Mona Z Zaghloul*
Microbiology Unit, Department of Clinical Pathology, Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
Received Date: April 07, 2016; Accepted Date: April 08, 2016; Published Date: April 16, 2016
Citation: Zaghloul MZ (2016) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J Med Microb Diagn 5: e131. doi: 10.4172/2161-0703.1000e131
Copyright: © 2016 Zaghloul MZ, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have become a global health problem particularly in hospital setup causing simple skin infections to life-threatening infections. It may leads to serious complications, such as pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis and osteomyelitis .
MRSA was isolated from pus, urine, breast discharge, blood culture, cerebrospinal fluid, and ascetic fluid . The extensive use of antibiotics over the last 50 years has led to the emergence of bacterial resistance and to the dissemination of resistance genes among pathogenic organisms . In addition, since few cells in a population might actually express resistance, these heterogeneous strains can evade detection in standard susceptibility test systems [4,5].
MRSA is primarily mediated by the over production of penicillinbinding protein 2a (PBP2a) with low affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics . The mecA gene is part of a 21 kb to 60 kb staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec), a mobile genetic element that may also contain genetic structures as Tn554, pUB110, and pT181 which encode resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics . The mecA gene which encodes PBP2a is considered a useful molecular marker of putative methicillin resistance in S. aureus . S. aureus strains have a tendency to accumulate additional resistance determinants, resulting in the formation of multiple-antibiotic resistant MRSA strains which are creating therapeutic problems and limiting the choice of the
rapeutic options .
Accurate and rapid identification of MRSA is essential for effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Numerous approaches that improve turnaround time for the identification of MRSA have been described such as: fluorescence tests , PCR assays , or penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antibody agglutination tests . Molecular methods for detecting resistance valuable infection-control tools by rapid and accurate identification of Staphylococci and their resistant types. Thus help in confirming patients infected by resistant bacteria. Clearly rapid detection of a specific resistance mechanism in a molecular test would allow clinicians initially to avoid potentially inappropriate treatment options . In recent years, detection of mecA by PCR is considered the gold standard for identification of MRSA .
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