University of Central Punjab, 1-Khayaban-e-Jinnah Road, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan
Received Date: January 03, 2015; Accepted Date: April 24, 2015; Published Date: April 30, 2015
Citation: Farooq K (2015) Organization Citizenship Behaviour a Key for Employee Retention: An Empirical Investigation from Systematic Institutional Industry Pakistan. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 3:151. doi:10.4172/2332-0761.1000151
Copyright: © 2015 Farooq K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Data collected from 200 respondents that have been completed sixteen year of education and working as a lecturer or senior managerial post in different public and private universities of the Pakistan. 250 questionnaires floated but only 200 received. In this research we examine the relation among employee engagement, mentoring and employee retention with moderating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Research is based on limitation. Significance of research is the moderation role of organizational citizenship behavior. Research shows that there is a positive and highly significant relation among employee engagement, mentoring with employee retention, with moderating role of organizational citizenship behavior. We discuss limitation, direction for future research and managerial implication of this research.
Human resource management and organization behavior theory suggests that proper utilization of the resources provide effective and efficient outcomes to the organizations . Human, yet undiscovered being and the most complex creature of all . Human are always interesting subject for research, its efficacy increase to know about its behavior. Management sciences make huge contribution to understand human behavior . But that’s not enough to understand, especially in the current environment where past methods for organization evaluation and prediction for future have expired . And world is going in global scenario. In this environment, organizations are going to see do best with minimum resources and efficient performance which provide employees satisfaction and loyalty and that can be achieved only through organization citizenship behavior . To understand human behavior in organization, our contribution is to understand the organization citizenship behavior and its moderating role between employee engagement, mentoring and retention to reduce turnover. Management literature provides the evidence that human resource outcomes provide the organizational performance . Retention of the employee in any organization is the major activity which is performed by the HR department. Employees are the main assets of the organization. Many organizations believe only in its peoples. These are the peoples who are reliable and can prove themselves as an edge of company. Organization in current scenario spent too much on their HR department. Peoples are the human capital of the organizations. Their experiences knowledge and talent are main strength of organization. Attracting and retaining competitive staff in any organization is the main strategy of the organization. In case of education sector, universities are also engaged to attract highly competitive staff to include in their workforce. In universities, this is the service sector organization so that they are directly known from their workforce traits and its culture which is adopted in the organization. In Pakistan a huge shift happened in the 2001, when higher education commission started to operate its function in the education sector. In this case many new universities started functioning in the private sector. They start their work for betterment of education in the Pakistan. In this case the staff which was already working in the universities is moving towards other universities and they are not retained with one university in the beginning of their career, because different universities are offering lucrative packages for them. But some of them are loyal to their institute for many years. So question arises that what are the main reasons in this scenario with the retention of that employee. We here discuss how to retain the suitable employee in the universities of Pakistan. Many studies have been conducted on this research. Directors and vice chancellor are always willing to know that what are secretes for retention of the employees. Teachers leave their jobs for low salary but this is not the only reason. There may be many other causes for the turnover of the employee in the organization . Pay role packages of all organization have strong impact on employees but this is not the only reason. Through pay structure organization can make edge for short term only. There are so many issues which can be exist in the organization, So that the teachers or the staff cannot bear the package, create conflict with the organization workforce and then they leave the organization. Compensation has the large contribution towards the employee retention but there are so many other factors which create effect on the organization retention policy. These other factors include are working condition, Personal satisfaction, career development . These factors are determined by the researchers in the retention of teachers. They argued that the retention is affected by these variables. In Pakistani environment because the nature of environment is different and cultures, and values for the teacher at different level of teaching is different so three others variables are discussed that are Mentoring, Employee engagement and with moderating role of organizational citizenship behavior on employee retention. Different specialized peoples are delivering lecture to same class. Because in class there are different subjects and different teachers are attached to one class. And all teachers have different personality, attitude, behavior and teaching style. To reduce conflict and improvement and retention of teachers there should be a plan for new teachers in universities. For providing this solution, we try to find the impact of job engagement and mentoring on teacher’s retention. And our respondents are the teachers of the universities that are from private and government sector and their minimum education was sixteen year.
Organization citizenship behavior can exist in individuals, group and at organizational level. In previous research defined it in four terms, altruism, civic virtue, courtesy and conscientiousness [6,7]. Altruism is the behavior that helps other in the organization. Civic virtue is the responsibilities of employees which he adopts in its involvement in the organization political environment; courtesy is the preventing of the problem through keeping aware about your decision that may affect organization employees . Now research shows that Organization citizenship behavior OCB is based on number of factors such as job satisfaction, justice, transformational leadership, organization support . Organizational citizenship behavior is defined as a person who makes his role, duties, performance and official job performance and creates sustainable environment for the organizational goals . OCB is the voluntary behavior of the person that is not mentioned in the rewards and compensation . However, this attitude contributes in the organization overall performance and effectiveness . OCB is not defined in the job description but it contributes in the affectivity of job and duties of employees in organization. OCB is defined in two dimensions in which one is intra role and other is extra role behavior. Researcher stressed on consideration of OCB as extra role of employee for organization . Job description is not specifically defined; it does not cover all aspect of job. Job description varies from person to person because of their behaviors . OCB is defined as contribution of employees in positive and constructive manners for the organization . OCB is behavior of the employee towards their job in which they try to do more for the performance of organization then what is expected from them . Employee satisfaction is not effective contribution in employee performance but there is citizenship behavior of employee . Those employees who are doing part time job they focused on economic achievement rather than social achievements. They perform only those activities which are required from them in the job and not motivated for other social values, because they are not rewarded for this purpose . Helping other is the proactive approach which requires more effort . Organization citizenship is the voluntary services that are provided by employees of the organization when they are motivated and loyal to the organization, motivation and loyalty are not the only two reasons for the organization citizenship behavior but this is also influenced by the culture and society of the employees. Organization citizenship behavior is concept that “in the aggregate” makes for a more effective organization . Organization citizenship creates employee retention in the organization. It reduces the turnover rate of the employees. OCB help employees to retain in employee. In this study we use OCB as a moderating variable that will create retention of employee that if OCB in organization exists than turnover rate is also decreases. Employee turnover can be influenced by organization effectiveness because more talented people come with superior goals and satisfaction . And organization effectiveness comes through people that are influenced by organizational citizenship behavior . Previous research shows that if the employee turnover increases then the organization effectiveness is decreases, there is inverse relation between employee turnover and organizational performance . Job embeddedness can be created by the sense of belonging, deep ties and building community within the employees and that job embeddedness can help to understand the reason of employee resignation . Promotion of job embeddedness creates employee retention . If OCB level is high commitment towards organization goal is also high . OCB is key element and asset of organization that is difficult to replicate . One of the three types of OCB is loyalty of employee and in research it is proved that employee loyalty improve employee retention . When you have to do more with less, then engage your employee in difference with surviving and thriving . Show importance of employee engagement in organization, towards its efficiency and performance. Employee can provide edge to the organization. Employees are the force which gives the competitive edge to organization through their work with effectively and efficiency. Employee engagement is the involvement of the employee towards organization goals, values and vision. They can provide best strategies to the organization. If employees are engaged then they have the role in the organization and then ultimately their motivation level increases. Employee engagement is the degree of employee alignment . How many employees are aligned towards organization vision and mission? The engagement of employee can be produced by the strategies that are used to achieve the organizational goals. Employee engagement is that what the mission is; they believe in it and know what to do . Employee engagement is level of commitment towards organization and its value . Employee engagement is the willingness and ability to contribute in the organization success . Research shows that engagement of employee powerfully related to the productivity, safety, employee efficiency, employee retention and also increases the financial performance . It is best to know for the organization that how much employee’s proportion is engaged to their job and organization rather than to know about the engagement of the employees towards both job and Organization . Employee engagement of the workforce also creates the increase in the financial performance . Employee engagement is the term which is term refers to his involvement of the employee in the organization. In this involvement the employees are perform their task related activities. And they do the job which is related to their task and responsibilities . Research shows that employee engagement is too much important but it is harmful when doing nothing with this information which is produced from the employee engagement it shows and create feeling in the employees that their productivity is not effective and have no role in the organizations which decrease their motivation level . Their motivation level decreases which give inefficiency to the organization which is alarming. If employees are performing the job according to their specification, then they will feel comforts and think positive about their job that will create loyalty in the employee mind. Employee engagement has a direct relation with the Job satisfaction . Job involvement, intrinsic motivation and commitment towards their work are the construct of measuring the perception about job about their organization . Employees that are involved with their job and engaged with job are mostly satisfied because they feel proud about their job . Employee engagement and satisfaction shows the general ability across companies in the co relation with loyalty, satisfaction, and employee turnover, employee engagement towards the employee satisfaction is slightly higher correlation . In recent years there is serious concerned about the growth and support of employees, that’s all for induction of new employees . Although in secondary schools teachers are supporting new and youngsters who are new comers in the schools but the jobs of teachers in universities and degree awarding schools are largely done with isolation from their colleagues . Mentoring is the process of coaching and training to new employees in the organization or same employee when getting new task and job satisfaction. Coaching is the method with the aim of self-actualization through the learning and development process . Overall purpose of mentoring is to providing the guidelines to teachers about culture of schools . In previous two decades mentoring becomes an effective tool for induction of new teachers in schools . Mentoring is the process in schools for the new teachers so that they interact with their colleagues and know maximum to each other about their job through this pairing . Mentoring is simply in the short run and its monitoring is also difficult in case of evaluation of the mentor program is simply impossible . Research that is done on the mentoring of the new teacher shows the positive relation of the teacher’s satisfaction . In mostly cases the new teachers which choose the teaching profession have not gone through mentoring process that is likely to support them . A research by Washington D.C 2004 for its partner schools shows that in beginning years the teachers who are mentored through their schools program are in less ratio of leaving the schools in their beginning years. And mentoring program that is well designed reduces the attrition between teachers. Studies show that mentoring program shows the positive impacts on teacher’s retention . Coaching of teacher is difficult task mostly in long period of time. This is become difficult when we think that how we will help them in that way they improve their performance and develop them on continuously basis . When mentoring process is started then the organization employee retention is also increased . Due to increase in enrolment there should be a place where teachers should be mentored for their growth and efficiency according to new techniques and methodology . Understanding of culture has positive impacts on the teacher’s retention and learning . Teacher mentoring program should be formed as a way that provides opportunities for learning and discussion about goals, opportunities for mutual observation and reflection . Previous research shows that there is positive impact of mentoring on teacher retention . Effective mentoring not only helps teachers for retention but it also provide outcome of students retention . Previous research shows that there is significant relation between teachers leaving attitude and their scores in employment test. Teachers which have high grades and strong academic career leave jobs in their first year . A survey after mentoring program shows that there is positive experience of teachers who are mentored in their first year and others who are not mentored shows negative experience . In mentoring program there should be taken care in mind that some new comers who are new only in new schools, while others are those who starting their careers through teaching . Due to variation of these inputs there should be programs set according to the new comers and their jobs level. Through this program setting techniques we can retain highly efficient and effective people in schools that have also strong academic background . Of course this systematic division can simply turn into unclear circumstances .
For purpose of research we collect data from two different data sources, Primary data and secondary data. Through secondary data we select articles that are related to organizational citizenship behavior, employee retention, and job engagement and mentoring of the employee. Primary data collection is the technique which used for first time data collection. We collect our data through questionnaires. We develop some questionnaires that we think that give and help us to get accurate data which is required to us. In research we used some previous questionnaires that are tested and used by different researchers. We used scale method for collection of data because the questions that we develop are easy to measure on likart scale. Every question has five options starts with strongly disagree to strongly agree. There was one for strongly disagree and five for strongly agree and number three for neutral. Our respondents completed their sixteen year education and working as teachers in different universities (Figure 1).
H1: Employee engagement has a positively related to employee retention.
H2: Mentoring has positively related with employee retention.
H3: Organization citizenship behavior moderates the relation between employee engagement, mentoring and employee retention.
Output of SPSS helps us for interpretation our data and give results to analysis of data. First we check the reliability of data. Questions that are filled by our respondent interpreted through this software and we check the reliability of our data. Through this analysis we examine that our data is reliable and we can use it for supporting our hypothesis. To check reliability we analyze our data and find the alpha value of data. We conclude mean of all questionnaires and through mean we calculate alpha value of our data. Alpha value of our data is 0.727.
Table 1 shows the cronbach’s alpha value which is reliable value for data. Previous research shows that data value for alpha should be more then 0.7. If value will be low then we cannot relay our data. There are some mistakes in collection of data or any problem in questionnaires. Our value for alpha is good and we can rely on this value. We can run next analysis for proving hypothesis. If our value for alpha will be low then 0.7 then we cannot rely on this data. There are some problems in the data that is disturbing the reliability. After calculation of alpha value we compute data for proving our results. For this purpose we run the correlation analysis in SPSS and find table for correlation. We also compute standard deviation and means of all variables which we select for our study. Tables show the all variables values of standard deviation, mean and correlation analysis of variables.
|Cronbach’s Alpha||No of Items|
Table 1: Reliability Statistics.
Table 2 shows the values of all variables. In correlation values tables shows the correlation among variables. Coefficient of correlation means amount of variation from one variable to other through which first variable is correlated. Researcher argued that the value of correlation is high when its amount is more than 0.70 to 1.00. And correlation is week when value of these correlations is low then this. In our results we can examine data in above table that there is all variables have significant relation with each other’s. Once other think to be kept in mind that we controlled two variables. Variables that we controlled in our model are the gender and experience of our respondent. We control these variables that these variables did not have significant impact on the organization citizenship behavior . Therefore we control these two variable and we also examine through this table that there is no significant relation in these variables and with other variables of model. Our dependent and independent variable have significant values and table shows that mentoring has low correlation with organization citizenship behavior and this relation is very much week with Job engagement. Mentoring has a strong correlation with employee retention. Employee retention correlation shows significant and almost strong correlation among variables but this value is low than 0.7. In same way job engagement have strong correlation with organization citizenship behavior and also with employee retention. All variables that we conclude for our research model show significant values. Correlation proves our first hypothesis that employee engagement is positively related to employee retention. Correlation values shows significant and correlation among these variables. Mean value of data show 1.13 values for gender. We put “1” value for Male and “2” female. So mean value shows the value 1.13 it mean there are more male respondent which fill out questionnaires and data that are interoperated mostly collected from males, and there are only few female according to 1.13 ratio. In same way experience which is control variable shows 1.2300 values. We select our scale from one to five there was one more experience of one to five years and two for experience six to ten years. So ratio of this experience in data is 1.23.
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 2: Mean, Standard Deviation and Correlation.
For examining moderation role of organization citizenship behavior we run the regression analysis through our data. All variables values are significant. And value of beta change when we enter moderator in the data. The values remain significant. Value of variables in ANOVA tables remains significant. Change in beta value is 0.117 through moderating role of OCB with job engagement and change in beta value is 0.2 with moderating role of OCB in relation of mentoring and employee retention. So results prove and support our all hypothesis of model. All three hypotheses are proved and show positive and significant impact on employee retention.
Managerial implication of this model provides outcome as a retention of teachers in universities, where’s tough competition in public and private universities of Pakistan. In Pakistan there is huge and very tough competition in public to public and in private to private universities as other services and production organization working in same environment. Through implementation of this model chancellors and patron of universities will be eligible to retain talented people in the organization. Research proves that many talented people with effective and strong academic background people did not work in universities. In universities they want to work but due to uncomfortable circumstances they switch their jobs to other organization which have different operation or otherwise different universities where they think that they have easy environment of working Managers can also implement this environment in their services industry because through literature review its come to know that organization which are working in service sector has directly affected by organizational citizenship behavior. We suggest that mangers can get diverse workforce through effective implementation of this mode because employees when are new then they don’t know about any think about organization culture, norms and values they learn this in very long term process.
Our research based on empirical data that are collected from our respondents, we try our best for research, but there are some limitations of research. First limitation of research is time boundaries. Due to time problem we collect our data from only one city and we are failed to get data from other cities of Pakistan. Other limitation of this research was that there are also some variables which can be studies, such like culture prospective is differ from different cities and province. First suggestion for future research is to that organization citizenship behavior is checked as a mediating role in this model. Through change in model their will also give different results. Once other suggestion for future research is that, retention should be checked as outcome of organization citizenship behavior. Future research also be conducted that examine that employee loyalty creates organization citizenship behavior or organization citizenship behavior create employee loyalty.
Interpretation of data shows that there is significant relation in our model organization citizenship behavior moderate relation of employee engagement and mentoring in the first year of employees. Employee feels difficulty to adjust in new company when they are starting their new job with new organization. For satisfaction of employees there should be a process where mentor new employees, and give them the local guideline of organization and department where person are going to do job. In case of teacher retention this increases it’s important. Teachers are instructors who have direct relation with the students in other words students are the customers of universities and schools. So through this research there is solution for teacher retention in Pakistani universities through engagement teachers feel comforts with their jobs that ultimately create job satisfaction.