Nutraceutical Properties of Bangladeshi Rice Varieties
Received Date: Mar 12, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 14, 2018 / Published Date: Mar 16, 2018
Bangladesh is a diversified rice cultivable land. Rice is the main staple food and one of the most reliable energy sources from its carbohydrate portion since the prehistoric days in Bangladeshi population. A total of eighty-six high-yielding varieties (HYVs), including both inbreeds and hybrids, have been released by Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) up to now from its establishment in 1970. At present, total milled rice production is about 34.8 MT which is supposed to be enough to meet the domestic requirement of feeding approximately 170 million populations. Rice scientists especially BRRI scientists have the shoulder responsibilities to attain the goal of adequate rice production with updated HYVs. In response to this crucial demand, BRRI releases many HYVs including biotic and abiotic stress tolerant modern HYVs every year or alternate. Since we are maintaining 2.06 MT rice as surplus production and there has been comparatively less progress on addressing the quality aspects of rice, so, special emphasis should now be to focus on the rice grain quality improvement and its potential nutraceutical aspects to expose its imperative role to contest with commonly non-communicable diseases in Bangladeshi population such as heart disease, cancer, diabetics etc. Grain Quality and Nutrition (GQN) Division of BRRI has already identified some promising nutraceutically enriched modern HYVs such as black rice, antioxidant enriched rice, low glycemic index rice, anti-depressive alias gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) enriched pregerminated brown rice and micronutrient enriched rice, specially Zn enriched rice etc. Nutraceutical is defined as a food or part of a food that provides health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. The consumption of nutraceutical foods from cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, mushrooms, etc., play a pivotal role as curative and preventive measure of some non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Having versatile functional properties, rice as a food is unique, easily digestible, hypoallergenic and the source of quality protein. Due to rice’s staple role most of the required nutrients including minerals for human as of 49 are supplied by rice itself . Malnutrition in Bangladesh is thought to be alarmingly high. According to FAO (2017) and World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016), 36.1%, 14.3% and 32.9% children under 5 years of age are suffering from stunting, wasting and underweight respectively in Bangladesh, with the prevalence of undernourishment (PoU) of about 24.4 million (15.1%) [2,3]. The national prevalence of Zn deficiency is 44.6% and 57.3% in preschool age children and non-pregnant nonlactating women respectively [4,5]. Absorption of minerals such as Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ in the small intestine is therefore inhibited due to their chelation by phytate which has been known well to decrease mineral bioavailability [6-8]. Estimation of molar ratio of phytate to minerals such as Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ is seems very important parameter for the understanding bioavailability of minerals. Shozib et al.  surveyed a total of 68 high-yielding varieties (HYVs) in Bangladesh. They reported that BRRI dhan43 and BRRI dhan42, grown in upland Aus, have higher amounts of Zn at 38.4 mgkg-1 and 27.0 mgkg-1 respectively (based on 8.0 ± 0.5% degree of milling). BRRI dhan43 has other important minerals like Fe, Ca, P at the concentration of 17.0 mgkg-1, 68.1 mgkg-1 and 2.5 mgg-1, respectively. In support of bioavailability, molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn (PA/Zn); Fe (PA/Fe); Ca(PA/Ca) and P (PA/P) are found lower in BRRI dhan43 among all 15-selected high Zn enriched HYVs by 3.56, 6.93,1.24 and 25.69 respectively followed by BRRI dhan42 (data not shown). Therefore, both BRRI dhan43 and BRRI dhan42 could potentially be used as parental source for the development of micronutrient enriched rice (MER) advance breeding lines particularly for Aus (pre-monsoon or kharif-1) season. BRRI has released four Zn enriched varieties namely BRRI dhan62 (20.0 mgkg-1) and BRRI dhan72 (22.8 mgkg-1) for Aman (monsoon or kharif-2) season and BRRI dhan64 (24.0 mgkg-1) and BRRI dhan74 (24.2 mgkg-1) for Boro (dry winter or rabi). Diabetes specially type2, is considered as a major global health problem with increasing prevalence throughout the world, especially in Asia, including Bangladesh [10,11]. Epidemiological studies focus on the adverse health consequences of carbohydrate enriched food and diets which are readily and extensively digested [12-14]. The glycaemic index (GI) ranks food on the basis of their propensity to raise blood glucose. Lower GI foods and diets provoke only transient, moderate postprandial glycaemia and improve insulin sensitivity in NCDs [15-20]. In 2017, Shozib et al.  surveyed a total of 72 BRRI HYVs for low GI rice screening and three HYVs such as BR16, BRRI dhan46 and BRRI dhan69, are found as low GI rice (GI ≤ 55), 50 HYVs are found as intermediate GI rice (GI 56-69) and the rest 19 HYVs are found as high GI rice (GI ≥ 70). Rice has phenolic compounds which are able to inhibit the formation or reduction of the concentrations of reactive cell-damaging free radicals [22,23]. In 2012, Dutta et al.  reported that, among all tested HYVs of rice in Bangladesh, variety BR5 contains the highest total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In 2015, Shozib et al.  showed how dietary administration of rice improves the antioxidant status in blood of the experimental longevans rat. Pre-germinated Brown Rice (PGBR) alias germinated brown rice (GBR) enhances the bio-availability of nutrients by neutralizing phytic acid during the process of germination. PGBR has been found to be optimum for getting the highest non-essential amino acid such as gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter content . The nutrients which have increased significantly include GABA, lysine, vitamin E, dietary fiber, niacin, magnesium, thiamine and riboflavin . PGBR has been reported to exhibit many physiological effects, including anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypertension, and the reduction in the risk of some chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease . Muhammad et al.  reported that, among the tested rice HYVs, BRRI dhan31 generates high level of bioactive component, GABA at PBGR condition. Black rice consisting of black paricap or black kernel is especially rich in anthocyanin pigments, phytochemicals, proteins, vitamins, minerals and antioxidant properties. In Bangladesh, Black rice (BRRI Black Rice, BBK1) has been found with low GI values for both brown and polished rice condition (48 and 51 respectively). BBK1 has high protein content of 9.5% and higher gamma oryzanol . Other Bangladeshi local black rice varieties, such as Gabura, Muktahar and BK10, are also very promising in this regard. In grain quality and nutrition (GQN) division of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) we are trying to do research activities on nutraceutical properties of rice in Bangladesh to combat against NCDs.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
- Welch RM, Graham RD (2004) Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. J Exp Bot 55: 353-364.
- World Bank (2016) Featuring the Sustainable Development Goals World Development Indicators. 2016 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433, USA.
- Sushil P (2017) Food and nutrition security status and trends in the SAARC region. First technical draft on Towards a SAARC food and nutrition security framework and strategic plan of action. FAO TCP, pp: 4-6.
- Sunanda D, Gulshan J (2017) Different forms of malnutrition among under five children in Bangladesh: a cross sectional study on prevalence and determinants. BMC Nutrition 3: 1.
- National Micronutrient Survey 2011-12 (2013) Final Report ICDDR, B UNICEF, Bangladesh GAIN Institute of Public Health and Nutrition January 2013.
- Rimbach G, Brandt K, Most E, Pallauf J (1995) Supplemental phytic acid and microbial phytase change zinc bioavailability and cadmium accumulation in growing rats. J Trace Elements Med Bio 9: 117-122.
- Sandstead HH (1991) Assessment of zinc nutriture. J Laboratory Clin Med 118: 299-300.
- Graf E, Eaton JW (1984) Effects of Phytate on Mineral Bioavailability in Mice. J Nutrition 114: 1192-1198.
- Shozib HB, Jahan S, Chandra Das S, Alam S, Amin RB, et al. (2017) Mineral Profiling of HYV Rice in Bangladesh. Vitam Miner 6: 164.
- Chan JC, Malik V, Jia W, Kadowaki T, Yajnik CS, et al. (2009) Diabetes in Asia epidemiology, risk factors and pathophysiology. J Am Med Assoc 301: 2129-2140.
- Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, et al. (2011) National, regional and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2.7 million participants. Lancet 378: 31-40.
- Brand MJ, McMillan J, Katherine S, Caterson I (2009) Dietray glycemic index: health implications. J Am Coll Nutr 28: 4465-4495.
- Hu B, Van Dam RM, Liu S (2001) Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 44: 805-817.
- Sluijs Beulens JW, Spijkerman AM, Grobbee DE, Van der Schouw YT (2010) Dietary intake of total, animal, and vegetable protein and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL Study. Diabetes Care 33: 43-48.
- Brand J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S (2003) Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 26: 2261-2267.
- Dickinson S, Brand-Miller J (2005) Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opinion Lipidol 6: 69-75.
- Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J (2008) Glycemic response and health a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 87: 258-268.
- Marsh K, Brand-Miller J (2008) State of the art reviews: glycemic index, obesity and chronic disease. Am J Lifestyle Med 2: 142-150.
- Opperman AM, Venter CS, Oosthuizen W, Thompson RL, Vorster HH, et al. (2004) Meta-analysis of the health effects of using the glycaemic index in meal-planning. Br J Nut 92: 367-381.
- Wolever TM, Mehling C (2002) High-carbohydrate-low-glycaemic index dietary advice improves glucose disposition index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Br J Nutr 87: 477-487.
- Shozib HB (2017) In vivo screening for low glycemic index (GI) rice varieties in Bangladesh and evaluate the effect of differently processed rice and rice products on GI. Bio J Sci Tech 5: 1-8.
- Victor VM, Rocha M, Sola E, Banuls C, Garcia-Malpartida K, et al. (2009) Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Curr Pharm Des 15: 2988-3002.
- Wahle KW, Brown I, Rotondo D, Heys SD (2010) Plant phenolics in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Adv Exp Biol 698: 36-51.
- Dutta AK, Gope PS, Banik S, Makhnoon S, Siddiquee MA, et al. (2012) Antioxidant properties of ten high yielding rice varieties of Bangladesh. Asian Pacific J Tropical Biomedicine, pp: 99-103.
- Shozib HB, Jahan S, Bhowmick S, Hoque F, Chakma D, et al. (2015) Dietary administration of rice in improving the antioxidant status in Long-Evans Rat. Bio J Sci Tech 2: 1-7.
- Patil SB, Khan MK (2011) Germinated brown rice as a value-added rice product: A review. J Food Sci Technol 48: 661-667.
- Spanier AM, Shahidi F, Parliament TH, Mussinan C, Ho CT, et al. (2000) Flavor, health and nutritional quality of pre-germinated brown rice. Presented at Int Chem Congr Pac Basin Soc in Hawaii.
- Wu F, Yang N, Toure A, Jin Z, Xu X (2013) Germinated brown rice and its role in human health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53: 451-463.
- Siddiquee S (2017) BRRI dhan31 generate elevated level of bioactive component, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at pre-germinated brown rice condition. Int J Sci Res 6: 511-513.
- Shozib HB (2016) Black rice research initiatives in BRRI. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Newsletter, December Edition.
Citation: Shozib HB (2018) Nutraceutical Properties of Bangladeshi Rice Varieties. Vitam Miner 7:e152. DOI: 10.4172/2376-1318.1000e152
Copyright: © Shozib HB. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 754
- [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Oct 16, 2018]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 713
- PDF downloads: 41