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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review
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Outcomes of Triggers and Processes of Entrepreneurial Competency

Umar MM*

Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Umar MM
Government College University
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: +92 42 111 000 010
E-mail: [email protected]

Received July 05, 2014 Accepted May 22, 2015 Published June 02, 2015

Citation: Umar MM (2015) Outcomes of Triggers and Processes of Entrepreneurial Competency. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 5:133. 

Copyright: © 2015 Umar MM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

It is implied that all entrepreneurial activities are subjective to competencies gained with time. So therefore, entrepreneurial learning process is explored. This study examines the influence of our strong beliefs, goals that are set and how strengthfull we are to create needs and ends to achieve that. This process to develop the competencies has been examined in the theoretical perspective. So, three areas the contextual variable, the cognitive learning and best practices of entrepreneurs are in the due process of learning. An integrated model of entrepreneurial competence based on social cognitive theory and entrepreneurship theory have been investigated yet how preferred learning mode actions controlled by beliefs of a personal role identity and role models are interrelated. The findings that entrepreneurial competency gained expertise are associated with controlled actions and entrepreneurial individuality. Though functionality may vary because of different goals of entrepreneurs, it can be said that an entrepreneur develops within his own self. So in fact we are studying the mechanized controlled actions, processed learning and entrepreneurial competency.

Keywords

Mechanized controlled actions; Processed learning; Entrepreneurial competency

Introduction

This study is an exploratory curtain raiser of triggers, processes, and consequences of their gained entrepreneurial competencies. Falling into introductory chapter is a background to the missing links in literature the upcoming research questions, the motivation into the study and subsequent dispositions of the thesis.

Curtain raiser

Involvement in economic activity [1,2] complemented by their ability [3-5]. This implicates that entrepreneurs can maneuver economic output to their advantage and that novice entrepreneurs gain expertise over time. Research has focused as to which skills take an entrepreneur a success and as Chandler and Jansen [6] that opportunity recognition and its follow up is a core entrepreneurial competency. This competency is practiced in society. Erikson in 2002 [7] added managerial capabilities and essentiality to opportunity recognition. In 1993, Johansson [8] suggested that another competency is streamlining resources and create economic efficiency. This is driven by markets, customers, investors, and social relations [9], so enterprising individuals are driven by these motivators Researchers are agreed that entrepreneurial competency exists but how it is acquired is in the evolutionary stages. They emphasizes to get an understanding of how these expertize are gained. It could be prior knowledge to generate business ideas [10], relevant knowledge [11] significance of the abilities to materialize beneficent outcome [12,13]. So it is established that entrepreneurial competence can be developed [4,5,14], which instigates entrepreneurial actions.

It is proposed to effectively measure the process of competence development and incorporation of triggering factors (i.e. intentionality) and expected outcomes (i.e. forethought). Entrepreneurs’ cognition is checked by contextual background, judgment power and subsequent decision making which develops overtime. So the model is based on different complex elements over and above uncertainty and this approach illustrates triggers and consequences of entrepreneurial competency and how it contributes to a substantial theory. It is maintained the literature produced to date on entrepreneurial competence development and entrepreneurial learning remains under- hypothesized. Existing literature has less focused approach on both contextual and learning processes. It has been suggested how goal orientation, access to role models and deeply held identity beliefs, and beliefs about action-control coincide with each other and influence the process. As competence development is a continuous process, the consequences of competence attainment how they affect the future aspirations and perception of an entrepreneur are to be discussed. Integrative model provides a contextualized understanding of the entrepreneurial competence development processing.

Research questions

This study aims to explore and build a theory upon process of entrepreneurial competence development by investigating the entrepreneurial learning process and the role identity, action-control beliefs, role orientation and role models functional in the process as well as identification of consequences of the competencies.

Driven both theoretically and empirically that how entrepreneurs develop their entrepreneurial competencies and whether these competencies lead to success or otherwise. Entrepreneurial learning has been studied in context to developing opportunities [15,16] creativity, [17] motivation [18], financial gains cognition [19] and human capital [20] and many aspects remain undiscovered. The entrepreneurial development process is contradicted by empirical evidence, example if past experience could be a strong predictor of better performance or that social network help gain entrepreneurial success. This research has adopted an abductive logic within the domain of empirics and theory in an attempt to incorporate advances to entrepreneurship as a study and due understanding of the role of entrepreneurs in the process entrepreneurship. This is aimed to explore how entrepreneurs develop their entrepreneurial competence over a span of time as a derivative from inherited assumptions in social cognitive theory [21] Such formulations of the purpose indicate that:

• Competency can be acquired by entrepreneurs [4,22]

• They are agents of their action [21]

• Their cognitive characteristics are essential to be understood [3,23]

• Entrepreneurs’ performance could be in context to a social domain [24-26]

• Despite sharing from others entrepreneurial process is learnt over time [27]

The entrepreneurial learning process is experimental in nature as to how to utilize the relevant knowledge and skills [28,29] and which method is more preferred [12]. So, significance of entrepreneurial knowledge is established yet what is learnt in the entrepreneurial process needs to be understood.

RQ1- What and how is learnt in entrepreneurial process?

Though experience is necessary but is a weak predictor of entrepreneurial success [30] Novice and expert entrepreneurs think in different approaches [3-5,31] thus it appears that some deduction from this experience bifurcates these two groups so competencies can be domain specific [22] So it’s a basic knowledge structuring that encompasses the deliberate actions of all the entrepreneurs [4,13,32,33]. So in these researches, the process or mechanism to become an expert from novice remains unexplored. This leads to the second question what entrepreneurial process leads to acquisition of skills, expertise which can be transformed into productive knowledge.

RQ2 - How do entrepreneurs develop their entrepreneurial expertise?

So willingness to act is driven by influenced choices of set goals and strategies. Literature identifies two types of competence goals; a learning goal in which individual aims to enhanced their competence and performance goals in which individuals want a favorable judgment of their competence [34]. So the two roles develop two different cognitive frames different practices to achieve desired outcomes [35]. So the impact of goal orientation on competence becomes an interesting valid question which is to be explored in the entrepreneurial context. The third research question studies this relationship.

RQ3 - How does goal orientation affect the acquisition of entrepreneurial competence?

Certain actions are exerted better by partronizing role models [36,37]. Davidsson and Honig [20] found that proximity of thickness with enterprising individuals increases the likelihood to be an entrepreneur. Ravasi and Turati [38] found that people gain from their missing competencies by penetrating into their social networks. A literature also supports the development of such expertise [4] So the next research question aims to find out the relationship of the role models.

RQ4 – How do role models /social networks facilitate the learning process?

How embedded you are in your social structure develops an individual’s perception of what they are [39,40] Mingling in different roles leads to different role identities [41,42] and that leads to different roles, values, norms and beliefs guiding entrepreneurs’’ behavior [1]. Conflicts of roles can occur as member of the family, member of a workplace [43]. This cognitive conflict results in impacting entrepreneurs’ intentions, actions and outcomes. Therefore, just to be explored how entrepreneurs experience and deal in different identities, their preferred motivations and choices.

RQ5-How do entrepreneurs experience and resolve conflicts between multiple role identities?

This is assumed that entrepreneurs have different identities then it is also viable that entrepreneurs have different outcomes into different roles of the entrepreneurial actions. Research suggests that assuming most preferred role identity and adopting the other eventually can be done [41]. So assuming if the individual is professional or entrepreneur, it is important to understand that how role identity conflicts are resolved by entrepreneurs.

RQ6-How do the methods entrepreneurs employ to resolve conflicts between their Multiple role identities affect entrepreneurial outcomes?

Whether these entrepreneurial outcomes are lead to a success or failure it needs to be investigated.

Research Methodology

Qualitative and quantitative study pattern by serving a structured questionnaire to the sample of 7-100 successful Entrepreneurs. Findings can comprehended and narrated as to what competency they have develop and how these competencies help to survive and manage different roles and responsibilities. Research settings can be adjusted according to the sample and population.

Significance of the Study

Studies on entrepreneurship are scattered and synergetic key ideas are a need to be developed. The study in this thesis is a construct building attempt as to how entrepreneurs develop their entrepreneurial competency in a particular context. A model has been tried to develop that specifies the influence of beliefs, role model, goal orientation and ability to successfully adopt a problem solvent approach. Entrepreneurial competency and their outcome so the research holds a valid significance. Competence developed by control beliefs and gives us better review as to what aspects to be most touched when educating prospective entrepreneurs. As to developing beliefs that service delivery leads to revenue optimization and in case the business is fading out alternatives need to be determined. In all the significance of creating /achieving entrepreneurial identity is emphasized. A process based approach is advocated, and studies its dynamics over time. This leads to diversified behavioral patterns and how an individual emerges with entrepreneurial competency out of the conflicting role patterns.

The implications of the research are significant to the following groups

Researchers: This study emphasizes the impact of entrepreneurial process on their cognition, an attempt to provide further advances to researchers to study the situational factors in detail.

Practitioners: Learning would help entrepreneurs improve their thinking and working capacity. As to how the rate of failure can be minimized by adopting best practices. It provides them a better sense of entrepreneurial operations.

Policy maker: The governmental intuitions and donors can devise their funding policy and programmes in the manner that entrepreneurial process is emphasized. The impact can be measured on locality of any entrepreneurial activity.

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