Department of Physiology, Serampore College Serampore, Hooghly–712201, West Bengal, India
Received Date: February 11, 2017; Accepted Date: February 12, 2017; Published Date: February 20, 2017
Citation: Banerjee A (2017) Paediatric Tumours of Spinal Cord. J Paediatr Lab Med 1:e103.
Copyright: © 2017 Banerjee A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Spinal cord ranges from the upper border of the first cervical vertebra to the lower border of the first vertebra and it contains bundles of nerves which carry messages between the brain and the body. Spinal cord is rigidly covered with bone; tumor that grows adjacent to it can compress the nerves, and inhibit in this communication. Tumours which originated from the spinal cord are unexpected, mainly among children and can cause serious neurological deficiency . For approximately 1-10% of all paediatric central nervous system tumours, this type of tumours is very rare . Spinal neoplasms are less common in children compared with adults. Only 0.5-1% of the Central Nervous System (CNS) neoplasms is located within the spinal cord and the rest of 90% of spinal cord neoplasms are glial tumours; almost all of them are considered as malignant tumours. Any age group may be affected but it is more common at the end of first decade and the beginning of the second decade of life . Among spinal cord tumours intramedullary tumours are very well known. Spinal cord tumours can be associated with neurological dysfunction or osseous destruction. There are some common features such as pain, neurological deficit, or rapidly progressive spinal deformity. Axial or radicular symptoms are most commonly in paediatric patients . A symptom of spinal cord tumours in children is nonspecific. Back pain in the children should be taken very consciously because in a children without a previous case of recent trauma is very rare . Diagnosis of spinal cord tumor in children includes a previous history profile with physical examination. If there is a positive result then the suspected child will need to undergo some confirmatory tests to find out other possible problems such as serum tumor marker and spinal fluid test for presence of tumor cells, X-ray of the spinal cord for the detection of scoliosis from tumor, MRI for detailed observation of the structures of the spinal cord with appropriate location of the tumor and also CR scan, for spreading the tumor, means other areas of the body may be safe or not. There are some other tests to find out if cancer has spread. One of them is lumbar puncture to collect cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal column, Bone scan to find rapidly dividing cancer cells in the bone, Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy to look for signs of cancer . Radiation and chemotherapy is effective in malignancy of spinal cord, but radiation therapy tumor with some residual mass remains. In combination of these two therapies is used for the treatment of intramedullary tumours. According to the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFOP), chemotherapy with carboplatin, procarbazine, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin was used in intramedullary spinal cord gliomas with good results . Spinal column deformity after laminectomy and irradiation is a major problem in children for long time but the surgical elimination of intraspinal tumours is good for the patient . Children with preoperative deficit are more likely to deteriorate after surgery. Children who have WHO grade II ependymomas fare better than those who have WHO grade II astrocytomas and those with pilocytic astrocytoma have a better prognosis than those with ependymomas. The possible outcome mainly depends on surgical removal of the part of the tumor and the tumor consists of a solid structural part or cystic mass .