alexa Microbial Malic Acid Production: Exploring New Avenues of Synthesizing a Commercially-Valuable Chemical | OMICS International
ISSN: 1948-5948
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Microbial Malic Acid Production: Exploring New Avenues of Synthesizing a Commercially-Valuable Chemical

Thomas P West*

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011, USA

Corresponding Author:
Thomas P West
Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University-Commerce
Commerce, TX 75429-3011, USA
Tel: 903 8865399
Fax: 903-468-6020
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 27, 2016; Accepted Date: June 30, 2016; Published Date: July 10, 2016

Citation: West TP (2016) Microbial Malic Acid Production: Exploring New Avenues of Synthesizing a Commercially-Valuable Chemical. J Microb Biochem Technol 8: 321. doi: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000303

Copyright: © 2016 West TP. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Abstract

In tMalic acid is a commercially-valuable organic acid that has a variety of uses. The production of malic acid from various types of biomass is being explored to a limited extent. New avenues of producing this commercially-valuable chemical by biomass-based microbial bioconversion need to be investigated. There is an opportunity to determine which avenue of microbial bioconversion is the most efficient in synthesizing this industrially-important organic acid from biomass or processing coproducts.

Keywords

Malic acid; Agricultural biomass; Crude glycerol; Microbial bioconversion

Commentary

New avenues of synthesizing the commercially-useful organic acid malic acid from biomass or processing coproducts need to be sought. Malic acid has a variety of commercial uses including as an acidulant in foods and beverages. Malic acid can also be utilized for metal cleaning, textile finishing and pharmaceuticals [1]. A polymeric version of malic acid, namely polymalic acid, may be useful in the production of biodegradable polymers [2,3]. Although malic acid was originally extracted from apple juice, it is currently synthesized by the hydration of maleic acid [1]. Annually, approximately 40,000 metric tons of malic acid is produced worldwide [1]. It has been reported that the retail price of a pound of malic acid ranges from $1.80 to $2.00 [1]. Considering the price of malic acid per pound, the use of green chemistry approaches to synthesize malic acid from low value biomass or processing coproducts could substantially reduce its price. A reduction in its price will likely increase its use in various food or non-food products.

There have been a number of recent studies that demonstrated that malic acid or polymalic acid can be synthesized by biobased microbial conversion [2,3]. It was found that a number of Aureobasidium pullulans strains were capable of producing polymalic acid from alkaline peroxide-treated corn fiber and wheat straw [2]. Another recent study indicated that a mutant strain of A. pullulans could be used to produce polymalic acid from glucose [3]. The polymalic acid produced by the fungal mutant strain was acid-hydrolyzed to form malic acid [3]. Malic acid could also be produced by strains of the fungus Aspergillus grown on the corn-based ethanol coproduct thin stillage [4]. A new study which utilized a metabolic engineered strain of the filamentous soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca showed that the strain could ferment cellulose and corn stover into malic acid [5]. As global biodiesel production continues to increase, a surplus of the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol has resulted and lowered the price of crude glycerol to about $0.01/pound [6]. A recent study has found that crude glycerol can be utilized by three strains of Aspergillus niger to produce malic acid [7]. Other fungi or yeast may also be able to utilize crude glycerol to synthesize malic acid.

Overall, the opportunity exists to use low value biomass or processing coproducts such as crude glycerol or thin stillage to synthesize the commercially-valuable chemical malic acid. From a “green chemistry” perspective, it could help reduce the reliance on petroleum-based chemicals to synthesize malic acid. Therefore, it will be necessary to explore new microbial-based approaches that will allow malic acid to be produced efficiently from various types of biomass and processing coproducts.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 8980
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2016 - May 23, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8853
  • PDF downloads : 127
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7