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Organizational Cynicism and its Relationship with Employeeandrsquo;s Performance in Teaching Hospitals of Pakistan | OMICS International
ISSN: 2162-6359
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Organizational Cynicism and its Relationship with Employee’s Performance in Teaching Hospitals of Pakistan

Muhammad Rehan1, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal1, Anum Fatima2* and Samina Nawab1

1Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Wah Campus, Pakistan

2Department of Nursing, Wah Medical College Wah Cantt, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Anum Fatima
Associate Professor Nursing & Principal
Department of Nursing
Wah Medical College Wah Cantt, Pakistan
Tel: +92- 3035335084/0519314387
Fax: 0092-051-9314373
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 26, 2017; Accepted Date: May 15, 2017; Published Date: May 17, 2017

Citation: Rehan M, Iqbal MZ, Fatima A, Nawab S (2017) Organizational Cynicism and its Relationship with Employee’s Performance in Teaching Hospitals of Pakistan. Int J Econ Manag Sci 6: 413. doi: 10.4172/2162-6359.1000413

Copyright: © 2017 Rehan M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Organizational cynicism has become an issue that is being faced by members of an organization and needs investigation. The purpose of this study was to find out the significance of the relationship of organizational cynicism with employee’s performance. For this research the study population was employees of the teaching hospitals of Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt, approximately 3500 individuals. Using purposive sampling technique a total of 280 questionnaires were distributed to get response of individuals. Out of the 280 questionnaires 65 were not returned, whereas 215 were received, out of which 15 were incompletely filled. Thus the overall response rate was 71.4%. SPSS 20 has been used for reliability, correlation and regression analysis. The overall results of the study revealed negative relationship of organizational cynicism with employee’s performance. Implication of the study and future research directions were given based on the findings of the study. The study is expected to have great deal of significance for organizations, managerial staff, employees and research scholars alike.

Keywords

Organizational cynicism; Affect; Cognition; Behavior and employee’s performance

Introduction

In recent decades, it can be seen that complexity of work life, difference between social and individual expectation, environment condition and problematic time management issues have created anxiety and tension for employees of any organization. For decades, the investigation of employees’ attitude has been an interesting area of research for organizations and researchers. The reason of this in depth interest is quite obvious because these interests have profound effect on organizational performance and employees’ behavior. It is evident from the existing literature that employee performance and employee engagement have been studied extensively. A number of researchers tried to explain and operationalize the idea in different cultural and organizational settings [1]. In recent literature, it is also found that there is increasing serious discussions among researchers and organizational managers about employees’ attitude which have shattering effects on overall organization.

According to Dean et al. [2], organizational cynicism is a negative attitude towards organization or also defined it as an attitude of aggravation with key characteristics of negativity. Other researchers defined organizational cynicism as attitude of unfriendliness of oneself with its organization due to poise that organization will always tries to fool its employees and lack of honesty [3]. Ozler et al. [4] defined it as negative feeling of individual like dissatisfaction, disturbance and hopelessness about organization and its staff. According to Abraham, organizational cynicism occurs when employees lack confidence in organization and feels that organization cannot be relied upon. The actual roots of cynicism are from the historic Greece. Dean et al. reported Greeks have a school of thought which questioned the existence of government and religious institutions. It is evident that these people believed that it is difficult to find an honest man and normally used to live very difficult lifestyle. According to researchers, it is found that hopelessness is common when you compare ancient cynics and cynics in the organizations [5].

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance in context of Pakistan. The present study examined the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance by taking Affect, Cognition and Behavior as dimensions of cynicism.

Problem Statement

Hofstede [6] argued that there is need to study different facets of management in different cultural settings. Majority of used data was collected from developed countries i.e. Europe and USA [7]. He argued that this comprises 30% of world’s population and found that these theories were associated to rest of 70% population as well. It was evident from existing literature that there was lack of context specific on different dimensions of management research. It was not necessary that contextual factors in developed parts of world could have similar effects in developing countries. On the basis of above discussion, the specific problem statement of present study was to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance at different teaching hospitals.

Objectives and Research Questions

Objectives of present study were:

? To investigate the relationship of organizational cynicism with employee’s performance.

? To investigate the relationship of organizational cynicism; affect, cognition and behaviour with employee’s performance.

On the basis of above objectives, the specific research questions of present study were as follows:

? Is there any negative and significant relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance?

? Is there any negative and significant relationship between organizational cynicism; affect, cognition and behaviour with employee’s performance?

Significance

The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance. The present study tried to investigate organizational cynicism among employees working at teaching hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt. The findings of this study are expected to be helpful for the supervisors and managers to consider the level of cynicism in their organizations. The findings of this study will also be helpful for psychologists to understand different attitudes of employees. However, the findings of present study will be particularly beneficial for management to inhibit the harmful effect of cynicism by providing high level of support to their employees and enhancing their performance, to improve the overall efficiency of their organization.

Literature Review

Literature review related with organizational cynicism and employee’s performance along with the theory based on which the study was developed is being discussed as under:

Social exchange theory

Researcher considered this as most significant theory in organizational behavior. In 1976, the researchers documented some key facets of this theory [8]. According to Emerson, the subsequent generations of obligations and coordination between individual are the important facets of this theory. According to this theory, the interaction or coordination depends on social exchange and relationship develops among individual as result of this interaction or coordination. This theory also believed that there is positive relationship between individuals. It means if you do something good for someone, the other person will definitely respond to you in good way. According to researchers, the integral and prime component of this theory is mutuality. It is also found that researchers have discussed extensively the concept of mutuality in organizational context. The relationship between employer and employee is an example of mutuality.

Cynicism

The academic interest in cynicism in organizations shifted from police departments to corporate institutions in the 1980’s and beyond. The studies focused on cynicism that is directed at the business organizations and its leaders. Studies of organizational cynicism also tend to show the relationship between cynicism and other constructs such as job satisfaction, commitment to work, trust and work alienation. More recently, the concept of Psychological Contract Violation (PCV) has been adopted in organizational studies as a model to explain the causes, manifestation and effects of employee’s behavior and attitude, including cynicism.

Organizational cynicism

Organizational cynicism is a behavioral state which can change over time and according to situation. It can be reduced by changing jobs both internally or externally. If a person is compelled for job change or to stay on current job when that individual is not willing to do so will trigger more organizational cynicism.

The researchers also described organizational cynicism as negative attitude towards the organization. It is a reflection of negative feelings towards the rules, processes, policies and procedures made by that organization.

The organization’s leadership seems to lack honesty and sincerity, in that they do not act fairly towards subordinates and they have hidden agendas.

Brandes et al. [9] defined organizational cynicism as a ‘learned attitude that includes a pessimistic outlook for change’.

These change management efforts include, relocation of operations, mergers and acquisition, rationalization of the company, usage of contract employees and layoffs. Reports of large-scale unethical executive conduct, corporate greed and high executive salaries further fuel employees’ negativity and frustration. Dean et al. highlighted the affective component of Organizational cynicism. They explained that cynicism is an attitude and also has an element of emotional reaction; it is a feeling as much as it is a thought. Cynics experienced a variety of negative emotions such as distress, anger, contempt ‘and even shame when they think about their organizations’.

Dimensions of organizational cynicism

In literature, researchers defined organizational cynicism as the negative belief that is developed by individuals about their organization. So as to provide a more extensive conceptualization about cynicism as an attitude, Dean et al., presented this phenomenon which comprises of three dimensions namely; affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions. Much more specifically, they considered organizational cynicism as an attitude which contains three basic elements: a belief that this organization lacks honesty; a negative affect towards the organization; critical behavior directed towards the organization.

Each one of the three dimensions associated with organizational cynicism will probably affect employee’s overall performance. Dean et al. used these types of dimensions to synthesize the definition of organizational cynicism. They recommended that this attitude will not merely represent the private feelings but rather an attitude which is specific towards organization itself. The affective cynicism dimension of organizational cynicism is referred to sentimental and emotional responses towards organization. The actual cynics feel frustration and disrespect in the direction of their organizations. Affective cynicism involves psychological reactions such as discomfort, aggravation, tension, as well as anxiety.

The actual management of these feelings might drain the actual cognitive resources associated with employees [10].

Emotions for example aggravation and discomfort, when they result from the behavior of higher level management, are also prone to reduce work inspiration and commitment towards the organization. Affect, being the essential part to understand the attitudes is often associated with the objects of belief [11]. Therefore, employees feel emotional stress as a consequence of this cynical belief e.g. they may feel anger, anxiety, depression and disgust when they think of their organization. Similarly Mishra and Spreitzer [12] also suggested that cynical employees experience different emotions such as hatred, moral outrage and anger towards their employing organization. In current era it is considered that the organizational cynicism is accompanied by the arrogance as the cynics believe that they have the superior knowledge of the things.

In cognitive dimension, it is belief that there is lack of honesty in the organization. The organizational practices lack honesty, justice and sincerity. The good principles are replaced by the immoral practices and attitudes and hence forfeited. Employees experiencing cognitive cynicism believe that principles are often sacrificed to expediency, and that duplicity and self-interest are common in their organization. Provided our focus on top management, this would reveal itself in a perception that the organization’s best managers lack justness, honesty, and truthfulness. These types of beliefs also are prone to have negative effects upon job performance as well as organizational commitment. For example, cognitive cynicism is available when employees think that their organization does not value their efforts or care about all of them, and accordingly they could be less likely to put up their best efforts for their organization.

Bernerth et al. [13] found that employee perceptions of injustice interact with cynicism to predict commitment to organizational change efforts. Similarly, Abraham found that employee cynicism is negatively associated with organizational commitment in ways that also could reduce performance (sample item: ‘I am willing to put in great effort beyond what normally is expected to keep this organization successful’).

Bernerth et al. found that worker perceptions of unfairness interact with cynicism in order to predict commitment to organizational change initiatives.

Behavioral cynicism can similarly influence both organizational commitment and employee performance. In organizational cynicism, it is concerned to negative inclinations towards organization. It may include mainly mortifying behaviors. The critical expressions can be the main part of behavioral dimension of organizational cynicism. The behavioral dimension is mainly consisted of critical and frequently used negative attitudes. Behavior cynicism will reveal itself in unfavorable, disparaging behavior for example criticism of the organization, sarcastic humor, unfavorable nonverbal behavior, negative interpretations of different organizational events, and cynical predictions about the organization’s future courses associated with its action. Employee cynical behavior also includes stinging and humorous attitude towards their organization and some other forms as well such as badmouthing. Additionally, employees who ridicule their organization as well as its top management tend to be less likely to commit discretionary efforts for their jobs and are more prone to withhold effort [14]. When employees think that their organization use them in an exchange relationship and does not provide support, then these people exhibit poor work performance [15]. Investigating a specific conduct, Wanous et al. [16] found which employees are cynical regarding change and change agents are more inclined to file labor issues in unionized businesses.

To manage the employee performance in effective manner it is critical that organizations ensure that the strategy implementation is in line with the strategic objectives. The desire of an employee to perform well needs support and facilitation and this supportive environment must be cultivated so that he/she can have better opportunities to enhance his/her performance. Employee’s performance plays an integral role for the success of an organization and therefore it is the focus of researchers and management for more than several decades [17]. The employee performance is the outcome of a product which is obtained by multiplying ability with motivation [18]. Within the organizations having a higher feeling of justice, loyalty and motivation, employees are more likely to be more devoted toward their work and organization [19]. Over time, employees with cynical attitude start dealing with dissatisfaction from work and behaviour such as withdrawal from work emerges (Figure 1) [20].

economics-and-management-sciences-organizational

Figure 1: Proposed relationships of organizational cynicism with employee’s performance.

Hypotheses development

On the basis of above discussion, this section presents the hypothesis of present study.

H1: Organizational Cynicism has negative and significant relationship with employee’s performance.

H2: Organizational Cynicism (Affect) has negative and significant relationship with employee’s performance.

H3: Organizational Cynicism (Cognition) has negative and significant relationship with employee’s performance.

H4: Organizational Cynicism (Behavior) has negative and significant relationship with employee’s performance.

Research Design and Methodology

The purpose of present study was to measure the organizational cynicism among teaching hospitals of Pakistan in Islamabad region, comprising a population of approximately 3500 employees. Survey technique was used by distributing questionnaires among the population of the study. The data was collected at one point in time being cross sectional study. A total of 280 questionnaires were distributed out of which 200 were received back having 15 incomplete questionnaires.

Instrument development

The purpose of study is to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance. For this purpose adopted questionnaire was used in this study.

Organizational cynicism

The organizational cynicism was measured by 13 items on 5 point Likert scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree. This scale was adopted from Brandes et al. The reliability of total items was found to be 0.898 with details as under (Table 1).

Variables Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Organizational Cynicism (Over all) 13 0.898
Organizational Cynicism (Affect) 4 0.886
Organizational Cynicism (Cognition) 5 0.663
Organizational Cynicism (Behavior) 4 0.706

Table 1: Reliability test.

Employee performance

The adopted scale was used to measure the employee performance [21]. Five point Likert scale was used from strongly agree to strongly disagree having 5 items. The reliability of employee performance was found to be 0.646 (Table 2).

Variables Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Employee Performance 5 0.646

Table 2: Reliability test, overall employee performance.

Data Analysis and Results

Demographical information

There were 200 respondents of the study out of which approximately 68% were female and 32% were male. The major age group of the respondents was from 30-39 years. Most of the respondents were bachelor and above. The respondents included entry level, supervisors and team leaders with entry level employee’s approximately 46%.

The above Table 3, presents the different statistics of variables. There are total of 200 respondents. It can be seen from the above table that value of organizational cynicism differs from 1.77 to 4.46 having mean value of 3.37 and standard deviation of 0.77. The value of employee performance has minimum value of 2.33 and maximum value of 4.33. The mean value for employee performance is 2.98 with standard deviation of 0.54. All the values of skewness lies between -1 to +1 and values of kurtosis also ranges between -3 to +3 which fulfills the assumption of normality. Whereas, the negative values represents that the data is negatively skewed. The researchers also argued that if the value of standard deviation lies between 0 to 1, then it represents the normal distribution.

Variables N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
OC 200 1.77 4.46 3.37 0.77 0.26 -0.94
EP 200 2.33 4.33 2.98 0.54 -0.48 -1.1
OCaff 200 1.25 5 3.02 1.13 0.63 -0.98
OCcog 200 1.4 4.6 2.97 0.74 0.26 -0.58
OCbeh 200 1.25 5 3.14 0.71 -0.69 -0.36

Table 3: Descriptive analysis.

Correlation analysis

The pearson correlation was used to measure the assocaition between variables.

The results of correaltion between OC and EP are presented in Table 4 below:

Variables OC EP OCaff OCcog OCbeh
OC 1        
EP -0.568** 1      
OCaff 0.951** -.633** 1    
OCcog 0.940** -.447** 0.881** 1  
OCbeh 0.784** -.412** 0.610** 0.606** 1

Table 4: Correlation analysis.

The significant negative relationship (r=-0.568) was found between organization cynicism and employee’s performance at the 0.00 level of significance. On the other hand organizational cynicism (affect) has significant negative relationship with employee’s performance. Also organizational cynicism (cognition) has significant moderate negative relationship with employee’s performance. Organizational cynicism (behaviour) has significant moderate negative relationship with employee’s performance. There is no evidence of auto-correlation among the variables of the sudy as the (r<0.80). If the value of pearson correlation is less than 0.80 then there is no auto correlation among the variables of the study.

Regression analysis

The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance. The following section presents the results of four-regression analysis between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance; one with overall impact of organizational cynicism and rest of three with each dimension as independent variable with employee’s performance as dependent variable.

The above tables present the effect of one variable on other. In Table 5, the value of R2 shows that the 32.3% relationship of employee’s performance is explained by organizational cynicism. F Value shows that the model is significant, and the p value is <0.05 which shows that there is a significant relationship between the variables, hence H1 is accepted. The value of beta coefficient of organizational cynicism is -0.395; which means that every unit increase in organizational cynicism, 0.395 unit decrease in employee performance.

Coefficient   Significance Summary Parameters
Constant 4.756 0 R2 0.323
OC -0.395 0 R2adj 0.319
    F Value 94.4
Dependent EP   Sig 0

Table 5: Regression analysis of OC and EPa.

In Table 6, R2 shows that the 40.1% relationship of employee’s performance is explained by affective dimension of organizational cynicism. F Value shows that the model is significant, and the p value is <0.05 which shows that there is a significant relationship between the variables, hence H2 is accepted. The value of beta coefficient of Organizational Cynicism (affect) is -0.301; which means that every unit increase in affective organizational cynicism, 0.301 unit decrease in employee performance.

Coefficient   Significance Summary Parameters 
Constant 4.456 0 R2 0.401
OC -0.301 0 R2adj 0.398
      F Value 132.62
Dependent EP     Sig 0

Table 6: Regression analysis of OCaff and EPa.

In Table 7, the value of R2 shows that 20.0% relationship of employee’s performance is explained by cognitive dimension of organizational cynicism. F Value shows that the model is significant, and the p value is <0.05 which shows that there is a significant relationship between the variables, hence H3 is accepted. The value of beta coefficient of organizational cynicism (cognition) is -0.323; which means that every unit increase in cognitive organizational cynicism, 0.323 unit decrease in employee performance.

Coefficient   Significance Summary Parameters
Constant 4.519 0 R2 0.2
OC -0.323 0 R2adj 0.195
      F Value 49.34
Dependent EP     Sig 0

Table 7: Regression analysis of OCcog and EPa.

In Table 8, the value of R2 shows that the 16.9% relationship of employee’s performance is explained by cognitive dimension of organizational cynicism. F value shows that the model is significant, and the p value is <0.05 which shows that there is a significant relationship between the variables, hence H4 is accepted. The value of beta coefficient of Organizational Cynicism (behavior) is -0.310; which means that every unit increase in behavioral organizational cynicism, 0.310 unit decrease in employee performance.

Coefficient   Significance Summary Parameters 
Constant 4.533 0 R2 0.169
OC -0.31 0 R2adj 0.165
      F Value 40.4
Dependent EP     Sig 0

Table 8: Regression analysis of OCbeh and EPa.

Discussion

The first hypothesis of this study was H1: organizational cynicism has negative relationship with employee’s performance. After conducting various statistical tests this hypothesis was accepted with the results as (r=-0.568 at 0.01 level of significance). This result was similar to the studies conducted earlier where organizational cynicism was seen to be negatively and significantly associated with employee performance like the study of Dan et al. also proved that cynicism is negatively related with employee performance.

Second hypothesis H2 of the current study was; organizational cynicism (affect) has significant relationship with employee’s performance. Once this hypothesis was tested it was also accepted based on its results achieved as (r=-0.633 at 0.01 level of significance). These results were almost similar to the previous studies conducted by various researchers where organizational cynicism affect was seen to be negatively and significantly associated with employee performance like the study of Tae-Yeol et al. [22] also found that affective organizational cynicism is negatively associated with employee performance with its results as (r=–0.40, p<0.01, respectively).

Third hypothesis H3 of the study was; organizational cynicism (cognition) has significant relationship with employee’s performance. After testing this hypothesis it was also accepted based on its results achieved as (r=-0.447 at 0.01 level of significance). These results were also similar to the results of previous studies conducted where organizational cynicism (cognition) was observed to be negatively and significantly related with employee performance like the study of Tae-Yeol et al. also found that cognitive dimension of organizational cynicism is negatively associated with employee performance with its results as (r=–0.42, p<0.01).

Fourth hypothesis H4 of this study was; organizational cynicism (behavior) has significant relationship with employee’s performance [23,24]. Once this hypothesis was tested it was also accepted as the results achieved were (r=-0.412 at 0.01 level of significance). These results were dissimilar to the results of some of the previous studies conducted where organizational cynicism (behavior) was observed to be positively associated with employee performance like the study of Tae-Yeol et al. also found that organizational cynicism (behavior) is positively associated with employee performance with its results as ( r=0.33, p<0.05).

Conclusion

The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance in teaching hospital of Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt. Organizational cynicism has negative relationship with employee’s performance which means more the organizational cynicism less will be employee’s performance. All three dimensions of organizational cynicism i.e. affect, cognition & behavior had significant and negative relationship with employee’s performance which means that increase in either of the dimension will reduce the employee’s performance. The present study has some important implications which signify its importance. There is lack of comprehensive model of organizational cynicism in literature. The present study tries to help organizational behavior more comprehensively. The theoretical treatment of organizational cynicism is very much helpful in discussion and analyzing of employee attitudes. The present study has some important practical implications. According to researcher’s best knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance. The findings of present study also highlighted that majority of respondents are not happy with their organizations. In general, it is also seen that most of the employees are more oriented towards the means of affluence without improving their performance and competencies. They also have feeling that organizations are not fulfilling their promises and betray them in different ways. This breach of contract becomes the reason of organizational cynicism among employee and badly affecting their performance. Most of respondents give importance to their career development and findings reveal that organizations are not focusing on career development of their employees. In Pakistan, it is also inequality in rewards that are affecting the performance of employee. If organizations have political culture, they feel more dedicated. In such organizations, rules, policies and meritocracy will definitely compromise. It can also promote the immoral practices to make your boss happy, in form of gifts etc. In Pakistan, there is massive corruption in organizations mostly in public organizations. The efficiency of such organizations can’t be improved.

Limitations and Future Research Directions

The study has big size of population and it was quite difficult to address whole population and collect data from representative sample. The study population comprised on the areas of Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt only, therefore cannot be generalized for whole of the country. The most important part of organizational cynicism was seen to be low salaries which could be due to poor national economic conditions and is extrinsic in nature. This could be an interesting area for future research. Future researchers can also study this phenomenon in different other sectors like banking, educational institutions and different areas of services sectors. Future researchers can use different variables as moderator e.g. employee engagement, employee empowerment or employee participation etc. to analyze the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee’s performance.

Recommendations

Managers in organizations need to play a more pro-active role in preventing cynicism before it develops into something beyond repair. Managers must provide their employees the opportunity to freely express their views. By learning more about the causes of cynicism, managers will be able to understand the reasons which create such unwanted behaviors. Managers have to be much more understanding while dealing with their employees. In order to reduce cynicism management must communicate all changes before they implement on their employees.

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