Globally

Correlation analysis indicated that job satisfaction and its characteristics have negative and significant relationship on turnover intensions. Job satisfaction and job characteristics of skill verity, task identity and feedback decrease in case employees undergo high level turn intensions [2].

Employee commitment to the organization, performance and motivation depend upon job satisfaction [1]. Promotion opportunity has a positive impact on job satisfaction [3].

Age, experience, salary and cadre bring variation in the level of job satisfaction. While hygiene factors such as job security, post retirement packages, suggestion system and grievance system cause high job satisfaction [4].

Employees pleased with their job will be more committed to organizations and vice-versa. Age is also positively related to organizational commitment, means that older employees will be more committed to their organization as compare to the younger employees [5].Job satisfaction is directly related to the inner feelings of employees [6].

Impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment is influential on employee loyalty in manufacturing and service industry but the case is quite different in service industry where organizational commitment has no impact on employee loyalty but job satisfaction does [7].

If teachers are not pleased with the environment of their work place they still do not let this affect their dealing with the students [8]. Experience and educational levels are responsible for the change in the level of job satisfaction [9].

Job satisfaction is defined as “the measurement of one’s total feeling and attitudes towards one’s job.” If teachers are not satisfied with the environment where they work they still do not let this affect their dealing with the students. Job satisfaction is directly related to the inner feelings of employees. Job satisfaction is directly related with employee commitment towards his organization, performance and motivation. Globally research has been conducted on job satisfaction of academic staff in the literature review of the present study are Malaysia and India.

Developed countries

Relationship between job satisfaction and contextual performance was more significant than task performance. But the overall job satisfaction was positively related to task and contextual performance [10].

The higher the levels of education the more the employees will be pleased with their jobs. Gender also puts an impact on job satisfaction [11]. Self-esteem is a strong predictor of job satisfaction and directly related to each other [12]. Personal achievement is positively related to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is negatively related to emotional exhaustion [13]. Age does not play a moderator role between organizational identification and job satisfaction [14]. Gender, marital status, age and tenure have no significant impact on job satisfaction [15]. Among the demographic variables, skill verity was found to be the best predictor of job satisfaction of public officials. While level of education has less impact on job satisfaction [16].

Employees with higher education levels are more satisfied with their job as compare to those having lower level of education. Personal achievement is positively related to job satisfaction while emotional exhaustion has negative impact on job satisfaction. Self-esteem and job satisfaction has a positive relation with each other. Developed countries included in the literature review of the current study are USA, Canada, and South Korea.

Developing countries

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment was found to be positively interrelated to each other [17]. Employee with better personality will be more satisfied with his job [18]. Age, rank, experience and marital status are strong predictors of job satisfaction. Older and married bank employees were highly satisfied with their jobs than younger and unmarried employees. Similarly the higher the rank and experience the more will employees satisfied with jobs [19]. The demographic factors age and marital status has a significant effect on the level of job satisfaction of non-academic staff. Older and married staff was found less satisfied with their job than younger and single staff members [20].

Factors causing job satisfaction may change over period of time.Proper investigation is required to identify the changes [21]. There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Turnover intentions will be lower when job satisfaction is higher [22]. The relationship between job satisfaction and rewards is not significant and rewards don’t specify the level of job satisfaction but rewards determine employee retention.

Job satisfaction will increase with the increasing in role-accepting of employee Guilan public sector Iran. Institutional factors included development; leadership style, campus landscape, and administrational efficiency have a strong influence on job satisfaction [23].

Turnover intentions are negatively related to job satisfaction. Turnover intentions are lower when the level of job satisfaction is higher. Age and marital status have significant effects on job satisfaction. Older and married staff is less satisfied with their job than younger and unmarried staff. Personality has also positive impact on job satisfaction. Employee with better personality is more satisfied with his job. Developing countries included in literature review in the present study are Saudi Arabia, Baharian, Iran, Vietnam, South Africa, Srilanka, Spain and Turkey.

Underdeveloped countries

Teachers having higher experiencing of teachers are more found more satisfied than the teachers having low experience. Older teachers are happier with their jobs than younger teachers. Age and teaching experience is strong forecaster of job satisfaction [24].

Demographic factors such as age, marital status, and education level and job satisfaction significantly predict organizational commitment [25]. Poor salaries and allowances, loan facilities and increase in the volume of work lead to job dissatisfaction of employees [26]. Job satisfaction is an important issue of employees of any organization. This requires a special attention, especially in University. Because when faculty members were not satisfied with their job it will directly impact on the learning of students. University management must create policies which lead to job satisfaction [27].

Job satisfaction is an important issue of employees of any organization. This requires a special attention, especially in University. Because when faculty members were not satisfied with their job it will directly impact on the learning of students. University management must create policies which lead to job satisfaction. Poor salaries and allowances, loan facilities and increase in the volume of work lead to job dissatisfaction of employees. Teachers having higher experiencing of teachers are more found more satisfied than the teachers having low experience. Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria are included in the literature review of measuring the job satisfaction of employees in the present investigation.

Pakistan

Lecturers of private colleges of KPK are found highly dissatisfied with the promotion policy, pay, fringe benefits and contingent rewards. These four facets of job satisfaction require special attention in order to increase the level of job satisfaction of employees [28].

Contract based academic faculty was found less satisfied with their job as compare to regular based faculty members. While there was also a significant difference between job satisfaction and academic ranks, contract and regular staff and age groups [29].

The impact of hygiene factors on the overall job satisfaction is more significant than demographic factors [30]. The job satisfaction facets such as nature of work, salary satisfaction and quality supervision are important forecaster of organizational commitment of the Pakistan public sector university faculty [31]. Employees experience higher job satisfaction when they are greater motivated with their work. Employee gender has an influential impact on job satisfaction and work motivation [32].

Employees with higher pay will be more satisfied with their job. Pay has more influential impact on job satisfaction than promotion [33]. Employees with higher rank, higher qualification and increased salary are more satisfied with their job and vice versa [34]. Organizational climate, occupational stress, age and gender are the factors that differentiate the level of job satisfaction of bank managers and officers such as higher the occupational stress lower will be job satisfaction. Senior employees are greater pleased than junior employees. Similarly male employees are more satisfied with their jobs than their female counterparts [35].

Moral values and activity are the two factors causing job satisfaction, while, Compensation, Working Conditions, Social Status and School Practices and Polices have a negative relationship with job satisfaction [36]. Better and healthier work environment determines job satisfaction [37]. The largest portion of the participants in this study is found pleased with the work itself, salary packages, working environment, job security and colleagues. On the other hand, majority of the teachers participated in this investigation are dissatisfied with the promotion policy, especially newly hired teachers [38].

Organizational climate, occupational stress, age and gender are the factors that differentiate the level of job satisfaction of employees. Employees with higher pay will be more satisfied with their job. Pay has more influential impact on job satisfaction than promotion. Contract based academic faculty was found less satisfied with their job as compare to regular based faculty members. While there was also a significant difference between job satisfaction and academic ranks, contract and regular staff and age groups.

Methodology

The nature of the current investigation is practical and factual. The target population of this study consists of 122 faculty members of four colleges both Private and Government in Abbottabad. Sample consists of 84 faculty members. Data has been collected by Simple random sampling technique.

The research has been conducted through Questionnaire. There are two parts of the questionnaire: Demographic characteristics and job descriptive index designed by Smith et al. The first part of the questionnaire is about the demographic characteristics. Data is collected about the gender, academic qualification, age, and marital status. The second portion of questionnaire is developed to measure their job satisfaction level by using the concept of job satisfaction index. A likert scale having five point used to collect the data that ranges from very satisfied to very dissatisfied.

Variables

Following variables are included in this study:

Demographic Variables:

1. Gender

2. Education

3. Age

4. Marital status

Following factors have influence on job satisfaction level of Academic staff.

Salary

Rewards, whether material or cash, play an important role in job satisfaction. Many researchers have found that there is a significant relationship between salary and job satisfaction. Increasing one thing must raise the other. Souza-Poza, distinguished that salary is a predictor of job satisfaction. According to Miller employees with higher salary show greater job satisfaction

Job security

Job satisfaction and security has a clear relationship as indicated by Lacy and Sheehan. Employees are much pleased with their jobs with better security. Many researchers have found that employees with permanent jobs are more pleased with their jobs as compare to the employees on contract basis.

Promotion opportunities

Baloch indicated a constructive relationship between job satisfaction and promotion criterion. According to many researchers if promotion criterion is fair and promotion opportunities are available to the employees, they are more prompted and eager to perform in an organization.

Relationship with coworkers

Employees are more satisfied with their jobs if their relationship with coworkers is normal as described by Crossman and Abou-Zaki. Relationship with coworkers is a strong forecaster of job satisfaction as indicated by Lacy and Sheehan. The level of job satisfaction is high when the coworkers have a normal relationship with each other.

Supervisor relationship

Employees having good relations with supervisor are much pleased with their jobs.

Data Analysis

Respondents were contacted directly and Questionnaires were distributed by hand. Respondents were made sure that their information would remain secret and would not put negative impact on their carrier. 110 questionnaires have been distributed among academic staff of four colleges both public and private in Abbottabad in which 84 filled questionnaires have returned. Response rate was 69%. The analysis of this study shows that male respondents participated more than the female respondents. Respondents with age ranges from 26-30 are in greater number (53.6%) then the other age groups [39]. The number of unmarried respondents is greater than the married and it is 61.9% of the total sample size. 81% of total respondents have master degree while 19% respondents have bachelor degree. Data collected in this study has been analyzed through SPSS. The summary of the demographic factors is listed in Table 1.

Factors Frequency Percentage
Gender
Male
Female
66
18
78.6
21.4
Education
BA/BS
MA/MS
16
68
19
81
Marital Status
Married
Unmarried
32
52
38.1
69.9
AgeBelow 25
26-30
31-35
36-40
Above 40
19
45
17
1
2
22.6
53.6
20.2
1.2
2.4

Table 1: Summary of the demographic factors.

The current study shows that the majority of teachers are satisfied with their nature of job. 63% of total respondents are pleased with the salary while 20% of the total respondents are not happy with the payment they are paid. Female respondents are found more satisfied with the salary which is 77.7% then the male respondents which are 55.5%. The teachers that are not satisfied with the salary can be ascribed by two factors; the first could be the demographic factors and the second could be current economic conditions.

Form this study it is found that 60% of teachers having age ranges from 26-30 are much pleased with the salary. Majority of teachers in this group (26-30) have master degrees are more satisfied than the teachers having Bachelor degrees [40].

In this study 38.1% married respondents and 61.9% unmarried respondents shared their information. It is clear from this study that married respondents are more satisfied then unmarried respondents. This study shows that teachers having master degrees are more satisfied with jobs then the teachers having bachelor degrees. The summary of these factors is listed in Table 2.

Pay Frequency % Satisfied % Neither % Dissatisfied %
Gender
Male
Female
Marital status
Married
Unmarried
Qualification
BA/BS
MA/MS
78.6
21.4
38.1
69.9
19
81
57
78
72
58
31
71
17
5
16
17
31
10
26
17
12
25
38
19

Table 2: Comparison of individuals satisfied with their jobs.

Job security is a factor that affects the level of job satisfaction of teachers. Data gathered in this study shows that 66.6% respondents showed satisfaction with job security. Male teachers are found much pleased with job security which is 74.2% as compare to Female teachers 38.9%. Similarly married teachers are more satisfied with job security then unmarried teachers. Similarly teachers having Master degrees are found more satisfied with job security then the teachers having Bachelor degrees. Details of these factors are given in Table 3.

Job security Frequency % Satisfied % Neither % Dissatisfied %
Gender
Male
Female
Marital status
Married
Unmarried
Qualification
BA/BS
MA/MS
78.6
21.4
38.1
69.9
19
81
74
39
72
60
69
66
12
28
12
17
6
18
14
33
16
23
25
16

Table 3: Comparison of individuals having job security.

Third factor that has been discussed in this study is the relationship with coworkers. Data collected in this research indicates that 79.8% respondent of total sample size are happy with the relationship with coworkers. The reason is they help each other and give support whenever they needed. Overall they create a friendly environment in which they work together and maintain good relationship. Very small number of teachers is dissatisfied with the relationship with their colleagues which are just 7.1% of the total sample size. It has been found from the data gathered in this study that 80.3% male teachers are happy with the relationship with their colleagues while 77.8% female teachers are satisfied with the relationship of their coworkers. This analysis indicates that there is not a big difference in the level of relationship satisfaction with their coworkers. It has also been found that married teachers are slightly more satisfied with the relationship of their colleagues. Similarly teachers having Masters Degrees are found slightly more satisfied with the relationship with their coworkers as compare to teachers having Bachelor degrees. Details of the relationship with coworkers and different factors are given in Table 4.

Relationship with coworkers Frequency % Satisfied % Neither % Dissatisfied %
Gender
Male
Female
Marital status
Married
Unmarried
Qualification
BA/BS
MA/MS
78.6
21.4
38.1
69.9
19
81
80
78
81
75
75
81
12
17
0.0
21
19
12
8%
5
19
4
7
7

Table 4: Details of relationship with coworkers.

The fourth factor discussed in this study is the relationship with supervisor. Many researchers have found that employees are happier with their jobs when they have good relations with their supervisor. In this study it has been identified that 76% teachers of total sample size have good relations with the supervisor in their organizations. The detail of relationship with supervisor and other factors are listed in Table 5.

Relationship with supervisor Frequency % Satisfied % Neither % Dissatisfied %
Gender
Male
Female
Marital status
Married
Unmarried
Qualification
BA/BS
MA/MS
78.6
21.4
38.1
69.9
19
81
79
67
84
69
69
78
11
27
4
21
19
13
10
6
12
10
12
9

Table 5: Details of relationship with supervisor and other factors.

This study has been conducted in order to measure the job satisfaction of academic staff of four colleges including both private and public in Abbottabad. There are many factors that affect the level of job satisfaction but in this study four factor including pay, job security, relationship with coworkers and relationship with supervisor are discussed. Both male and female teachers participated in this research having qualification from Bachelor to Master level. Study shows that female teachers are more satisfied with the salary as compare to male teachers. Similarly teachers with higher education are found happier with the Bachelor level teachers.

Female respondents are reported less satisfied with job security then male respondents. While teaches having master’s degree are found to be more satisfied than teachers having Bachelor’s degree.

Limitations

One limitation is that this study has been conducted in minimum number of colleges. If data is collected from greater number of colleges the results could be different.

Second limitation of this study is that the ratio of female teachers in this study is very low. So we are not so much clear about the job satisfaction level of female teachers.

Recommendations

This study was conducted to find the job satisfaction level of college teachers in a single area. The number of colleges included in this research is very low. Therefore, this study should be conducted in more colleges as well as in universities both public and private sectors in various remote areas. Also this study should be conducted in other industries to find out the job satisfaction of employees.

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