alexa New Perspectives in Cartilage Medicine: Latest Biology Insights can redirect Future Cartilage Medical Strategies? | OMICS International
ISSN: 0974-8369
Biology and Medicine
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

New Perspectives in Cartilage Medicine: Latest Biology Insights can redirect Future Cartilage Medical Strategies?

Pereira RC1*, Gentili C2, Cancedda R2,3 and Decuzzi P1

1Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genoa 16163, Italy

2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132, Genova, Italy

3Biorigen Srl, Genoa, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Rui C Pereira
Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine
Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genoa 16163, Italy
Tel: +39 010 71781 551
Fax: +39 010 71781 228
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: July 08, 2016; Accepted date: July 26, 2016; Published date: August 02, 2016

Citation: Pereira RC, Gentili C, Cancedda R, Decuzzi P (2016) New Perspectives in Cartilage Medicine: Latest Biology Insights can re-direct Future Cartilage Medical Strategies?. Biol Med (Aligarh) 8:324. doi:10.4172/0974-8369.1000324

Copyright: © 2016 Pereira RC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Biology and Medicine


Adult cartilage, a connective tissue with origin in mesenchymal cells, exists in all the entire articular surface of bones. Composed by a small number of a unique cellular type – chondrocytes – this tissue appears to be of high simplicity. This apparent simplicity masks a convoluted balance between anabolic and catabolic processes which are needed to maintain metabolically active the tissue and its extracellular matrix (ECM).

The first observation reported in literature goes back to the eighteen century, when the structure of articular cartilage and its diseases were published by Proceedings of the Royal Society [1]. Since then and until recently, it was mainstream to consider that this unvascularized, aneural, and alymphatic tissue presented a poor reparative potential due to the lack of stem/progenitor cells within its ECM and the nonexistence of a vasculature which, should supply circulating stem cells to the site of damage [2].

Chondrocytes are the only responsible cells for the growth and maintenance of the extensive ECM composed primarily by water, aggrecans and collagen type II. Full embedded in single lacunae, articular chondrocytes do not have the capacity to migrate to the lesion site, proliferate and start a repair process, which results in a very low inherent capacity of self-regeneration of this adult tissue [3]. To overcome chondrocytes intrinsic properties in the attempt to repair articular cartilage, Peterson et al. [4] proposed, in 1984, the first cell based therapy in cartilage orthopedic field. Such modus operandi was developed to overcome the limitations of the already existing approaches in the early 90’s. Brittgerg et al. published the initial results regarding the follow up after 39 months of 23 patients in 1994 [5].

Since then the notion of cartilage engineering by using stem cells, biomaterials and combination of these has evolved [6-8].

The paradigm shift came with the seminal research performed by the group of Archer. The fundamental observation of the presence of chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) within the superficial articular cartilage layer was by many considered the Willy Wonka ticket to win the battle of cartilage repair strategies [9]. Relaying on this approach, cartilage could be repaired from the roof (superficial layer) and no longer only from the foundations (bone/cartilage calcified layer). With a deeper characterization of chondrocytes the first therapeutic approach based on the presence of a resident stem cell population within articular cartilage was documented for cell-based cartilage therapy [10]. Following this original work, other researchers have very recently shown and confirmed, using different markers methodologies, the presence of CPCs on articular cartilage, i.e. the use of human platelet lysate (PL) as a serum substitute increases the percentage of CPCs cells over 2D expansion with high expression of CD133 [11]. Contrary to resident human articular chondrocytes CPCs keep their chondrogenic memoir, even with high proliferative capacity, demonstrated by the appetence to form cartilage in vivo by the use of a nude mice model [11].

More recent, the identification of CPCs derived from adult human chondrocytes was highlighted by dynamic variations in expression of the mature chondrocyte marker, such as collagen type II and mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) marker, CD146 [12]. Researchers have accessed cellular stemness grade and differentiation status by novel physical and biochemical cues during 2D cell culture. In the reported study, CPCs showed similar phenotype as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells but with a greater chondrogenic potential. More important, the same study provided evidences that CPCs were able to repair large knee cartilage defects in 15 patients, which undoubtedly make a successful translation between bench cartilage biology and cartilage medicine [12].

All together, this more recent work on CPCs increases our understanding of cartilage biology and allow us to develop more of chondrocyte-medical based therapies for near future clinical applications.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

  • 12 thInternational Conference on STRUCTURAL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    May 28-30, 2018 Osaka, Japan
  • Annual congress on Research and Innovations in Medicine
    October 15-16, 2018 Seoul, South Korea

Article Usage

  • Total views: 8859
  • [From(publication date):
    September-2016 - May 24, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8738
  • PDF downloads : 121

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7