Reach Us +1-217-403-9671
Nanocurcumin-Based Electrochemotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: The Answer the World is Looking For | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-983X
Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Nanocurcumin-Based Electrochemotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: The Answer the World is Looking For

Raji Sundararajan*

Electrical & Computer Engineering Technology, Purdue University, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Raji Sundararajan
Electrical & Computer Engineering Technology
Purdue University, USA
Tel: 765 494 6912
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 27, 2014; Accepted Date: June 05, 2014; Published Date: June 09, 2014

Citation: Sundararajan R (2014) Nanocurcumin-Based Electrochemotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: The Answer the World is Looking For . J Nanomedine Biotherapeutic Discov 4:e131. doi: 10.4172/2155-983X.1000e131

Copyright: © 2014 Sundararajan R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery


The good news is that pancreatic cancer is relatively less common than many other cancers; it is the 12h most common cancer in the world along with kidney cancer, with 338,000 new cases in 2012 [1]. The bad news is that the survival rate is a pathetic 5-10%; this is due to lack of early detection and serious symptoms at the early stages and due to the drug resistance. The estimated 5-year prevalence of people in the world living with pancreatic cancer is 4.1 per 100, 000. It is highest in the Armenia (11.9/100,000) for men and highest in Czech Republic and Slovakia and Armenia for both men and women [1]. About 53% of pancreatic cancer occurred in more developed countries in 2012. The highest incidence is in the Europe and the North America; the lowest in Asia and Africa. In the US, an estimated 45,220 cases were diagnosed in 2013, and an estimated 38, 460 deaths [2]. Compare this with about 180-200,000 incidences of breast or prostate cancer, with 38-40,000 deaths. The drug response rate of the Cadillac drug for pancreatic cancer, the Gemcitabine is also a meagre 25%. A study of 21 pancreatic cell lines including Panc-1 showed the drug resistance of these cells to Gemcitabine. There are other research which investigate the Gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer [3,4]. The 5-year survival rate of exocrine pancreatic cancer is 14%, 12%, 7%, 5%, 3% and 1% for stages IA, IB, IIA, IIB, III, and IV respectively; it is 61%, 52%, 41%, and 15% when treated with surgery for stages I, II, III, and IV respectively [5]. The various reasons/mechanisms for drug resistance that have been reported are [6,7]:

Cellular and Biochemical Mechanisms

• Decreased drug accumulation, due to decreased drug influx, increased drug efflux, and altered intracellular drug trafficking.

• Increased inactivation of drug or toxic intermediate;

• Increased repair or tolerance to drug-induced damage to DNA, protein, membranes, decreased drug activation, altered drugtargets, altered gene expression, and so on.

In vivo Mechanisms

• Pharmacological and anatomic drug barriers, host-drug interactions, including increased or decreased drug activation by normal tissues, relatively increased normal tissue drug sensitivity.

Thus, there is a critical need for alternate therapies and electricalpulse- mediated chemotherapy, known as Electrochemotherapy (ECT) appears to be an ideal candidate for the uptake of Gemcitabine or any other promising drug. Application of appropriate voltage pulses at the correct frequency elicits both diagnostic and therapeutic responses in the cells, tissue and organ. Due to the application of voltages, charges are collected on the membrane which when exceeded the threshold level, renders the membrane permeable to external drug molecules, which otherwise are impermeable or poorly-permeable due to the membrane transport characteristics imposed by the hydrophilic/hydrophobic bilayer phopholipid bilayers of the cell plasma membranes. We obtained cell deaths in the range of 30s and 60s percent for Panc -1 cell line and in the high 60s% for Panc-28 cell line using two different electrical pulses; the first one with high intensity, low duration (microseconds) and the second one with low intensity and long duration (milliseconds). Same dosage of drug was used in all the cases. Considering that cell death was close to above 85% for the head and neck cancer cell using same dosage, the aggressiveness or the chemoresistance of the pancreatic cancer cell lines could be understood and seek alternate techniques to treat this lethal cancer.

Towards this, use of curcumin, the yellow pigment of the natural phytochemical, used for over 6000 years for its medicinal values, the Indian gold spice/herb turmeric is another excellent option. Although, curcumin is noted for its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-septic characteristics, it is not widely used for curing cancer due its limited bioavailability due to its rapid metabolic reactions. Encapsulating curcumin using polymeric nanopartciles, known as nanocurcumin and its efficacy on cancer cells are studied by both our group (on MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells) and another group on pancreatic cells. In this study on eight pancreatic cell lines by Bisht et al. [8], they studied the effect of polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nanocurcumin). The various pancreatic cancer cell lines studied include MIAPaCa, Su86.86, PL5, PL8, E3LZ10.7, BxPC3, Capan-1, and Panc-1. They were exposed to a 20x range of void polymeric nanoparticles (93-1852μg/mL). The size of the nanoparticles was 50nM. Viability study after 72 hours indicated no cytotoxicity to the cell lines. Unlike normal curcumin, nanocurcumin readily dispersed in aqueous media and it demonstrated comparable in vitro therapeutic efficacy compared to normal curcumin. Further, nanocurcumin’s mechanisms of action on pancreatic ells are comparable to that of normal curcumin, including induction of cellular apoptosis, blockade of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation, and down regulation of steady state levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα).

An addition, irreversible electroporation where-in use of a number of electrical pulses of various magnitudes and duration, without any drug is also conducted in several clinical trials with favourable results [9].

All these indicate that to control and/or cure the lethal pancreatic cancer, we need alternate therapies and electrical-pulse-mediated chemotherapy using gemcitabine and nanocurcumin and/or electrical pulses alone are possible candidates for further studies to transfer this technique from lab to the clinic.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12063
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2014 - Jan 17, 2019]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8274
  • PDF downloads : 3789

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2019-20
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri and Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

ankara escort

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

pendik escort

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2019 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7