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Journal of Nanosciences: Current Research
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Nanomaterial to Improve Ferrocement Properties for Green Buildings

Wail N Al-Rifaie1*, Nahil Kamil Fayadh2 and Waleed K Ahmed3

1Department of Civil Engineering, Philadelphia University, Amman, Jordan

2College of Engineering, University of Tikrit, Iraq

3Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAEU, Al Ain, UAE

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Wail N Al-Rifaie
Professor of Civil Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Philadelphia University, Amman, Jordan
Tel: 962791534012
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: November 04, 2016; Accepted Date: December 27, 2016; Published Date: January 17, 2017

Citation: Rifaie WN, Fayadh NK, Ahmed WK (2017) Nanomaterial to Improve Ferrocement Properties for Green Buildings. J Nanosci Curr Res 2: 108.

Copyright: © 2017 Al-Rifaie WN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Nowadays, nanomaterial has been used extensively worldwide to improve the properties of the constructional materials due to many advantages that can be achieved especially improving strength/weight ratio which is highly desired by the engineers towards a green building concept by minimizing the material used and increasing the stresses levels that the structure can carry. The present research examined the mechanical properties of nano cement mortar which can lead to improvements in ferrocement to be used in the green building system. Thus 90 cubes, 50 mm, and 500×50 mm prisms varying thickness (t=4, 6, 8 and 10 mm) were cast and tested to determine the compressive strength, and modulus of rupture, for nano cement mortar at curing age of 28 days, In addition, 50 nano-ferrocement prisms (500×50 mm) with varying the thickness (t=4, 6, 8 and 10 mm), number of fine wire mesh layers, mix proportions were cast and flexural tests were carried out to determine the composite modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture. It was observed that the compressive and flexural strengths were increased for the nano-ferrocement samples in comparison with the normal one which refers to the importance of developed mixture toward sustainable building.

Keywords

Nanomaterial; Ferrocement building; Cement mortar

Abbreviations

ACI: American Concrete Institute; ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials; CNT: Carbon Nano Tube; CNF: Carbon Nano Fibre; NSCSC: Nano Sand Cement Silica Fum Clay; MWCNT: Multiwall Carbon Nano Tube

Introduction

In general, a green building which is also known as green construction or sustainable building, refers to both a structure as well as adopting processes that are environmentally friendly and uses the resources efficiently during the life cycle of the building that from the design, material, construction, air quality, maintenance and even demolition. Green buildings must be designed to meet one of certain objective such as the use of energy more efficiently which eventually will influence positively on the reduction of the CO2 emission, and hence minimize the impact of the global warming. Many constructional trends have been implemented around the world to fulfill the green buildings requirements through the design and the material used. However, a structural system based on generic services facilities is introduced by Al-Rifaie and prefabricated ferrocement cavity walls/ and roofs within the proposed system present a series of possibilities for the solution of building construction at maximum reduction of the electrical energy. Ferrocement is recognized as a composite material of great potential made of cement- sand mortar and layers of very fine steel wire meshes. The material was found wide applications because of high tensile strength, imperviousness to water and crack free performance. The relationship between several elements such as building materials of natural and manufactured building materials and renewable energy sources and energy sources depleted should be determined.

Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete with great potential, made of cement–sand mortar and reinforced with layers of fine wire meshes with or without skeletal reinforcement [1-3]. Ferrocement is an excellent construction material due to its mechanical properties, and low cost, and it is considered to possess a high cracking strength. Cement mortar is a material used in construction of ferrocement which is cement composite material made up of Portland cement, sand, water and sometimes admixtures.

Investigators and researchers have been focusing on the substantial scientific background of the nanomaterial, where a continuous efforts have been done to improve the durability and the sustainability of concrete, and improving the mechanical properties of cementitious materials by using nano-materials [4,5]. The addition of some metal oxide nanoparticles to concretes can both reduce the permeability of concrete to ions and increase the strength of concrete, thereby improving durability. The addition Fe2O3 nanoparticles [6], SiO2 nanoparticles [7] and metal oxide containing nano clays [8] have all been shown to improve concrete and/or cement mortar properties. Properties of the cement-based composites made from the CNTs/CNFs-grown cement/ mineral admixture were presented. Experimentally, Li et al. [9] studied the mechanical properties of nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 cement mortars.

The flexural strength of a very thin ferrocement element, by using NSCSC mortar as a replacement to the normal cement mortar, usually used in ferrocement elements was examined. The measured results showed an increase the flexural strength of a very thin ferrocement using NSCSC mortar [10]. Zhang and Li [11] found that the addition of 1% by weight of binder of 15 nm diameter TiO2 to concrete refined the pore structure and increased the resistance to chloride penetration by 31%.

Oscar et al. [12] studied the effect of the reagglomeration process of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersions on the activity of silica nanoparticles at early ages when they are combined in cement matrixes. MWCNT/water/superplasticizer dispersions were produced via sonication and combined with nano silica particles in the mixing water of the cement samples. The methods and theories of in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture, including chemical vapour deposition method and microwave irradiating conductive polymers method, were summarized [13]. The addition of SiO2 nanoparticles is widely reported to be effective for strengthening concrete; both normally vibrated concrete and self-compacting concrete [14].

Al-Rifaie et al. [15] examined the compressive and flexural strength of nano cement mortar by using micro cement, micro sand, nano silica and nano clay in developing a nano cement mortar which can lead to improvements in ferrocement construction. In addition, the influence of heating on compressive strength of cement mortar, whereas ferrocement eco-housing system was able to produce very energy efficient dwellings [16].

Generally, cement-based materials containing SiO2 nanoparticles are stronger than those containing SiO2 fume [14]. This is attributed to the accelerated cement hydration, increased pozzolanic activity, reduced pore size and improved interfacial bonding between the hardened cement paste and aggregate that is associated with the decreased average particle size of the SiO2 [17]. The effect of elevated temperatures on chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength mortars with nano alumina was investigated [18]. Effect of nano clay particles on mechanical, thermal and physical behaviours of waste-glass cement mortars was investigated [19]. Finite element method was used to investigate the impact of inclusion in hypothetical nano composite [20], cracked nano composite [21], debonding between the nanofiber and the matrix [22], pre-crack existence in nanocomposite [23] as well as studying the impact of the mismatch properties [24]. Moreover, FEA has been used to investigate the effect of the nanoinclusion [25], interfacial debonding defects [26], interfacial defects [27] and fractured particulate composite [28] on the characteristics and failure of the nano composite, whereas the development of nano structural element called “nano-polymercement” which can be used for different applications [29], whereas effect of nanomaterials in cement mortar characteristics was studied by Al- Rifaie and Ahmed [30].

Towards impenimg a green building concept by improving the ferrocement properties which will reduce the material used for the construction and hence maximize the allowable stresses that can be adopted in the design of a building, the authors present a research work to examine the mechanical properties of nano particles in developing a cement mortar which can lead to improvements in the performance of ferrocement as structural elements in the structural system for green housing. Cubes and prisms were cast and tested for determining compressive strength, and modulus of rupture of nano cement mortar. The parameters considered during the investigation were micro sand, micro cement, and wire mesh layers.

Materials and Methods

Materials used

α) Micro Portland cement, conforming ASTM C150 type I.

β) Micro sand 600 μm, conforming ASTM C33-01.

χ) Fumed silica, the chemical composition is given in Table 1.

δ) Metakaoline clay (200-3) μm by burning kaoline clay up to 700°C for a period of 2 hrs. The chemical composition is given in Table 2.

ε) Wire mesh: welded square mesh used in the present work had an average wire diameter and aperture of 0.25 mm and 2.5×2.5 mm respectively. The yield strength Fy, elastic modulus Ew, and ultimate tensile strength Fu, were obtained using direct tensile tests. The test was conducted on wire mesh according to ACICode 549. The average values of modulus of elasticity (Ew), upper yield stress (Fy), and ultimate tensile stress (Fult) of wire mesh are 66100 MPa, 320.5 MPa, and 350 MPa respectively.

Specification Parameter
200(160-240) Specific surface, m2/g
3.7-4.7 pH-value
3 Loss on drying, %
>99.0 SiO2- concentration, %
Table 1: Chemical composition of (fumed silica).
Burn Loses% SO3 % SiO2,Al2O3,Fe2O3%
1.37 2.1 95.53
Table 2: Chemical composition of metakaoline clay.

Testing procedure

The nano cement mortar matrices considered during the present investigation may be summarized in the following groups:

• Group A: Micro sand/ micro cement ratio 1/ 1, 1.5/1, 2/ 1, 2.5/1, 3/1 with w:c ratio=0.4.

• Group B: Micro sand/ micro cement ratio 1/ 1, 1.5/1, 2/ 1, 2.5/1, 3/1, each with fumed silica (1% of micro cement by weight) and 10% of micro cement by weight was replaced by metakaoline clay. w:c ratio=0.4.

Compressive strength, the following tests were conducted according to ASTM C109:

a) Compressive strength at age of 28 curing days:

Twenty five 50 mm mortar cube specimens with mortar group A.

b) Compressive strength at age of 28 curing days:

Seventy five 50 mm mortar cube specimens with mortar group B.

Modulus of rupture:

The prisms considered in the present work are detailed in Table 3.

s s/c t n s s/c t n s s/c t n s s/c t n s s/c t n
1 1 4 2 11 1.5 4 2 21 2 4 2 31 2.5 4 2 41 3 4 2
2 1 6 2 12 1.5 6 2 22 2 6 2 32 2.5 6 2 42 3 6 2
3 1 6 4 13 1.5 6 4 23 2 6 4 33 2.5 6 4 43 3 6 4
4 1 8 2 14 1.5 8 2 24 2 8 2 34 2.5 8 2 44 3 8 2
5 1 8 4 15 1.5 8 4 25 2 8 4 35 2.5 8 4 45 3 8 4
6 1 8 6 16 1.5 8 6 26 2 8 6 36 2.5 8 6 46 3 8 6
7 1 10 2 17 1.5 10 2 27 2 10 2 37 2.5 10 2 47 3 10 2
8 1 10 4 18 1.5 10 4 28 2 10 4 38 2.5 10 4 48 3 10 4
9 1 10 6 19 1.5 10 6 29 2 10 6 39 2.5 10 6 49 3 10 6
10 1 10 8 20 1.5 10 8 30 2 10 8 40 2.5 10 8 50 3 10 8
Table 3: The specimens considered in the present investigation.

a) Four point bending tests were performed on 30 prisms 160×40×40 mm of mortar groups A and B after 28 curing days according to ASTM C348.

b) Four point bending tests were performed on 50 ferrocement prisms 500×50×t (t=4, 6, 8, 10 mm) using the developed nano cement mortar (Figure 1).

nano-sciences-current-research-ferrocement
Figure 1: Flexural test of ferrocement prisms. (a) Dimension details of prisms considered in the flexural test. (b) Photo of a typical ferrocement prisim under the flexural test.

Each ferrocement prisms has been tested with its two ends simply supported over as span of 450 mm as shown in Figure 1. The load from a Universal testing machine with a capacity of 150 kN with a least count of 0.01 kN was applied. During the test, the deflections at the third point of the ferrocement prisms were provided by the testing machine with a least count of 0.01 mm. Each group of prisms was cast together with three cubes of 50 mm to determine the compressive strength (fcu) at a curing age of 28 days. The following expression is used to determine the deflection at mid span:

δ(1/2)-span = 1.15 δ(1/3)-points

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test (UPV) for measuring static and dynamic modulus of elasticity: Ultrasonic Pulse transit times were measured by direct transmission method [31]. This test was carried out according to reference [5]. The Velocity of Ultrasonic Pulse transmitted through cubes 50 mm made of nano cement mortar as developed in the present investigation at 28 curing days to determine the elastic modulus of elasticity (static and dynamic) using portable ultrasonic concrete tester known as (PUNDIT). A thin layer of grease was applied on the surface to prevent dissipation of transmitted energy. The time of transit was recorded to the order of 0.1 microsecond and the path length was measured accurately in mm, after obtaining the pulse velocity (km/sec), then the elastic modulus can be estimated [5].

Results and Discussions

Tables 4 and 5 give the outcomes of the measured values of compressive strength fcu and modulus of rupture fr at 28 curing days. It may be noted that the normal cement mortar is usually used in producing ferrocement elements [5].

Mix proportion (cement: sand) by weight fcu (MPa) for normal cement mortar* fcu (MPa) for nano cement mortar*
1:1 47.15 52.13
1:1.5 51.2 58.4
1:2 38.11 43.53
1:2.5 33.27 35.71
1:3 26.36 32.18
Table 4: Measured values of compressive strength fcu
Mix proportion (cement: sand) by weight fr (MPa) for normal cement mortar* fr (MPa) for nano cement mortar*
1:1 5.46 5.73
1:1.5 5.78 5.86
1:2 4.81 5.06
1:2.5 4.33 4.72
1:3 3.52 3.66
Table 5: Measured values of modulus of rupture fr.

Compressive strength fcu=P/A in which P (N) is the maximum axial load, and modulus of rapture fr=3PL/2bd2 in which P (N) is the maximum flexural load, A=2500 mm2, L(mm) is the tested span, b=width of the prism (mm) and d=thickness of the prism (mm).

Table 6 gives the measured values of compressive strength of nano cement mortar used for producing ferrocement prisms, volume fraction of reinforcement Vf, specific surface Sr, (P/δ)av., Icomp., Ecomp., Mcr., and fr.comp. of ferrocement prisms after 28 curing days.

Sep. fcu (MPa) Vf  (%) Sr (mm-1) (P/δ)av. (N/mm) I com (mm4) E com (MPa) M cr (N.mm) f r-com (MPa)
1 50.3 5.026 50.26 9.141 276.72 53421.18 3000 21.68
2 54.12 3.351 33.51 7.772 940.2 13368.2 3000 9.57
3 6.702 67.02 9.396 962.8125 15781.98 3750 11.68
4 52.81 2.513 25.13 5.846 2223.78 4251.35 2250 4.04
5 5.026 50.26 7.384 2286.6 5222.3 3000 5.24
6 7.539 75.39 11.83 2326.79 8222.19 8250 14.18
7 48.87 2.01 20.1 6.633 4327.47 2478.77 3000 2.04
8 4.021 40.21 9.351 4450.58 3397.83 4500 5.05
9 6.031 60.31 13.744 4541.032 4894.62 9750 10.73
10 8.042 80.42 17.494 4603.845 6145.09 12750 13.84
11 55.62 5.026 50.26 9.523 284.358 54158.76 3750 26.37
12 57.2 3.351 33.51 7.623 970.752 12699.24 3000 9.27
13 6.702 67.02 10.194 1010.55 16313.5 4500 13.36
14 57.67 2.513 25.13 9.671 2292.522 6822.1 3750 6.54
15 5.026 50.26 10.466 2403.072 7043.27 3750 6.24
16 7.539 75.39 16.912 2473.824 11055.7 9000 14.55
17 58.44 2.01 20.1 7.563 4449.678 2748.7 3750 4.21
18 4.021 40.21 12.912 4666.356 4474.82 6000 6.43
19 6.031 60.31 17.597 4825.548 5897.28 11250 11.65
20 8.042 80.42 21.906 4936.098 7176.94 16500 16.71
21 45.23 5.026 50.26 4.566 288.538 25591.35 1500 10.39
22 43.9 3.351 33.51 8.417 987.475 13784.52 2250 6.83
23 6.702 67.02 11.341 1036.68 17691.6 3750 10.85
24 42.37 2.513 25.13 8.055 2330.149 5590.39 2250 3.86
25 5.026 50.26 10.963 2466.83 7187.04 3000 4.86
26 7.539 75.39 17.065 2554.3 10804.25 6750 10.57
27 45.76 2.01 20.1 9.221 4516.57 3301.64 3750 4.15
28 4.021 40.21 8.683 4784.463 2934.92 3750 3.92
29 6.031 60.31 14.271 4981.282 4633.12 8250 8.28
30 8.042 80.42 19.977 5117.962 6312.38 10500 10.25
31 32.46 5.026 50.26 4.296 297.423 23358.77 750 5.04
32 33.83 3.351 33.51 6.361 1023.012 10055.53 1500 4.4
33 6.702 67.02 5.565 1092.206 8239.88 1500 4.12
34 35.54 2.513 25.13 6.031 2410.107 4046.81 1500 2.49
35 5.026 50.26 9.798 2602.313 6088.89 3000 4.61
36 7.539 75.39 15.314 2725.325 9087.21 5250 7.7
37 32.77 2.01 20.1 7.092 4658.718 2461.85 2250 2.41
38 4.021 40.21 8.664 5035.442 2782.53 3000 2.98
39 6.031 60.31 13.577 5312.219 4133.21 6750 6.35
40 8.042 80.42 20.049 5504.425 5890.35 9000 8.17
41 31.5 5.026 50.26 2.851 306.87 15024.61 750 4.89
42 32.48 3.351 33.51 3.826 1060.8 5832.72 750 2.12
43 6.702 67.02 8.233 1151.25 11565.08 1500 3.9
44 30.42 2.513 25.13 3.208 2495.13 2079.22 750 1.2
45 5.026 50.26 6.378 2746.38 3755.64 1500 2.18
46 7.539 75.39 9.043 2907.18 5030.38 3000 4.12
47 30,68 2.01 20.1 6.451 4809.87 2168.97 1500 1.56
48 4.021 40.21 7.622 5302.32 2324.68 2250 2.12
49 6.031 60.31 11.204 5664.12 3198.9 3750 3.31
50 8.042 80.42 14.867 5915.37 4064.45 6000 5.07

Table 6: Measured values of nano ferrocement prisms.

It may be noted that each of the compressive strength and modulus of rapture value is the average of three values and each of (P/δ)av is the average of two measured values of identical prisms.

In which,

equation

equation

equation

Where, Icom is determined from the following expression:

equation

equation

Where,

Es: Modulus of elasticity of steel wire mesh

Em: Modulus of elasticity of cement mortar

N: Number of layers of mesh reinforcement

db: Diameter of mesh wire (mm)

h: Thickness of ferrocement panel (mm)

Dl: Spacing of wires aligned longitudinally in mesh (mm)

Dt: Spacing of wires aligned transversely in mesh (mm)

As it was mentioned above the static and dynamic elastic modules are determined from the curves given in Figure 2. The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) is determined using the following expression:

nano-sciences-current-research-modulus
Figure 2: Elastic modulus vs. UPV relation.

V=L/T

Where;

V: Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (km/sec)

L: Path length (mm)

T: Transit time (microsecond)

The measured values of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and elastic modulus values are presented in Table 7 together with values of static and dynamic of normal ferrocement mortar given in reference [32,33].

Mix proportion (cement/fine aggregate) by weight Nano cement mortar as developed in the present investigation Ordinary cement mortar used in ferrocement (reference )*
Pulse velocity (km/sec) Modulus of elasticity (GPa) Pulse velocity (km/sec) Modulus of elasticity (GPa)
Dynamic Static Dynamic Static
1:1 4.824 50.67 43.85 - - -
1:1.5 4.64 43.766 35.12 4.425 36.659 27.983
1:2 4.512 39.852 31.644 4.31 33.988 24.542
1:2.5 4.374 35.671 26.132 4.237 32.494 22.586
1:3 4.196 31.745 21.831 4.098 30.024 19.353

Table 7: Measured values of static and dynamic modulus of elasticity.

In Table 8 the Pu/Pcr and the ductility ratio μ=δu/ δcr in which Pu, Pcr, δu and δcr are the measured values of first cracking, ultimate loads, and first cracking, ultimate deflections respectively of nano ferrocement prisms are tabulated.

Spe. Load, kN Pu/Pc Mid-span deflection, mm µ = δu/δcr
Pcr Pu δcr δu
1 0.04 0.09 2.25 4.34 21.18 4.88
11 0.05 0.12 2.4 5.1 24.33 4.77
21 0.02 0.06 3 4.17 18.35 4.4
31 0.01 0.04 4 3.42 16.77 4.903
41 0.01 0.02 2 3.06 13.16 4.3
2 0.04 0.09 2.25 4.15 20.44 4.925
12 0.04 0.13 3.25 4.86 22.78 4.687
22 0.03 0.08 2.667 3.94 17.76 4.507
32 0.02 0.04 2 3.56 17.28 4.854
42 0.01 0.03 3 3.12 12.88 4.128
3 0.05 0.16 3.2 4.88 28.16 5.77
13 0.06 0.2 3.333 4.72 26.41 5.595
23 0.05 0.14 2.8 4.24 21.15 4.988
33 0.02 0.09 4.5 4.08 18.56 4.55
43 0.02 0.09 4.5 3.33 14.6 4.384
4 0.03 0.1 3.33 4.42 22.35 5.056
14 0.05 0.15 3 4.51 22.67 5.026
24 0.03 0.1 3.333 4.1 18.13 4.422
34 0.02 0.05 2.5 3.6 17.36 4.822
44 0.01 0.03 3 3.21 12.95 4.034
5 0.04 0.18 4.5 4.69 26.55 5.661
15 0.05 0.21 4.2 4.57 25.87 5.66
25 0.04 0.15 3.75 4.26 22.27 5.227
35 0.04 0.11 2.75 4.11 18.4 4.477
45 0.02 0.08 4 3.65 15.11 4.14
6 0.11 0.37 3.36 6.58 32.09 4.877
16 0.12 0.35 2.916 5.87 29.1 4.957
26 0.09 0.29 3.222 5.36 26.12 4.873
36 0.07 0.2 2.857 4.78 22.12 4.627
46 0.04 0.15 3.75 4.18 18.34 4.387
7 0.04 0.11 2.75 4.6 22.96 5
17 0.05 0.15 3 4.68 23.18 4.953
27 0.05 0.1 2 4.26 19.26 4.52
37 0.03 0.05 1.667 3.64 17.1 4.7
47 0.02 0.05 2.5 3.1 13.04 4.206
8 0.06 0.23 3.83 4.83 26.78 5.54
18 0.08 0.26 3.25 4.77 26.7 5.6
28 0.05 0.18 3.6 4.52 24.3 5.376
38 0.04 0.11 2.75 4.21 19.14 4.546
48 0.03 0.11 3.667 3.46 14.86 4.294
9 0.13 0.41 3.15 6.8 33.48 4.92
19 0.15 0.43 2.866 6.58 31.06 4.72
29 0.11 0.32 2.909 5.9 25.91 4.39
39 0.09 0.24 2.667 4.93 23.05 4.675
49 0.05 0.19 3.8 4.15 17.92 4.318
10 0.17 0.67 3.94 8.11 38.4 4.73
20 0.22 0.74 3.36 7.45 34.73 4.661
30 0.14 0.51 3.643 6.55 31.29 4.777
40 0.12 0.42 3.5 5.4 27.9 5.167
50 0.08 0.33 4.125 4.76 22.43 4.712

Table 8: Ductility ratio of nano ferrocement prisms.

In general, It is seen from the above tables that the highest values can be achieved by using cement mortar as developed in the present investigation with the ratio of sand/ cement=1.5.

In reference [5] tests were carried out to determine the flexural strength of normal ferrocement prisms with 22 mm thickness and 4, 6, 8, 10 wire mesh layers and mix proportion plain sand/ cement ratio of 1.5 and the measured flextural strength were 5.74, 8.42, 8.48, 10.9 MPa respectively.

It may be seen that the flexural strength values of nano ferrocement prisms as tabulated in Table 9 is higher than that of normal ferrocement.

Spe. t, mm n fr-com, MPanano ferrocement
11 4 2 26.37
12 6 2 9.27
13 6 4 13.36
14 8 2 6.54
15 8 4 6.24
16 8 6 14.55
17 10 2 4.21
18 10 4 6.43
19 10 6 11.65
20 10 8 16.71

Table 9: Modulus of rupture of nano ferrocement using sand/ cement ratio=1.5.

Conclusion

The mechanical properties of nano cement mortars as developed in the present work to improve ferrocement properties were experimentally investigated. The measured results showed that the compressive and flexural strengths measured at 28 curing days of the developed nano cement mortars were higher than that of a plain cement mortar. In addition, the flexural strength of nano ferrocement using nano cement as developed in the present investigation is higher than that of normal ferrocement prisms having 22 mm thickness and reinforced by 10 layers of wire mesh.

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