alexa Overview of Common Regimens Used for Initiating and Titrating Insulin in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-1168
Journal of Nursing & Care
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Overview of Common Regimens Used for Initiating and Titrating Insulin in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Maria Lavdaniti*
Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece
Corresponding Author : Maria Lavdaniti
Assistant Professor
Nursing Department
Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece
Tel: +0306937865660
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Mar 26, 2015; Accepted April 01, 2015; Published April 08, 2015
Citation: Maria Lavdaniti (2015) Quality of Life in Cancer Patients- A Nursing Perspective . J Nurs Care 4:e126. doi:10.4172/2167-1168.1000226
Copyright: © 2015 Lavdaniti M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nursing & Care

Abstract

The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has dramatically increased and patients may require insulin therapy to effectively manage their diabetes mellitus. Nurses and other health professionals can assist these individuals to be more confident as they initiate and continue insulin therapy. This article discusses barriers to initiating insulin, target glycemic goals, and common regimens used for initiating and titrating insulin in individuals with T2DM. Implications for health professionals are addressed. Literature was reviewed using key words for regimens used for initiating and titrating insulin in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and limited to those published in English from January 2007 to December 2014, unless earlier data were cited in papers as a primary source. Many reviewed sources cited information derived from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE) and the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (ADA/EASD). Common insulin regimens use basal insulin only and basal insulin plus a rapid-acting insulin to one or more meals. Health clinician, health system, and patient barriers influence initiating and titrating insulin therapy to achieve target goals consistent with a HbA1C of <7.0%, except in patients with multiple co-morbidities or severe hypoglycemia. Health professionals must work together to assess patient characteristics; determine target glucose goals; use strategies to address heath clinician, health system, and patient barriers; and initiate and titrate insulin therapy.

Editorial
Cancer is the second leading global cause of death. According to the World Health Organization, “there were 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million people living with cancer in 2012 worldwide.” [1].
Quality of life is defined as “an individual perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns” [2,3]. Both the terms ‘quality of life’ and ‘health-related quality of life’ relate to physical, psychological and social aspects of health [4].
Cancer and its treatment cause many complications with a detrimental effect on quality of life and a significant influence on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in general [5]. As can be seen from the literature review, quality of life is an issue investigated by many researchers, some of whom have done so during chemotherapy [6], radiotherapy and other treatments, such bone marrow transplants [7]. Others referred to quality of life in specific types of cancer (breast, lung, prostate) [8]. Recently, research has been published on quality of life in spouses of breast cancer patients [4]. The aforementioned studies indicated that quality of life is an important consideration when delivering care to cancer patients. The above reports are consistent with Heydarnejad’s statement that “an increasingly important issue in oncology is to evaluate quality of life in cancer patients” [9].
Many instruments can be used to measure quality of life in cancer patients. They are divided into three categories: generic instruments, cancer specific and domain specific instruments [10]. Also, there are further instruments which can be applied when assessing children and adolescents, patients or families [10] or cancer survivors [11]. Some of the most popular cancer specific instruments are the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C-30), Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy General (FACT-G), the Functional Living Index Cancer (FLIC) and the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES-SF) [10].
This evokes a question with respect to nursing and quality of life in cancer patients: How can nurses alleviate patients’ symptoms and improve their quality of life? First of all, nurses must assess quality of life. Since patient education is critical, nurses should discuss potential impairment of quality of life with patients during their initial visit. Moreover, they must consider factors influencing quality of life, such as culture, age, diagnosis, environment, personal or social issue, as well as other factors, for instance fatigue, pain, lack of sleep, demographic- and disease-related factors and self-efficacy [12].
Nurses should help patients to manage the side of effects of therapy and cope with body image changes and other changes in functional living and appearance. Also, they can influence certain ‘environmental’ factors and provide information to patients and family members with respect to symptoms management and personal or social issues [12]. Evidence revealed non-invasive interventions such counselling, psychotherapeutic, psychosocial and educational interventions. These measures can play a role in improving patients' quality of life [13].
In my opinion, quality of life is an important aspect of nursing care in clinical setting with oncology patients. As a concept, it fits in well with nursing goals. Nurses must assess patients and their caregivers and plan their care based on their needs. As nursing trainers, we must teach our students that cancer is a chronic illness affecting all dimensions of the human being, and hence quality of life as well. One of our goals is the improvement of quality of life, because with this way nurses can help patients to achieve rehabilitation or accompany them as they move toward a peaceful death. Finally, let us stress that although the issue of quality of life is well documented, there is still a need to develop interventions which offer support to patients and their families.
References













Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11603
  • [From(publication date):
    February-2015 - Dec 18, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7827
  • PDF downloads : 3776
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

nursinghealthc[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version