Institute of Molecular biology, NAS RA, Armenia
Received Date: March 29, 2017; Accepted Date: March 29, 2017; Published Date: April 05, 2017
Citation: Zanginyan H (2017) Opinion about Nitric Oxide Production in Cultured Endothelial Cells. J Res Development 5: e105.
Copyright: © 2017 Zanginyan H. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The work is certainly valuable and interesting, given the modern preference for herbal preparations chemical. It completed a large volume of research. The methods are modern, but this work does not provide complete information about the herbal preparation. If the drug is a flavonoid, then it is known that flavonoids are antioxidants. It is ligamentally that, under the influence of this herbal preparation, the amount of NO should be significantly reduced, but in this work dosages are indicated for which NO is induced.
However, it is known from literature data that the term "nitrogen oxide" (or "nitric oxide") refers to the reduced form of nitrogen monoxide (NO) with a half-life of 2 to 30 seconds. NO is a colorless gas, soluble in water and fats, with unique physiological properties. Chemically, NO is a small lipophilic molecule consisting of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom and having an unpaired electron, which turns it into a highly reactive free radical that freely penetrates through biological membranes and readily reacts with other compounds.
In the body, NO is synthesized by cells from the amino acid L-arginine. This process is a complex oxidative reaction catalyzed by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS), which attaches molecular oxygen to the final nitrogen atom in the guanidine group of L-arginine.
There are three known types of NO-synthase. Neuronal (nNOS, type I) and endothelial (eNOS, III type) NO synthases are enzymes located in endotheliocytes, neurons, platelets, neutrophils and other cells. Their activity depends on the presence of calcium and calmodulin and provides neurotransmission in nitrergic neurons, relaxation of blood vessels and smooth muscle organs, antiadhesion and antiaggregation of circulating blood cells, regulation of synthesis and secretion of hormones [1-5].
Inducible NOS (iNOS, type II) is rapidly activated by the action of bacterial products, inflammatory cytokines and active forms of oxygen in immune, endothelial, smooth muscle cells, providing a much larger amount of NO synthesis than other isoforms .
Inducible NOS (iNOS, type II) is rapidly activated by the action of bacterial products, inflammatory cytokines and active forms of oxygen in immune, endothelial, smooth muscle cells, providing a much larger amount of NO synthesis than other isoforms . The activity of iNOS does not depend on the presence of calcium. The main function of the NO produced by it is participation in immune processes.
This membrane-penetrating molecule is an important signal regulator of many processes, including mitochondrial respiration and the formation of ROS.
NO with a greater affinity than oxygen, binds to cytochrome oxidase, thereby inhibiting mitochondrial aerobic metabolism and controlling the rate of oxygen entry into the respiratory chain. With intensive generation of ROS, NO, interacting with radicals promotes the generation of reactive peroxynitrate .
In view of the above written there are some questions and suggestions to the author about the investigation.
For a more scientifically popular explanation of this article is necessary to describe more detailed about antioxidant effect of Calycosine. It is recommended to describe more detailed the extraction of Calycosine. The article will be more informative if Calycosin dose/ effect table will provided in it.