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Nursing Education and its Cultural Congruency in the Sultanate of Oman: Case Study
ISSN: 2167-1168

Journal of Nursing & Care
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Nursing Education and its Cultural Congruency in the Sultanate of Oman: Case Study

Suad Al Junaibi*
Adult Health Nursing Department, Oman Nursing Institute, Directorate General of Human Recourses Development, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman
*Corresponding Author: Suad Al Junaibi, Adult Health Nursing Department, Oman Nursing Institute, Directorate General of Human Recourses Development, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman, Tel: 96899455354, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Aug 27, 2018 / Accepted Date: Jan 30, 2019 / Published Date: Feb 07, 2019


Background: The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural aspects of client care are satisfactory included in the nursing curriculum in Sultanate of Oman. This concept will be examined through reviewing the Omani Ministry of Health’s (MoH) approach to designing, developing, and implementing a general nursing curriculum.
Method: This case-study, qualitative design explored whether nursing education addressed cultural congruent care adequately through the review of educational policy documents, semistructured qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. The data was collected from the MoH’s nursing education decision makers, educators, students and service users (public) over a period of six months. To identify themes, data was analysed using Ritchie and Spencer’s five-stage analytical framework. Using purposeful sampling to select study participants from the MoH nursing education decision makers, educators, students and service users.
Results: The study reveal that the MoH’s current approach to nursing curriculum falls short of what Denis Lawton considers a culturally competent curriculum.
Conclusion: The study proposes to re-examine the cultural care content in the nursing education in Oman.

Keywords: Ministry of health; Oman; Nursing education; Cultural congruency; Nursing; Curriculum


Cultural aspects of care are crucial of nursing curricula in addressing the holistic needs of patients [1,2]. In the Sultanate of Oman, the expansion of Ministry of Health (MoH) healthcare facilities and services, combined with the Omanization policy, has led to an increased need for well-trained national (Omani) healthcare professionals [3]. In response to this need, Ministry of Health Educational Institutes (MoHEIs) were established and designed nursing and allied health disciplines educational programs in support of its national health policy. The MoH proclaims that MoHEIs programs were designed to emphasize culture, family, community, and the healthcare system.

There are several challenges facing nursing education in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, including Oman. The nursing curriculums are founded on the Western model of nursing education. This is due to the lack of an alternative regional healthcare model and the limited number of Arabic nursing textbooks [4]. The adoption of Western-based nursing models often conflicts with local cultural values and beliefs [5,6]. The majority of the nursing faculty are expatriates who originate from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, such as India, the Philippines, Jordan, Egypt, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. With the prevailing view that nursing is technical and low-level profession, the social image of nursing in the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries, including Oman remains negative [7]. Nurses in Oman are simply seen as a doctor’s assistant [8]. These viewpoints, when combined with a social preference for prestigious academic fields of study, and a lack of family support, has resulted in a lack of awareness about nursing as a career choice in Oman [9].

Literature Review

“Good care” is a culturally-based phenomenon [10,11]. While caring for patients, nurses may project their own culturally based values onto patients from backgrounds different to their own [12]. To address this, several cultural competence models have been developed. These include Campinha-Bacote’s et al. [13]. Cultural care requires proper communication skills, which are vital to building a strong nurse-patient relationship [14]. Culture is an important concept for individuals and communities, as it shapes the way health, illness, and quality of life are perceived [15].

Leininger et al. [1], the founder of the movement, defined culture as “the learned and transmitted values, beliefs, and practices that provided a critical means to establish culture care patterns from the people”. Yet, this definition by Leininger seems to ignore the culture of the nurse, and assumes that increased knowledge and understanding of other cultures would lead to tolerance, respect, and cause prejudiced behaviours to change [16,17]. In addition, this definition seems to promote the idea of ‘us versus them’, which may lead to discrimination. The culture care construct is a holistic perspective that involves cognitively learned, conveyed professional, and native values, beliefs, and ways of life [18]. Numerous authors emphasize that it is crucial for a healthcare system to respond to patients’ cultural values, beliefs, and traditions [19-22]. Culturally congruent care is that care is tailored for compatibility with the patient’s own values, beliefs, traditions, practices, and lifestyle [23]. Therefore, the inclusion of cultural competence in nursing education programs would provide student nurses with the knowledge and skills necessary to serve culturally diverse patients [24]. Indeed, Omani people are adamant to preserve their cultural traditions and customs, Omani nurses must understand and work effectively within this cultural context. Therefore, it is vital that the nursing programs prepare student nurses to understand the key, concerns, and emerging challenges facing healthcare service users and professionals within a cultural context to provide effective, competent care.

Central Concepts


Curriculum is based on the educational philosophy of its developers; therefore, it represents the developers’ values and beliefs concerning the acquisition of knowledge. When designing an educational program, the developer must also incorporate philosophical values and beliefs of the educational institution views of learning. According to Lawton et al. [25], curriculum is essential and a selection from a societal culture. This includes aspects of the culture or society’s way of life, knowledge, attitudes, and values perceived as important. Therefore, these aspects transmission to the next generation should be entrusted to specially-trained professionals (educators).


A profession is determined by identified work standards, a body of knowledge, and established codes of ethics. Professionals are generally defined in terms of a specific body of knowledge obtained through formal education, an expanded level of skills, a certification to verify entry to the profession, and a set of behavioural norms known as ‘professionalism’ [26]. Professionalism indicates attitudes that represent high levels of identification with and commitment to a specific profession. Attributes of professionalism include educational preparation, research, scholarship, participation in professional organizations, and community service. Using theory to maintain competence in the field and abiding by the code of nursing ethics are all part of professionalism. In the area of nursing, professionalism has focused on the expansion of the role of nursing in a rapidly evolving healthcare setting. The healthcare system is constantly changing due to societal needs, service-user demands, government policies, technological developments, and economical pressures. The development of high quality nursing care should incorporate these cultural changes into their educational programs. To enhance public perception, nursing must reflect the level of professionalism as seen in other professions.

Study questions

How do the MoH’s approaches to the nursing curriculum impact nurse education in the Sultanate of Oman?

How culturally congruent is the MoH nursing curriculum?


This is a qualitative multiple-case research design which will investigate whether Oman’s nursing curriculum adequately addresses cultural congruency [27,28]. The investigator used educational policies, semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups interviews to collect data. Using purposeful sampling, nursing education decision-makers, educators, students, and service users (public) were interviewed over a 6-month period (Table 1 and Figure 1). The participants’ inclusion criteria were nursing administrators, nursing educators, nursing students, service users or the public.

  Case 1
 Nursing Administrators
Case 2
Nursing Educators
Case 3
Nursing Students
Case 4
Service Users
Number of Participants 10 12 6 12
Method MoH Documents
  Individual interview Individual interview Focus group interview Focus group interview
Durations 20-45 minutes
Site Sultanate of Oman

Table 1: Data collection schedule.


Figure 1: Recruitment sites.

Ethical considerations

Approval was obtained from the Medical and Health Science Ethics Committee at the University of Nottingham, and the MoH Research and Ethical Review Committee in the Sultanate of Oman.

Data collection methods

Documents: Ten relevant documents were identified. These include Directorate General of Human Resources Development (DGHRD) mission/vision/objectives, curriculum competences, the nursing programme, foundation programme, nursing programme, Omani midwifery and nursing council codes of ethics, the student handbook, the MoH five-year plan, MoH mission/vision/objectives, and MoH patient satisfaction surveys.

Semi-structured interviews: The interview guide was founded on Lawton’s cultural analysis model, which is based upon the assumption that the main purpose of a curriculum is to initiate learners into the cultural heritage of society [25]. With cultural analysis applied to nursing education, the following questions were asked: What is the status of nursing education? In what ways is nursing education provision developed? How do members of the profession wish to see nursing education develop? What kind of values and principles will be involved in deciding how nursing education should develop, and how should future nursing graduates prepare for their role?.

Data analysis: All data were initially collected and tape-recorded in either English or Arabic, with the Arabic sequentially being translated into English. All tape-recoded interviews with their transcripts were reviewed for any inconsistencies. Using Ritchie et al. [29] framework analysis, the data was analysed with a case-within and cross-case approach. This analysis consists of five stages. These are familiarizing, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting and mapping and interpretation (Figure 2 and Table 2).


Figure 2: Phases of qualitative multiple case study analysis.

Within case themes and sub-themes Case 1 Nursing Admin Case 2 Nursing Educators Case 3 Nursing Students Case 4 Service
Theme 1: MoH Approach to Nursing Education
Sub-theme 1: Omanisation Policy Agree Agree Agree Agree
The country needed to be self-reliant & meet the healthcare needs of its community A A A A
Omani nurses were familiar with the indigenous language & culture A A A A
Expanding the nursing programme to regions to accommodate the students’ needs A A A N/A
Job security attracted students to nursing A A A A
Omani culture deterred Omanis from nursing (mixed work environment) A A A A
The majority of the applicants were female A A A A
Many nursing students were uninterested in nursing as a career A A A A
The MoH lowered scores required for admission to increase intake, mostly for male students A A N/A N/A
Nursing was not viewed as a proper profession by the public A A D D
Bad attitudes of nurses were related to lack of interest in nursing as a career A A A A
Sub-theme 2: Quality versus quantity in nursing education Agree Agree Agree Agree
The MoH was concerned with dealing with the shortage of nurses A A A D
The current curriculum was designed to start students at work as soon as possible A A A D
The current diploma programme meets the needs of the MoH A D D D
The programme duration was too short to cover the required knowledge & skills A A A A
A degree programme would increase students’ competency, knowledge, & skills A A A A
Entry to the nursing profession should be at the degree level A A A A
Mentorship would provide guidance and support for the students & new graduates A A A A
Ethics were an important issue to cover in the nursing curriculum A A A A
Students’ attitude was not assessed by the current nursing curriculum A A A A
Omani cultural values were not emphasised in the current program A A A A
Nursing graduates exhibit unprofessional attitudes A A A A
English could be a barrier to student learning D A A A
Cultural competency was not covered in nursing education A A A A
Theme 2: The Impact of MoH Curriculum Decisions
Sub-theme 1: Student nurse preparation Agree Agree Agree Agree
The MoH was focused on preparing students to work in hospital-based facilities A A A A
Nurses were not encouraged to be independent practitioners A A A A
Critical thinking & innovation was not encouraged A A A A
Nursing educators were not competent in their knowledge & skills A A A N/A
Some faculties did not have the qualified training to teach A A A N/A
Lack of appropriate teaching/learning facilities, e.g. libraries, laboratories A A A N/A
Students should be sent abroad for further studies A A A A
Teaching/learning methods were an issue in the current curriculum A A A A
Sub-theme 2: Stakeholder participation Agree Agree Agree Agree
Not all the stakeholders were involved in the development of the nursing curriculum. A A A A
MoH decision makers did not communicate well with all the stakeholders A A A A
Stakeholders’ needs & concerns were not reflected in the current nursing curriculum A A A A
Involvement of all the stakeholders would improve nursing education A A A A

*(Note: Agree=A, Disagree=D, Not applicable=N/A)

Table 2: Within-case themes and sub-themes from the four cases.

Reflexivity: As the researcher is the primary collected and analysed, reflexivity is essential [27,30]. According to Patton et al. [31] reflexivity allows the researcher to be aware of not only the cultural, political, social, linguistic, and ideological origins of their own assumptions but the viewpoints of the study participants. It is important that the researcher is aware of their own personal assumptions and beliefs throughout the study. Field notes were incorporated into the charting and indexing of codes and themes which enabled the investigator to track theoretical perspectives, assumptions, and emotional reactions.

Results and Discussion

Meeting the healthcare needs

When examining the data, several themes emerged. These emerging themes were, is the nursing curriculum meeting the needs of Oman. The study revealed that the MoH nursing curriculum was intended to educate future nurses needed to fill expanding healthcare facilities. Along with biomedical support courses such as anatomy and physiology, biochemistry, and nutrition, the focus of the curriculum is centre on core nursing courses. The findings support that the MoH nursing curriculum is almost entirely nursing discipline-focused, and to purely educate nurses who will be employed in the hospital setting. An example statement:

“He the minister wanted to create a cadre and have numbers and he was establishing new nursing institutes, so he needed to fill the institutes, so that is a major problem here with nursing education” Admin 5.

This is in line with the essentialist philosophy of education, which proclaims a philosophy which focusses on the process of learning rather that curriculum content. Further, the case study findings indicate that this approach has led to the general belief that nursing education should be strictly discipline focused and rich in content. The findings suggest that the Omanization of nursing education and practice is beneficial in Oman because it reduces the reliance on expatriate nurses and lessens the cultural incongruences in healthcare services. A culturally congruent nursing education would facilitate nurses to provide patients with care that is familiar, supportive, and meaningful in their cultural context [13]. By excluding international nurses, Omanization of nursing may become so parochial and inward looking, resulting in a lack of cultural diversity and mutuality. The main aim Omanization of the nursing profession is to minimize misunderstanding between the healthcare providers and service users. However, the MoH approach to nursing education seems to put emphasis on how many nurses are produced rather than the quality of education. As one subject explains:

“Repeating exams twice or more is not appropriate if we want better nurses… we need a better, rigid system that is able to filter graduates … we do not have to have 100 percent graduation, or even 90 percent” Admin 9.

These findings are in line with those of other studies where all GCC countries have adopted policies based on the beliefs that indigenous nurses are more suitable to care for population of clients within their own locals. These assumptions are based on the belief that local nurses are best able to provide good quality of nursing care because they already understand the language and culture [32]. A study conducted in Saudi Arabia, highlighted the positive impact of healthcare satisfaction and outcomes when Arabic language for communication is used. Not only does using Arabic improve client satisfaction and outcomes, speaking in Arabic decreases conflicts and miscommunication between healthcare professionals and clients [33]. Therefore, language barriers between the nurse and patient may result in miscommunication that could negatively influence their relationship [34-36]. This failure to communicate with healthcare providers not only creates a hurdle to accessing healthcare, but also challenges trust in the quality of provided healthcare [37,38]. As language is vital to how culture operates, even a nurse’s ability to speak a few words and phrases of the patient's language may increase trust by reducing communication barriers [39].

Attitudes and behaviors of nursing graduates

The image of nursing as “a dirty job” posed a challenge for the MoH. It is believed that the lack of interest for going into the nursing profession may be derived from this poor image, or a lack of awareness of the profession’s opportunities. The nature of nursing work with heavy workload, long shifts, and holiday coverage often clashes with the traditional Omani family lifestyle. Other factors such as low wages, limited professional development, and absence of support for working mothers are often stated as problematic to entering the profession [40]. These challenges detriments quality and type of applicants to the MoH nursing programme. Participants commented as follows:

“The Omani culture still sees nursing as a low job and regards the mixed (female/male) working environment as unfavourable, which means nursing is not seen as a reputable profession, and this is the cause of the students’ bad attitudes” Teacher 2.

“There are seven women in my family who are nurses… but still I did not think nursing can be the career for me because of the long hours and different shifts. I saw how hard they had to work” Nursing Student 3.

The documentary analysis indicates that the current MoH nursing curriculum does not address the negative impact of the poor image of nursing with the nursing students which is echoed in their negative attitudes and behaviors toward the nursing profession [41]. The poor image of nursing and the lack of interest in nursing as a career is a global phenomenon that is not one that is exclusive to Oman. These findings correlative with many studies which address the image and perceived status of the nursing profession [42-46]. According to a study by Al-Omar et al. [9] only 5.2% of a sample of high school students in Saudi Arabia intended to pursue nursing after graduating secondary school, while in Tanzania the nursing profession was the least popular of all showed the allied health profession, with only 9% indicating an interest. This is in line with Coombs et al. [42] that most nurses do not hold a positive sense of worth or think highly of themselves. An example statement:

“Nursing is a profession which makes us closer to Allah (God), because helping people in need is a religious duty, and Allah rewards us when we help others in need” Nursing Student 1.

Despite, the social image and professional status of nursing is still being negative in Oman and other GCC countries, there are emerging positive perceptions of nursing profession in Oman. Assisting a person in need is regarded as a religious duty and a way to be close to God (Allah). Other studies positively suggest the nursing profession as a “calling. Other studies positively suggest the nursing indicate many students are driven to select nursing by a desire to help others.

Caring: An Omani perspective

The current MoH nursing curriculum does not place emphasis on the concept of caring as an essential value in nursing education. The importance of prayer rituals in patient care were not part of the nursing curriculum. The participants interpreted the concept of “caring” to represent compassionate care and effective communication with patients and their families. Participants’ interpretation of caring is attributed to their cultural understanding of the meaning of care. Hence, they stressed that caring involved respecting the spiritual and religious needs of the patients and their families. According to the study, patients appreciate nurses’ caring approach and presence more than their nursing knowledge and skills. Examples statements:

“We know for a fact… that we have a problem with our students’ attitude… and how they approach and interact with patients in hospital when it comes to issues such as confidentiality and the rights of the patients” Teacher 7.

“Our culture, as Arabs and Muslims… even without the code of ethics, we have the code of ethics of our religion… our Islamic laws… which guide us in how to behave and act… how to respect and listen to others” Admin 10.

“In general, the MoH healthcare providers had no smile, no warmth, no care, no compassion… that is the problem with the current healthcare…. no care in healthcare” Service User 8.

When nurses try to display a caring attitude for their patients, this positively impacts the nurse–patient relationship [47]. In this study, the characteristics of care involved being physically present with the patient, conversing with the patient and employing active listening, avoiding prejudice, maintaining confidentiality, flexibility in patient care, and optimism. In Islam, caring is associated with the intention to be responsible, sensitive, and concerned about others with the drive and commitment to act rightfully [48-51]. Therefore, caring in Islam is to understand what, when, who to care for, and why. The current MoH nursing curriculum defines the value of caring as continuously demonstration of feeling and exhibiting concern and empathy for others, together with respect, fairness and transparency. This definition of caring reflects the Western Judeo-Christian values and beliefs, with a notion that nursing has a common value system [32]. This is very problematic, as it does not help the graduate nurses or educator to make culturally sensitive, appropriate decisions, actions, and innovations. Non-Western nursing educators there is recent acknowledgement that while nursing theory has universal aspects, differences in philosophy and culture that are unique among each country need to be reflected in the nursing education.

Teaching/Learning approaches

Due to limited funding and duration of nursing school, the nursing curriculum’s may not be able to include such things as the caring aspects of nursing. Limited budget allotted for and the goals of the MoH for nursing education often limit innovation in nursing education. Furthermore, this study revealed the nursing curriculum inflexibly hinders the learning process. Therefore, many of the study participants viewed the current curriculum to be ineffective in improving students’ learning capabilities. Examples statements:

“If we pass the exam the teachers will say ‘good student’… but if we fail they will only say the exam was easy and we told you everything coming in the exam… no one cares about the quality of the student.” Nursing Student 4.

“I believe the nurses are lacking the correct knowledge to deal with patients… they do not care for the patients’ needs… some patients dislike coming to hospitals.” Service User 3.

These viewpoints are in alignment with Bruner’s et al. [52] theory that uniform instruction will not meet the needs of all learners, because everyone understands the world in their own unique way. According to Bruner’s et al. [52], learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas based upon their current or past knowledge interacting with new information. In this, the learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions. Hence, the learner “focuses on the ‘how’ to learn, rather than ‘what’ to learn”. However, the findings revealed that the current nursing curriculum guides nursing students to rely heavily on teachers’ lectures, which limits the development of their critical thinking skills. As, the findings acknowledge the need to move away from the teacher-centered approach and toward a learner-centered process. Educational theorists have advocated to replace teacher-centered pedagogies with learner-centered approaches. In teacher-centered approaches, judgements about appropriate areas and methods of inquiry, legitimacy of information, and what constitutes knowledge, rest with the teacher. This often leads both students and educators to resist changing to the learner-centered approach. There are a number of factors contributing this resistance. Society’s emphasis on success leads students to avoid difficult work [53], and to develop inflated perceptions of their abilities. Traditionally, educators have taught to the students’ comfort level. Now this is the norm that students expect. Others have suggested that students and educators have low tolerances for challenges and change.

Stakeholders and nursing education

The study acknowledges that there is limited stakeholder involvement in developing MoH nursing curriculum and lack of transparency in the decision-making process. According to the participants, nursing curriculum development to reflect societal needs, should involve all stakeholders, including the community, students, and teachers. Stakeholders are consumers of healthcare, and so are well-positioned to contribute to decisions relating to the appropriate qualities and skills needed in the graduate nurses. Stakeholders bring unique perspectives to the process of nursing curriculum development. This perspective arises from the ability of stakeholders to discern compassionate care as a direct result of their personal experiences.


This strength of this multiple-case study is based on its originality in exploring the phenomena of the cultural aspects of client care in the nursing curriculum in Sultanate of Oman. The multiple-case study approach pursues phenomena bringing together multiple perceptions and experiences from a range of various sources (documents and interviews). In addition, the use of purposive sampling in selecting study participants facilitated comparison and contrast of the findings (cross-case analysis) of the four cases to develop a framework for a culturally congruent nursing curriculum (Table 3).

Cross-case themes Cross-case sub-themes
Cross-case theme 1: Providing a culturally congruent nursing service Cross-case sub-theme 1: Omanisation of the nursing profession
Advantages of Omanisation
Culturally competent nurses
Jobs for Omanis
Challenges of Omanisation
Omani culture
Lack of interest in the nursing profession
Cross case sub-theme 2: Meeting the public healthcare needs
Responding to the nursing shortage
Employing qualified nurses
Providing culturally competent nursing care
Cross-case theme 2:
Providing a culturally congruent nursing education
Cross-case sub-theme1: Competent nursing education
Teaching/ learning style
Educators’ competency
Availability of educational facilities
Cross-case sub-theme 2: Community involvement in nursing education
·  Involve all the stakeholders in the decision-making process
·  Improve communication with the stakeholders

Table 3: The generated cross-case themes and sub-themes across the four cases.


This study was conducted in the context of Oman, which limits the generalizability of the findings. However, generalizability was never intended. Secondly, the pressures of political office may have influenced the statements of the MoH nursing administrators. Also, non-Omani participants may have been cautious of making negative statements against MoH policies and policy makers. In addition, the focus group participants may have been reluctant to make statements that were too negative or critical of the MoH as an organization, due to their potential impact on the dynamics of the group.


These findings illustrate that there is minimal content in the nursing curriculum which addresses caring and cultural competency. The current method of instructor driven education needs to give way to student-centered learning to truly develop the nursing student’s critical thinking skills. Nursing educators should critically examine their teaching strategies for teaching the caring and transcultural components of nursing care. The interviewees emphasized that cultural knowledge is a critical component to prepare nurses to care for the increasingly diverse society. This increased understanding will enable nurses to be more effectively provided care that is within the cultural context of individuals, families, and communities from diverse cultural backgrounds. However, this author acknowledges that there may be other considerations such as a hidden curriculum agenda which might interfere with participant’s answers.

Future Research

Further studies are recommended on the cultural congruence of the nursing education/curriculum. Factors that facilitate or hinder students’ cultural competency to make judgements and decisions about nursing care issues in a multicultural world needs additional investigation. Also, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the nursing curriculum after implementing concepts of culture in nursing education would be beneficial.


Citation: Al Junaibi S (2019) Nursing Education and its Cultural Congruency in the Sultanate of Oman: Case Study. J Nurs Care 8:472. DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.1000472

Copyright: © 2019 Al Junaibi S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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