Received date: December 05, 2014; Accepted date: December 17, 2014; Published date: December 27, 2014
Citation: Abbott H, John M (2015) Ordinary and Extraordinary Management and the Rational Model. Int J Econ and Manage Sci 4:220. doi:10.4172/2162-6359.1000220
Copyright: © 2015 Abbott Haron et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Institutions will adopt management method that best suits their functions . Nevertheless, some organizations choose methods that end up stifling the operations and growth of its members. This frequently results from the lack of knowledge on the appropriate methods and their effects. However, the anxiety of losing power can also force some people in management to assume use a particular method . This is occasionally done at the expense of the organization’s progress. In other instances, existing management may lack acceptable skills to run a given method effectively . This therefore calls on the management to do detailed research to find out which scheme to apply and when. Otherwise, the organization may not be able to realize its goals even if all resources are available .
Ordinary management refers to a category of management, which is practiced when the managers of an organization have a common understanding of the basic and common models or paradigms necessary to run the organisation in an ordinary and none-exceptional way . Extraordinary management refers to challenging and building on the existing models by questioning them and creating new and upto- date ones . This process can be accompanied by contradictions and tension .
Ordinary management is founded on a legitimate managerial system, which is bureaucratic, hierarchical and has officially approved philosophy. It highlights consensus, team-building and conventionality among executives. It is progressive and incremental modification that uses a rational approach to strategy. In addition, control is largely negative feedback control type, whereby no deviance from the standard performance patterns is allowed. This type of management consequently requires a high degree of certainty and probability in the business environment .
Extraordinary management has some interesting features as well; it has an unplanned and unstructured system of self-organization which operates through a system of political contacts and networks within the organization . These are frequently working against the authorized hierarchical and bureaucratic structures. Moreover, it has an organizational learning procedure from which creative and pioneering directions are formed. In addition, it builds on the tacit knowledge, which refers to the unstated or unconscious knowledge of the organisation. This knowledge comes out as consciousness or expertise in a given area rather than communicated plans and instructions. Furthermore, this type of management does well when the organization is near the edge of dissolution and/or the deeply held norms are questioned. Finally, the participants under this approach do not prize a particular goal; as an alternative, they make illogical decisions that are focused on gaining members’ commitment .
Parker and Stacey  defines rational model as management’s approach for using logical procedures to arrive at decisions within the organization. This model assumes that company decisions result from a unified process whereby the selected substitute is supposed to maximize the organization’s values. If we adhered to such assumptions when making decisions; then, the decisions reached are said to be rational. The rational model sets out eight stages that a manager should follow while making decisions .
Step one involves monitoring the decision environment, this involves probing internal and external environment to find out any deviances from the plan. Step two is when the manager describes the decision problem, whereby the manager categorizes the important details of the problem. This comprises of finding out who is affected, when and where as well as the effects of the problem on the organization’s undertakings. Step three involves determining the target goals that are to be attained in case a decision is reached. Step four is diagnosing the problem which involves excavating below the surface to find out the real cause of the problem.
The fifth step is when the manager is supposed to develop alternative solutions that can help the organisation in achieving the desired outcomes; this involves pursuing ideas from other people as well. Step six deals with evaluation of alternatives, which might involve the use of the manager’s knowledge or statistical techniques to determine the likelihood of success of each alternative. In step seven the manager selects the best alternative that has the highest chance of succeeding based on outcomes of the analysis of the desired objectives. Finally, the implementation of the chosen alternative, whereby the manager gives instructions on how the decision is to be carried out.
Managers sometimes are unable to follow the ideal technique while making decisions due to various reasons . These include time pressure whereby some problems need quick decisions and therefore cannot be solved through using lengthy processes. During other occasions, the decisions being made may be so numerous that the manager may not afford to go through the painstaking procedure in solving each of them . In spite of these challenges, managers often use this model when there is less rivalry and when issues are better understood .
It is obvious to see that both ordinary and extraordinary management can co-exist in an organization . Nevertheless, management must be able to identify the type of problems that are fronting the organization so that they are able to decide on the best approach to use in tackling the problem . This is because each method has its own adverse effects. Consequently, any wrong use or extreme use of any of them, will spontaneously cancel the benefits it can bring to an organization. This means that through ordinary management, efficiency and order will be encouraged. On the other hand, imagination and good relationships can be stimulated through extraordinary management .
The rational model is a management approach that uses organized steps in the decision-making process. It is accepts that when a manager follows the steps; they will arrive at a decision, which if executed will add the most value to the organization. Nevertheless, the use of this method is limited by some challenges that face managerial decisions .