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On n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, andlambda;)<sub>n</sub> Designs | OMICS International
ISSN: 2168-9679
Journal of Applied & Computational Mathematics
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On n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, λ)n Designs

Manjusri Basu* and Debabrata Kumar Ghosh

Department of Mathematics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal-741235, India

*Corresponding Author:
Manjusri Basu
Department of Mathematics, University of Kalyani
Kalyani, West Bengal-741235, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received January 18, 2013; Accepted March 25, 2013; Published March 29, 2013

Citation: Basu M, Ghosh DK (2013) On n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, λ)n Designs. J Appl Computat Math 2:125. doi: 10.4172/2168-9679.1000125

Copyright: © 2013 Basu M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

In this paper, we define a new unifom t-(v, k, λ)n design on n-dimension. We illustrate with examples this design for n=2 and n=3. For n=1, we show that this is a t-(v, k, λ) design. We consider the cases of symmetric and Steiner system of uniform t-(v, k, λ)n design.

Keywords

t-(v, k, λ) design; Symmetric design; Steiner design

Introduction

A t-(v, k, λ) design is an ordered pair (X, B) where X is a v-set of points and B, called block set of b blocks such that each point lies on exactly r blocks, each block contains k points of X with the property that every t-subset of X is contained in exactly λ blocks where t ≤ k ≤ v [1,2].

The necessary conditions for holding a t-(v, k, λ) design are as follows:

1. vr=bk

2.

Corollary 1: For any t-(v, k, λ) design if i ≤ t then number of blocks containing a given i-subset of the points is a constant

Corollary 2: Any t-(v, k, λ) design holds design, where 1 ≤ v2 ≤ v1< .

Definition 1: A t-(v, k, λ) design is said to be a symmetric design if v=b.

In this paper, we define an n-dimensional t-(v, k, λ)n design. We describe this design with illustrative examples for n=2 and n=3. We also show that it is a t-(v, k, λ) design for n=1.

n-dimensional Uniform Design

Definition 3: Let X={X1, X2, . . . , Xi, . . . , Xn}, where Xi={xi1, xi2, . . . , xip, . . . , xiv} be an n-dimensional set, where Xi={xi1, xi2, . . . , xip, . . . , xiv} of cardinality v and {x1l, x2m, . . . , xip, . . . , xnu} is defined a node of X where 1≤ l, m, . . . , p, . . . , u ≤ v so that the total number of nodes of X is v. We define X is an n-dimension of order v. Let B={B1, B2, . . . , Bj , . . . , Bb} of cardinality b, called block set, of order k (≤ v) the block Bj ⊆ X ∀ j, Bj contains total kn nodes in which every element of Bj contains kn-1 nodes and occurs in exactly r blocks. Also let T={T1, T2, . . . , Ti, . . . , Tn} is an n-dimension of order where Ti ⊆ Xi ∀ i and t ≤ k ≤ v, each element of Ti contains tn-1 nodes and Ti contains total tn nodes such that every Ti occurs in exactly λ blocks. Then the ordered pair (X, B) is defined to be an n-dimensional uniform design and is denoted by t-(v, k, λ)n design.

The necessary conditions for holding t-(v, k, λ)n design are as follows:

1.

2.

Corollary 3: If t-(v, k, λ)n design is a t-design, i ≤ t, then number of blocks containing a given i-subset of the points is a constant

Corollary 4: Any t-(v, k, λ)n design holds design, where 1 ≤ v2 ≤ v1<v.

It shows that t-(v, k, λ)n design holds all the necessary conditions and the corollaries of t-(v, k, λ) design for n=1.

Definition 4: A t-(v, k, λ)n design is said to be a symmetric designif

Definition 5: A t-(v, k, λ)n design is defined as a Steiner system if λ=1 and denoted by S(t, k, v)n.

Theorem 1: If t=k, then t-(v, k, λ)n design is Steiner.

Example 1: Let X={X1, X2} Where X1={1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, X2={a, b, c, d, e} i.e., X is 2-dimensional of order 5 i.e., n=2, v=5. We write a node of X as (i, j) where i ∈ X1 and j ∈ X2. Therefore we have the following nodes:

 a b c d e 1 (1,a) (1,b) (1,c) (1,d) (1,e) 2 (2,a) (2,b) (2,c) (2,d) (2,e) 3 (3,a) (3,b) (3,c) (3,d) (3,e) 4 (4,a) (4,b) (4,c) (4,d) (5,e) 5 (5,a) (5,b) (5,c) (5,d) (5,e)

1. Now we construct the block set B of order 4 and are given below:

Each row or column of Bj, 1 ≤ j ≤ 25 is called the element of Bj. Therefore, we have v=5, k=4, b=25 and r=4. Hence it holds 4-(5, 4, 1)2, 3-(5, 4, 4)2, 2-(5, 4, 9)2, 1-(5, 4, 16)2 designs. Also it satisfies all the necessary conditions and the corollaries of the n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, λ)n Design.

Each row or column of Bj, 1 ≤ j 100 is called the element of Bj. Therefore, we have v=5, k=3, b=100, r=6. Hence it holds 3-(5, 3, 1)2, 2-(5, 3, 9)2, 1-(5, 3, 36)2 designs. Also it satisfies all the necessary conditions and the corollaries of the n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, λ)n Design.

Example 2: Let X={X1, X2, X3} Where X1={1, 2, 3}, X2={1, 2, 3}, X3={1, 2, 3} i.e., X is 3-dimensional of order 3. We write {X1, X2, X3} as (i, j, l) where i ∈ X1, j ∈ X2 and l ∈ X3. Therefore we have the following nodes (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Cube of length 3.

3. Now we construct the block set B of order 2 and are given in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Block set B of order 2.

Each plane of Bj, 1 ≤ j ≤ 27 is called the element of Bj. Therefore, we have v=3, k=2, b=27, r=2. Hence it holds 2-(3, 2, 1)3, 1-(3, 2, 8)3 designs. Also it satisfies necessary conditions and the corollaries of the n-dimensional Uniform t-(v, k, λ)n Design.

Conclusion

In this paper, we introduce a new design on n-dimension. The existing one dimensional t-(v, k, λ) design has many applications in code authentication, optical orthogonal codes, erasure codes and information dispersal, group testing and superimposed codes software testing, game scheduling, disc layout and interconnection network, threshold and ramp schemes etc. But in practical, code authentication (Fibonacci coding/ decoding) where Fibonacci coding is defined by:

Game scheduling (multi-criterion), multi drop networks, software (multi-purposes) testing, threshold and ramp schemes etc. are in more than one dimension. Hence the n-dimensional design has more applications in real world problems disk layout and striping, partial match queries of files etc.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of the paper and also for their thoughtful, constructive comments and suggestions that greatly improve the content and presentation of the paper. The second author thanks UGC-JRF for financial support of his research work.

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